New

The Great Sphinx of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


The Great Sphinx: Guardian of Giza



The great Sphinx of Giza
by David Roberts, Scotland, 1838.

Probably the most recognized statue in the world, and one of the very oldest, the Sphinx sits near the edge of the Giza plateau as it sits near the edge of recorded human history. Much worn by the ages, today it is more a symbol than art, a symbol of the mystery associated with Ancient Egypt.

In the days the Pyramids were built, more than 4500 years ago, the Sphinx was painted with red ocher, green and black, a terrifying guardian of the royal cemetery. Conventional archaeology dates it to the reign of Pharaoh Chephren (Khafre) (Fourth Dynasty, 2558-2532 BC), builder of the Second Pyramid of Gisa, which stands directly behind it, or possibly to his father Cheops. The head of the Sphinx was carved from a natural hill, the body was excavated from the surrounding stone, and the stone blocks that were removed in that excavation were used in the construction of the Sphinx temple just to the east and the outer wall of Chephren's Valley Temple to the south.



from "la Description de l'Egypte"
engraving from original drawing c.1801

There is much speculation about the Sphinx, a lot of it based on the predictions of the American psychic Edgar Cayce that a secret chamber would be found buried near the statue containing records of Atlantis. There are caverns below the Sphinx, however permission to drill into them has not been given.

Some say the human face is a addition, perhaps by Pharaoh Chephren, that the body is that of the Jackal god Anubis, traditional guardian of the dead, and not that of a lion as is generally supposed.

Rene Schwaller de Lubicz and John Anthony West have advanced the theory that the Sphinx and the adjacent temples are relics of an earlier, otherwise forgotten, civilization. W.F. Petrie held similar views. The body of the Sphinx, its' enclosure, and parts of the Sphinx Temple and Valley Temple show deep, water-caused erosion in a climate with almost no rainfall.



Back wall of the Sphinx enclosure.
A modern protective wall is at ground level,
the Sphinx's body was carved into the plateau.
These cliffs are about 40 feet (12 meters) tall.
Photograph by Rhikal, CreativeCommons.


Geologist Robert Schoch explains: ". if the granite facing (of Chepren's Valley Temple) is covering deeply weathered limestone, the original limestone structures must predate by a considerable degree the granite facing. Obviously, if the limestone cores (originating from the Sphinx ditch) of the temples predate the granite ashlars, and the granite ashlars are attributable to Khafre (Chephren) of the Fourth Dynasty, then the Great Sphinx was built prior to the reign of Khafre."

Other geologists have supported Schoch, with vastly differing ideas of how much older than Khafre the Sphinx is. Egyptologists insist there is "No single artifact, no single inscription, or pottery" (Zahi Hawass) found on the Giza Plateau that evidences an earlier civilization. But that evidence may not take the forms the Egyptologists are expecting.



The Valley temple of Chephren (foreground).
The unweathered granite can be seen in the bottom left corner,
the weathered large limestone blocks are just below the Sphinx.
Cheops' Pyramid is in the background.
Photograph by Henri Bechard, 1887

Here, in an early 19th century visit, we are content to experience the grandeur of one of the most powerful and fascinating places on Earth - the ancient burial ground of the Pharaohs of Memphis: Giza.


Unacknowledged

And while to many of us the Burney Wells are fascinating, they may not fit into the list of ancient wonders.

The ancient city of Teotihuacan can probably contend for a spot in a new ancient wonders of the world list.

Shutterstock.

Built by a mysterious civilization thousands of years ago, the ancient city of Teotihuacan is home to amazing temples, a massive avenue, and a pyramid complex, featuring some of the most advanced and gigantic pyramids the American Continent has ever seen. The city of Teotihuacan was already ancient when the Aztecs stumped upon it, overgrown by vegetation. The original name of the city remains an enigma.

But Teotihuacan is just one example of possible places that can be included as the eight ancient wonders of the world.

And if we are to look at various structures of antiquity and add a new member to the list of ancient wonders of the world, the Great Sphinx of Giza surely contends of that one spot.


Great Sphinx of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza: Egypt has many historical places that are very interesting to visit. Ancient Egypt has many enigmas and secrets that archaeologists do not have an exact explanation for these enigmas. The Giza Complex is the most famous and interesting place in Cairo.

You cannot visit Cairo without visiting the Three Pyramids and the Great Sphinx of Giza. You can highlight in Giza Complex “the Great Pyramid of Cheops” (as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world) and the Great Sphinx because they have many secrets that do not know.

The ancient Egyptians built the sphinxes as symbols of strength and intelligence that’s why it was important to build the sphinxes with a lion’s body and a human head that represents the power and strength of the King.

In Pharaonic belief, the lion is the symbol of strength and guardian, so you can find it on their amulets, furniture, and doors of temples. The most famous sphinx is the Great Sphinx of Giza. The Great Sphinx is the oldest and largest in the world.

Many mysteries are surrounding the time of its construction and the lack of its nose. Its name in Egyptian Arabic is “Abu Al Houl” which means the father of terror. It is on the west bank of the Nile River, on the Giza Plateau, 20 km from the center of Cairo.

The Origin of the Name

The word sphinx is from the Greek word “sphinxes” which means to squeeze. The “sphinxes” in the myth is a beast that had the wings of an eagle, the head of a woman, and the body of a lion. The Great Sphinx is wingless and has the head of a man.

The ancients from the New Empire gave it the name “Shesep-anj” which means the living image. By Coptic influence, its name was “Bel-hit”, which translates in Egyptian to “hu or ju”, meaning guardian. But his current name is “Abu Al Houl” (father of terror).

The History of the Sphinx

Archaeologists are not sure of the exact time to build the Sphinx. It was said to have been built by King Cheops in the fourth dynasty. It was also said to have been built before the construction of the Giza Pyramids because the erosion on the Sphinx was from water dating back to the Ice Age.

It was said that the sun god “Hor-em-Ajet” (Horus on the horizon) is represented by the temple in front of the Sphinx. But they accepted that it was built by King Kephren (the King of the second pyramid of Giza), as guardian of his pyramid, in 2500 BC in the fourth dynasty because the face of the Sphinx resembles that of Kephren.

The Sphinx was buried in the sand for many years. A granite slab called “the wake of dreams” (144 cm high, 40 cm wide, and 70 cm thick) is found on the front legs of the Sphinx. This stele tells the dream of King Tutomsis IV when he was a prince who promised to be the king if Tutomsis IV restored the Sphinx from the sand. During the following centuries, the Sphinx was buried but the sand was removed until it was finished in the 1920s.

The Construction of the Sphinx

The Sphinx was sculpted, facing east, in the limestone quarry that stood at this location. Its height is 20 m and its length is 70 m. The face is 5 m and the front legs are 15 m. Its form today without colors is different from its former form. It had a red body and the face and nemes were striped with yellow and blue.

At the end of the Sphinx is a large tail. Her head is better preserved than her body because the headstone is harder and the body was buried in the sand for many years. The Sphinx had a beard but lost it during restoration by Tutomisis IV in the 14th-century z. c. but the beard remains are in the British Museum in London.

The Lack of His Nose

The exact cause of the missing nose of the Sphinx is not known. It was said that Napoleon during the French campaign destroyed the nose but the drawings of Frederic Louis Norden, published in 1738, show that the Sphinx was without a nose 31 before Napoleon’s birth.

Others believe that it was because of the British troops or the Mamluks. It was said that when the peasants were offerings to the Sphinx, a Sufi Muslim decided to destroy the Sphinx, starting with the nose, and was hanged for that reason he did not destroy another part.

Discover Cairo Attractions with Jakada Tours Egypt

The Giza Complex is a very famous attraction in Cairo, explore its mysteries on a very interesting trip. Don’t miss the opportunity to travel to the Pharaonic land, check out our travel packages to Egypt or cruise on the Nile between Luxor and Aswan, and Create your vacation.


The Great Sphinx of Giza - History

I am an independent archaeologist with a general interest in prehistory and a specific fascination with the Great Sphinx of Giza.

I have been studying the Great Sphinx for over ten years. I am particularly intrigued by the many questions that seem to remain unanswered in the various narratives of the history and archaeology of the Sphinx.

Regarding links to external websites

This site contains many links to external websites that guide visitors to the many rich resources currently available on the internet some of which aren't always easy to find.

I only link to sites that are free to access but some external links may be to websites which include adverts (for example Youtube) and some sites may also offer commercial services, such as online purchases. I do not link to external sites in return for cash, services or any other consideration in kind. I link to sites purely on the merit of the resources they provide.

External links are selected and reviewed when the page is published and links are reviewed regularly. However, I am not responsible for the content of external websites. I do not produce them or maintain/update them, I cannot change them and they can be changed without my knowledge or agreement.

The inclusion of a link to an external website should not be understood to be an endorsement of that website or the site's owners (or their products/services).


Probably sand and limestone and that's about it. The narrator in the video claims that there is a ladder, but it's conspicuously not visible in the shot. It almost seems like a reference to the crackpot theory of a Hall of Records or something along these lines.

An article in Smithsonian Magazine describes the extensive archeological work of Mark Lehner:

In 1977, [Lehner] joined Stanford Research Institute scientists using state-of-the-art remote-sensing equipment to analyze the bedrock under the Sphinx. They found only the cracks and fissures expected of ordinary limestone formations. Working closely with a young Egyptian archaeologist named Zahi Hawass, Lehner also explored and mapped a passage in the Sphinx’s rump, concluding that treasure hunters likely had dug it after the statue was built.

The small opening shown in the video you link, which a worker covered with what looks like a temporary hatch cover, is probably related to ground water erosion testing and abatement projects. The same article linked by Brian Z has the following section at the end (emphasis mine):

Today, the Sphinx is still eroding. Three years ago, Egyptian authorities learned that sewage dumped in a nearby canal was causing a rise in the local water table. Moisture was drawn up into the body of the Sphinx and large flakes of limestone were peeling off the statue.

Hawass arranged for workers to drill test holes in the bedrock around the Sphinx. They found the water table was only 15 feet beneath the statue. Pumps have been installed nearby to divert the groundwater. So far, so good. “Never say to anyone that we saved the Sphinx,” he says. “The Sphinx is the oldest patient in the world. All of us have to dedicate our lives to nursing the Sphinx all the time.”

Another article from 2007 discussing the issue can be read here Pyramids, Sphinx Threatened by Rising Groundwater.

A more recent article (2012) Egypt's Sphinx, Pyramids threatened by groundwater, hydrologists warn discusses some of the measures being taken.

Another You tube video with the sensantionalistic title "Caught Drilling Under the Sphinx. They Know What's Down There!" actually has footage beginning at time stamp 7:40 showing some workers drilling one of these test holes. Note the proximity to one of the reconstructed areas of the Sphinx, similar to the location shown in the OPs video.(Note at 8:08 in the OPs video the pipe-like fitting straight out from the mysterious opening).

A video about mysteries under the Sphinx gets many more hits,however, I think the 'mysterious' works under the Sphinx are very un-mysterious plumbing projects meant to monitor and protect it.

UPDATE: When I went back to YouTube, the video Drilling under the Sphinx (Featuring Dr Zahi Hawass and Dr Mark Lehner) was at the top of my recommended list. This short video (3:47) seems to be the source for the footage of the workers, and has Hawass and Lehner discussing the ground water testing/measurement project.


Gallery


A New geological study shows that the great sphinx of Giza is 800,000 Years old

The Great Sphinx on the Giza plateau in Egypt is one of the most mysterious and enigmatic monuments on the planet’s surface.

It is an ancient structure that has baffled investigators since its discovery, and no one has been able to accurately date the Sphinx because there are no written records or reports of it in the past.

Now, two Ukrainian researchers have suggested a new controversial theory, claiming that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is about 800,000 years old. A scientifically based revolutionary theory.

The study was presented at the International Conference of Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy held in Sofia titled: GEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM OF DATING THE GREAT EGYPTIAN SPHINX CONSTRUCTION.

The authors of this paper are scientists Manichev Vjacheslav I. (Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and Alexander G. Parkhomenko (Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).

The starting point of these two experts is the paradigm shift initiated by West and Schoch, a ‘debate’ intended to overcome the orthodox view of Egyptology referring to the possible remote origins of the Egyptian civilization and, on the other, physical evidence of water erosion present at the monuments of the Giza Plateau.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko:

“The problem of dating the Great Egyptian Sphinx construction is still valid, despite the long-term history of its research. The geological approach in connection to other scientific-natural methods permits answering the question about the relative age of the Sphinx. The conducted visual investigation of the Sphinx allowed the conclusion about the important role of water from large water bodies which partially flooded the monument with the formation of wave-cut hollows on its vertical walls.”

“The morphology of these formations has an analogy with similar such hollows formed by the sea in the coastal zones. The genetic resemblance of the compared erosion forms and the geological structure and petrographic composition of sedimentary rock complexes lead to a conclusion that the decisive factor of destruction of the historic monument is the wave energy rather than sand abrasion in the Eolian process. Voluminous geological literature confirms the fact of the existence of long-living fresh-water lakes in various periods of the Quaternary from the Lower Pleistocene to the Holocene. These lakes were distributed in the territories adjacent to the Nile. The absolute mark of the upper large erosion hollow of the Sphinx corresponds to the level of water surface which took place in the Early Pleistocene. The Great Egyptian Sphinx had already stood on the Giza Plateau by that geological (historical) time.”

YOU MAY ALSO LIKE : Human-Sized Maya Mask Found in Mexico

A strong argument was made by Ukrainian scientists in regards of the Sphinx, arguments based upon geological studies which support Schoch’s view regarding the Sphinx and its age. Manichev and Parkhomenko focus on the deteriorated aspect of the body of the Sphinx, leaving aside the erosive features where the Sphinx is located, which had been studied previously by Schoch. Ukrainian scholars focused on the undulating terrain of the Sphinx which displays the mysterious pattern

Mainstream scientists offer explanations for this sharp feature and state that it is based on the abrasive effect of the wind and sand, the undulations were formed because the harder layers of rock are better at withstanding the erosions while the softer layers would have been more affected, forming voids.

The western wall of the Sphinx enclosure, showing erosion consistently along its length. Courtesy and copyright of Colin Reader.

However, as noted Manichev and Parkhomenko, this argument does not explain why the front of the head of the Sphinx lacks such features. In regards to the argument made by Schoch about the heavy rain period which occurred around 13,000 BC, the Ukrainian scientists recognized Schoch hypothesis partially suggesting that the erosive features of the Sphinx go further back than 13.000 BC. Manichev and Parkhomenko argue is that the mountainous and coastal areas of the Caucasus and Crimea, which they know well, have a type of wind erosion that differs morphologically to the erosive features noted on the Sphinx. Essentially, they argue that such wind erosion has a very soft effect, regardless of the geological composition of the rocks.

“In our geological field expeditions in different mountains and littoral zones of the Crimea and Caucasus we could often observe the forms of Eolian weathering which morphology differs considerably from the weathering taking place on the GES. Most natural forms of weathering are of smoothed character, independent of lithological composition of the rocks.”

They continue further and explain:

“Our personal experience in scientific investigation of geology of the sea coasts gives reasons to draw an analogy with the GES and to suggest another mechanism of its destruction. Specialists-geologists, who work in the field of sea-coast geomorphology, know such forms of relief as wave-cut hollows (Morskaya Geomorfologiya, 1980). They can be one- and multi-storey. They are arranged horizontally to the sea water surface, if the coast makes a vertical wall (cliff). Especially deep wave-cut hollows are formed in precipitous cliffs built by the strata of carbonaceous rocks. Such forms of the coast relief are well-known and studied in detail on the Black-Sea coast of the Caucasus and Crimea (Popov, 1953 Zenkovich, 1960). General model of formation of the wave-cut hollows in the rocks of the Caucasian flysch is given by Popov (1953, 162 Fig. 3). In dynamics of the process of wave-cut hollows formation one can notice such a characteristic feature that the wave energy is directed to the rock stratum at the level of water surface. Besides, both saline and fresh water can dissolve the rocks.”

Manichev and Parkhomenko propose a new natural mechanism that may explain the undulations and mysterious features of the Sphinx. This mechanism is the impact of waves on the rocks of the coast. Basically, this could produce, in a period of thousands of years the formation of one or more layers of ripples, a fact that is clearly visible, for example, on the shores of the Black Sea. This process, which acts horizontally (that is, when the waves hit the rock up to the surface), will produce a wear or dissolution of the rock.

The Back of the Great Sphinx of Egypt

The fact is that the observation of these cavities in the Great Sphinx made the Ukranian scientists think that this great monument could have been affected by above said process in the context of immersion in large bodies of water, not the regular flooding of the Nile.

Manichev and Parkhomenko suggest that the geological composition of the body of the Sphinx is a sequence of layers composed of limestone with small interlayers of clays. Manichev and Parkhomenko explain that these rocks possess different degree of resistance to the water effect and say that if the hollows formation were due to sand abrasion only, the hollows had to correspond to the strata of a certain lithological composition. They suggest that the Great Sphinx hollows are formed in fact within several strata, or occupy some part of the stratum of homogeneous composition.

Manichev and Parkhomenko firmly believe that the Sphinx had to be submerged for a long time under water and, to support this hypothesis, they point towards existing literature of geological studies of the Giza Plateau. According to these studies at the end of the Pliocene geologic period (between 5.2 and 1.6 million years ago), sea water entered the Nile valley and gradually creating flooding in the area. This led to formation of lacustrine deposits which are at the mark of 180 m above the present level of the Mediterranean Sea.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko, it is the sea level during the Calabrian phase which is the closest to the present mark with the highest GES hollow at its level. High level of sea water also caused the Nile overflowing and created long-living water-bodies. As to time it corresponds to 800000 years.

What we have here is evidence that contradicts the conventional theory of deterioration caused by Sand and Water, a theory already criticized by West and Schoch, who recalled that during many centuries, the body of the Sphinx was buried by the sands of the desert, so Wind and Sand erosion would not have done any damage to the enigmatic Sphinx.

YOU MAY ALSO LIKE: Neanderthals could talk, and it wasn’t the “Ooga Booga” you were expecting

However, where Schoch clearly saw the action of streams of water caused by continuous rains, Ukrainian geologists see the effect of erosion caused by the direct contact of the waters of the lakes formed in the Pleistocene on the body Sphinx. This means that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is one of the oldest monuments on the surface of the Earth, pushing back drastically the origin of mankind and civilization.

Some might say that the theory proposed by Manichev and Parkhomenko is very extreme because it places the Great Sphinx in an era where there were no humans, according to currently accepted evolutionary patterns.

Furthermore, as it has been demonstrated, the two megalithic temples, located adjacent to the Great Sphinx were built by the same stone which means that the new dating of the Sphinx drags these monuments with the Sphinx back 800,000 years. In other words, this means that ancient civilizations inhabited our planet much longer than mainstream scientists are willing to accept.


Group Tours

Myriad tour companies offer to transport tourists to the Great Sphinx. Many of these include not only the Great Sphinx and its two temples, but also the three pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Group tours are generally less expensive than private tours, but include more people. Many are available. For example, Egypt Panorama Tours offers afternoon group tours of the pyramids and the Sphinx. Ticket holders board an air-conditioned bus in central Cairo and travel with an English speaking guide to Giza. The relatively low price includes entrance to the monuments.


NEW STUDY: IS THE GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA OVER 800,000 YEARS OLD?

Ms. S.H. shared this one with me, and I have to share it in spite of my misgivings. And perhaps I should explain those misgivings, for if you've followed by various books over the years on the subjects of "ancient stuff" and "Gizalology", you'll know that the implications of my wild and crazy ideas about the place is that some of the structures there are incomparably old, and by old, I mean old even in terms of the reigning views in the alternative research community and its "heretical historiographical orthodoxies." IN other words, I've been way beyond even those, which like to date the Sphinx to the Egyptian subpluvial period (and hence, to an age of about 8-10,000 BC). If you're following the logic of Allan Alford here and his idea of the three layers and eras of construction at Giza, witht he Great Pyramid representing the oldest layer, then the second pyramid, the Sphinx, and Valley temples representing the next and slightly younger layer, and then (3) a third layer dating from early dynastic Egypt itself, then any such redating of the Sphinx should make me ecstatically happy, right, for that would push the Great Pyramid back into the remote mists of high antiquity and prehistory, and make all my other hypotheses with the chronological cunundrums a bit more manageable, right?

Well, yea, of course, all that's true. And that's why part of me is skeptical when a piece of information appears out of nowhere that seems to corroborate some of the more difficult aspects of my ideas, not the least of which is precisely an extreme antiquity for those firts two layers of Giza construction.

But, nonetheless, here it is:

And here's the original scientific PDF:

Now, notably, the Ukrainian authors of this paper start with Dr Robert Shoch's redating of the Sphinx, but then go on to note the strange undulating erosion pattern on the SPhinx's body, which they point out, in contradiction to the "orthodox explanation" of wind erosion, is simply impossible because the same pattern of erosion does not show up on the PShinx's head, which, unlike the body, has been more or less permanently exposed to the elements in the past.

Manichev and Parkhomenko suggest that the geological composition of the body of the Sphinx is a sequence of layers composed of limestone with small interlayers of clays. Manichev and Parkhomenko explain that these rocks possess different degree of resistance to the water effect and say that if the hollows formation were due to sand abrasion only, the hollows had to correspond to the strata of a certain lithological composition. They suggest that the Great Sphinx hollows are formed in fact within several strata, or occupy some part of the stratum of homogeneous composition.

Manichev and Parkhomenko firmly believe that the Sphinx had to be submerged for a long time under water and, to support this hypothesis, they point towards existing literature of geological studies of the Giza Plateau. According to these studies at the end of the Pliocene geologic period (between 5.2 and 1.6 million years ago), sea water entered the Nile valley and gradually creating flooding in the area. This led to formation of lacustrine deposits which are at the mark of 180 m above the present level of the Mediterranean Sea.

According to Manichev and Parkhomenko, it is the sea level during the Calabrian phase which is the closest to the present mark with the highest GES hollow at its level. High level of sea water also caused the Nile overflowing and created long-living water-bodies. As to time it corresponds to 800000 years.
(Emphasis added)

Now, if all this is true, then what Manichev and Parkhomenko are suggesting is truly stunning: (1) the Sphinx shows signs of water erosion typical of a coastal object exposed to submersion over a prolonged time, and is thus, by any raqtional consideration, a primordial ante-diluvian monument (2) in order to effect this, the period of time for it to be submersed had to be between 5.2 and 1.6 million years about, and at the terminus post quem, not later than 800,000 years old. Now for those familair with my Cosmic War, the dates being suggested by Mr. Manichev and Parkhomenko clearly fall within the "best guess" parameter I made in that book of a 3.2 million years-ago-date for the "cosmic war."

Of course, we can fairly well predict that there will be howls of protest and rejection from Westen Universities since (1) they are but ideology-manufacturing and orthodoxy-testing centers and (2) they didn't make the argument themselves. And of course, the final howl of protest will be simply because all of this challenges the carefully contrived narrative of human origins, and of the origins of civilization. But if Manichev and Parkhomenko are correct, it's a paradigm changer.


Watch the video: Μυστήρια και Απόκρυφα: Η Μεγάλη Πυραμίδα του Χέοπα (August 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos