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Review: Volume 41 - 18th Century History

Review: Volume 41 - 18th Century History


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This was the five-year war that made America a nation. Indeed President Barack Obama referred to it in his Inaugural Address; and every American child is steeped in its history. But all too often the fog of myth shrouds the reality from all sides of the conflict. In these pages, the path to war is starkly documented by British caricatures of politicians and generals, for the most part favourable to the Colonists. For George III, Lord North and Britain the war itself was a disaster, but one which need not have happened. The problem of coping with a country 5,000 miles away with a tradition of representative government, a free press and a spirit of independence were just too much. But they, together with Generals Howe, Burgoyne, Cornwallis and others, were mercilessly lampooned. Washington, the hero, is spared, although there are surprising and dark elements to the American victory illustrated here. Kenneth Baker has used contemporary material, not the romantic patriotic pictures of the 19th Century. He has drawn upon his own experiences of high politics, and his personal collection of caricatures, as well as the libraries and historical societies of the East Coast. These provide vivid and memorable images made at the very time that the Americans and French were fighting the British and Germans on their road to victory.


Inferring Yields from Probate Inventories

An improvement on Mark Overton's method of computing crop yields from probate inventories is proposed. Harvesting costs are explicitly allowed for and a new procedure for eliminating cost-of-production valuations is offered. Applying these methods to a sample of Oxfordshire probate inventories generates higher yields than Overton's investigation of East Anglian inventories. The finding lends support to the view that most of the yield increase in early modern England occurred in the seventeenth century rather than the eighteenth.


Kristy Ironside

Biography: Kristy Ironside is a historian of modern Russia and the Soviet Union. She is especially interested in the political, economic, and social history of Russia and the USSR’s twentieth century. Her first book, A Full-Value Ruble: The Promise of Prosperity in the Postwar Soviet Union, was published with Harvard University Press in 2021. This book looks at how money, an ideologically problematic ‘vestige of capitalism,’ was mobilized by the Soviet government in the intertwined projects of recovering from the Second World War’s damage and building a prosperous communist society. Her articles have appeared in Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review, Slavic Review, Europe-Asia Studies, and The Journal of Social History. Ironside is in the early stages of a new project looking at Russia and the USSR’s fraught relationship to international copyright protections from capitalism to communism, and back to capitalism again. This research is funded by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Insight Development Grant and the Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Société et Culture, soutien à la recherche pour la relève professorale. She is also working on a biography/microhistory of Helen Black, the Soviet Union’s registered foreign agent in America responsible for the official distribution of photographs, music, and literature there, looking more broadly at the business of Soviet soft power under Stalin.

Dr. Ironside is open to working with graduate students on projects exploring Soviet and Eastern European social, political, and economic history, as well as international history.

HIST 216: Introduction to Russian History (fall 2021)
HIST 681: The Rise and Fall of Welfare States in Europe and North America (fall 2021)

HIST 326: History of the Soviet Union (winter 2022)

A Full Value-Ruble: The Promise of Prosperity in the Postwar Soviet Union (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2021)


“‘A Writer Deserves to be Paid for His Work’: Progressive American Writers, Foreign Royalties, and the Limits of Soviet Internationalism in the Mid-to-Late 1950s,” Europe’s Internationalists: Rethinking the Short Twentieth Century, eds. Jessica Reinisch and David Brydan (London: Bloomsbury, 2021)

With Étienne Forrestier-Peyrat, “A Communist World of Public Debt? The Failure of a Counter-model” in World of Debts: The Global Politics of Public Debts from the Late 18th Century, eds. Nicholas Barreyre and Nicholas Delalande (London: Palgrave, 2020)

"I Beg You Not to Reject my Plea' : The Late Stalinist Welfare State and the Politics of One - Time Monetary Aid, 1946-1953," Journal of Social History, Vol. 51, No. 4 (2018): 1045-1068

“Between Fiscal, Ideological, and Social Dilemmas: The Soviet ‘Bachelor Tax’ and Post-war Tax Reform, 1941-1962,” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 69, No. 6 (2017): 855-877

“Stalin’s Doctrine of Price Reductions during the Second World War and Postwar Reconstruction,” Slavic Review, Vol. 75, No. 3 (2016): 655-677

“Khrushchev’s Cash-and-Goods Lotteries and the Turn to Positive Incentives,” The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review, Vol. 41, No. 3 (2014): 296-323

“Rubles for Victory: The Social Dynamics of State Fundraising on the Soviet Home Front,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, Vol. 15, No. 4 (2014): 799-828

Non-academic publications:

"The crisis that could bring down Putin's presidency," The Washington Post, July 26, 2018


What is History?

Edward Hallett Carr's contribution to the study of Soviet history is widely regarded as highly distinguished. In all probability very few would argue against this assessment of his multi-volume history of Soviet Russia. For the majority of historians he pretty much got the story straight. However, for several years there was disagreement about his contribution to the analytical philosophy of history. His ideas were outlined in What is History? first published in 1961. For many today What is History? is the most influential book on history thinking published in Britain this century. For many years, however, the methodologically foundationalist wing of the history profession regarded the book as espousing a dangerous relativism. This has now all changed. Arguably the central ideas in the book constitute today's mainstream thinking on British historical practice. Most British commentators, if not that many in America, acknowledge the significance and influence of the book. (l ) In this review I want to establish why it is What is History? now occupies a central place in British thinking about the relationship between the historian and the past. I conclude that the important message of What is History? - fundamentally misconceived though I believe it to be - lies in its rejection of an opportunity to re-think historical practice. This failure has been most significant in rationalising the epistemologically conservative historical thinking that pervades among British historians today.

John Tosh, in the most recent edition of his own widely read methodological primer The Pursuit of History describes Carr's book as "still unsurpassed as a stimulating and provocative statement by a radically inclined scholar" (Tosh 1991: 234). Keith Jenkins, much less inclined to view Carr as a radical scholar, never-the-less confirms the consequential nature of What is History? suggesting that, along with Geoffrey Elton's The Practice of History both texts are still popularly seen as "'essential introductions' to the 'history question"' (Jenkins 1995: 1-2). Jenkins concludes both Carr and Elton "have long set the agenda for much if not all of the crucially important preliminary thinking about the question of what is history" (Jenkins 1995: 3).

So, according to Tosh and Jenkins, we remain, in Britain at least, in a lively dialogue with What is History?. Why should this be? The reason is, as most British historians know, to be found in the position Carr took on the nature of historical knowledge. A position that brought him into a long conflict with, among others, the Tudor historian and senior Ambassador at the Court of 'Proper' Objectivist History Geoffrey Elton. Again I turn to John Tosh for his comment that "The controversy between Carr and Elton is the best starting-point for the debate about the standing of historical knowledge" (Tosh 1991: 236). Until Jenkins' recent re-appraisal of Carr's philosophy of history, Carr had been misconstrued almost universally among British historians as standing for a very distinctive relativist, if not indeed a sceptical conception of the functioning of the historian.

Explaining Carr's 'radicalism' the philosopher of history Michael Stanford has claimed Carr "insisted that the historian cannot divorce himself from the outlook and interests of his age (sic.)" (Stanford 1994: 86). Stanford quotes Carr's own claim that the historian "is part of history" with a particular "angle of vision over the past" (Stanford 1994: 86). As Stanford points out, Carr's "first answer. to the question 'What is History?"' is that it is a continuous "process of interaction between the historian and his facts, an unending dialogue between the present and the past". While this was not a fresh insight with Carr, it still carved him out for a number of years as someone with a novel stance. However, over time, the effect of his argument (which generated such initial notoriety) was to increasingly balance the excesses of the hard core empiricists. In What is History? Carr propelled British historiography toward a new equilibrium - one that pivoted on a new epistemological certitude.

The claim to epistemological radicalism on behalf of Carr does not seem to me especially convincing. Why? My doubts about the message in What is History? is the product of my present intellectual situatedness as a historian (a writer about the past). Today, with our greater awareness of the frailties and failures of representationalism, referentialism, and inductive inference, more and more history writing is based on the assumption that we can know nothing genuinely truthful about the reality of the past. It would be tempting, but wholly incorrect, to say that history's pendulum has swung far more to the notion of history as a construction or fabrication of the historian. Rather, what has happened, is that our contemporary conditions of existence have created a much deeper uncertainty about the nature of knowledge-creation and its (mis-)uses in the humanities. It is not about swings in intellectual fashion.

It follows, a growing number of historians believe that we don't 'discover' (the truthful?' 'actual?' 'real?' 'certain?') patterns in apparently contingent events because, instead, we unavoidably impose our own hierarchies of significance on them (this is what we believe/want to see/read in the past). I do not think many historians today are naive realists. Few accept there must be given meaning in the evidence. While we may all agree at the event-level that something happened at a particular time and place in the past, its significance (its meaning as we narrate it) is provided by the historian. Meaning is not immanent in the event itself. Moreover, the challenge to the distinction of fact and fiction as we configure our historical narratives, and further acknowledgments of the cognitive power of rhetoric, style and trope (metaphors are arguments and explanations) provide not only a formal challenge to traditional empiricism, but forces us to acknowledge that as historians we are making moral choices as we describe past reality.

Does all this add up to a more fundamental criticism of historical knowing than Carr imagined in What is History?? I think so. If this catalogue is what historical relativism means today, I believe it provides a much larger agenda for the contemporary historian than Carr's (apparently radical at the time) acceptance that the historian is in a dialogue with the facts, or that sources only become evidence when used by the historian. As Jenkins has pointed out at some length, Carr ultimately accepts the epistemological model of historical explanation as the definitive mode for generating historical understanding and meaning (Jenkins 1995: 1-6, 43-63). This fundamentally devalues the currency of what he has to say, as it does of all reconstructionist empiricists who follow his lead. This judgment is not, of course, widely shared by them. For illustration, rather misunderstanding the nature of "semiotics - the postmodern?" as he querulously describes it, it is the claim of the historian of Latin America Alan Knight that Carr remains significant today precisely because of his warning a generation ago to historians to "interrogate documents and to display a due scepticism as regards their writer's motives" (Knight 1997: 747). To maintain, as Knight does, that Carr is thus in some way pre-empting the postmodern challenge to historical knowing is unhelpful to those who would seriously wish to establish Carr's contribution in What is History?. It would be an act of substantial historical imagination to proclaim Carr as a precursor of post-modernist history.

Carr is also not forgotten by political philosopher and critic of post-modernist history Alex Callinicos, who deploys him somewhat differently. In his defence of theory in interpretation (Marxist constructionism in this case), Callinicos begins with the contribution of a variety of so called relativist historians of which Carr is one (others include Croce, Collingwood, Becker and Beard). Acknowledging the "discursive character of historical facts" (Callinicos 1995: 76) Callinicos quotes Carr's opinion (following Collingwood) that the facts of history never come to us pure, but are always refracted through the mind of the historian. For Callinicos this insight signals the problem of the subjectivity of the historian, but doesn't diminish the role of empirically derived evidence in the process of historical study.

Of course Carr tried to fix the status of evidence with his own objections to what he understood to be the logic of Collingwood's sceptical position. Collingwood's logic could, claims Carr, lead to the dangerous idea that there is no certainty or intrinsicality in historical meaning - there are only (what I would call) the discourses of historians - a situation which Carr refers to as "total scepticism" - a situation where history ends up as "something spun out of the human brain" suggesting there can be no "objective historical truth" (Carr 1961: 26). Carr's objectivist anchor is dropped here. He explicitly rejected Nietzsche's notion that (historical?) truth is effectively defined by fitness for purpose, and the basis for Carr's opinion was his belief in the power of empiricism to deliver the truth, whether it fits or not (Carr 1961: 27). Historians ultimately serve the evidence, not vice versa. This guiding precept thus excludes the possibility that "one interpretation is as good as another" even when we cannot (as we cannot in writing history) guarantee 'objective or truthful interpretation'.

Carr wished to reinforce the notion that he was a radical. As he said in the preface to the 1987 Second Edition of What is History? ". in recent years I have increasingly come to see myself, and to be seen, as an intellectual dissident' (Carr 1987: 6). But his contribution really lies in the manner in which he failed to be an epistemological radical. In the precise manner of his return to the Cartesian and foundationalist fold lies the importance of What is History? The book's distinction resides in its exploration and rapid rejection of epistemological scepticism - what I call post-empiricism. From the first chapter Carr accepts relativism would an unacceptable price to pay for imposing the historian on the past beyond his narrow definition of dialogue. Dialogue even cast as interrogation is all very well and good, but an intervention that cannot ultimately become objective is quite another matter. After all, Carr argues, it is quite possible to draw a convincing line between the two.

While confirming the ever present interaction between the historian and the events she is describing, Carr was ultimately unwilling to admit that the written history produced by this interaction could possibly be a fictive enterprise - historians if they do it properly, (their inference isn't faulty and/or they don't choose to lie about the evidence) will probably get the story straight. This argument still appeals to many historians today for whom the final defence against the relativism of deconstructionism lies in the technical and forensic study of the sources through the process of their authentication and verification, comparison and colligation.

In Britain, most realist-inspired and empiricist historians thus happily accept the logical rationalisation of Carr's position - that of the provisional nature of historical interpretation. This translates (inevitably and naturally it is argued) as historical revisionism (re-visionism?). The provisionality of historical interpretation is a perfectly normal and natural historian's state-of-affairs that depends on discovering new evidence (and revisiting old evidence for that matter), treating it to fresh modes analysis and conceptualisation, and constantly re-contextualising it. For illustration, in my working career (since the early 1970s) the omission of women in history has been 'rectified', and now has moved through several historiographical layers to reach its present highly sophisticated level of debate about the possibility for a feminist epistemology(ies). So, new evidence and new theories can always offer new interpretations, but revisionist vistas still correspond to the real story of the past because they correspond to the found facts.

In fact, with each revision (narrative version?) it is presumed by some that we know better or see more clearly the nature of the past. So, we are for ever inching our way closer to its truth? Arthur Marwick makes the claim that by standing on ". the powerful shoulders of our illustrious predecessors" we are able both to advance "the quality" and "the 'truthfulness' of history" (Marwick 1970: 21). Standing on the shoulders of other historians is, perhaps, a precarious position not only literally but also in terms of the philosophy of history. No matter how extensive the revisionary interpretation, the empiricist argument maintains that the historical facts remain, and thus we cannot destroy the knowability of past reality even as we re-emphasise or re-configure our descriptions. Marxists and Liberals alike sustain this particular non sequitur which means they can agree on the facts, legitimately reach divergent interpretations and, it follows, be objective. The truth of the past actually exists for them only in their own versions. For both, however, the walls of empiricism remain unbreached. The (empiricist-inspired) Carr-endorsed epistemological theory of knowledge argues that the past is knowable via the evidence, and remains so even as it is constituted into the historical narrative. This is because the 'good' historian is midwife to the facts, and they remain sovereign. They dictate the historian's narrative structure, her form of argumentation, and ultimately determine her ideological position.

For Carr, as much as for those who will not tarry even for the briefest of moments with the notion of epistemological scepticism, Hayden White's argument that the historical narrative is (a story) as much invented as found, is inadmissible because without the existence of a determinate meaning in the evidence, facts cannot emerge as aspects of the truth. Most historians today, and l think it is reasonable to argue Carr also endorses this view in What is History?, accept Louis Mink's judgment that "if alternative emplotments are based only on preference for one poetic trope rather than another, then no way remains for comparing one narrative structure with another in respect of their truth claims as narratives" (Vann 1993: 1). But Carr's unwillingness to accept the ultimate logic of, in this instance, the narrative impositionalism of the historian, and his failure to recognise the representational collapse of history writing, even as he acknowledges that "the use of language forbids him to be neutral" (Carr 1961: 25), has helped blind many among the present generation of British historians to the problematic epistemological nature of the historical enterprise.

Take the vexed issue of facts. Carr's answer to the question "What is a historical fact?" is to argue, pace Collingwood (Collingwood 1994: 245) that facts arise through ". an a priori decision of the historian" (Carr 1961: 11). It is how the historian then arranges the facts as derived from the evidence, and influenced by her knowledge of the context, that constitutes historical meaning. For Carr a fact is like sack, it will not stand up until you put 'something' in it. The 'something' is a question addressed to the evidence. As Carr insists, "The facts speak only when the historian calls on them: it is he who decides to which facts to give the floor, and in what order or context" (Carr 1961: 11).

It is easy to see why Elton and others like Arthur Marwick misconstrue the (Collingwood-) Carr position when Carr says such things because, if pushed a little further allows historians to run the risk of subjectivity through their intervention in the reconstruction of the past. Carr, of course, denies that risk through his objectivist bottom line. There is clear daylight between this position and that occupied by Hayden White. It is that while historical events may be taken as given, what Carr calls historical facts are derived within the process of narrative construction. They are not accurate representations of the story immanent in the evidence and which have been brought forth (set free?) as a result of the toil, travail, and exertion of the forensic and juridical historian.

Since the 1960's Carr's arguments have moved to a central place in British thinking and now constitute the dominant paradigm for moderate reconstructionist historians. This is because, as Keith Jenkins has demonstrated, Carr pulls back from the relativism which his own logic, as well as that of Collingwood, pushes him. In the end Carr realises how close to the postempiricist wind he is running, so he rejects Collingwood's insistence on the empathic and constitutive historian, replacing her with another who, while accepting the model of a dialogue between past events and future trends, still believes a sort of objectivity can be achieved. This then is not the crude Eltonian position. It is a claim to objectivity because it is position leavened by a certain minimum self-reflexivity. This is a conception of the role of the historian affirmed by the most influential recent American commentators Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt and Margaret Jacob who claim there can be no postmodern history by repeating (almost exactly) Carr's fastidious empiricist position. Carr received only one oblique reference in their book Telling the Truth About History which may help explain why they re-packed Carr's position as practical realism (Appleby, Hunt and Jacob 1994: 237, 241-309 passim). Is it that his position is so central to the intellectual culture of mainstream history that it wasn't even necessary to reference him? In the early 1990's the historian Andrew Norman endorsed the Carr mainstream position more directly by arguing writing history necessitates historians engaging directly with the evidence "A good historian will interact dialogically with the historical record" (Norman 1991: 132). Facts in history are thus constituted out of the evidence when the historian selects sources contextually in order to interpret and explain that to which they refer, rather than in the narrative about which they describe.

It is because Carr remains at the end of the day a convinced objectivist despite (or because of?) his dalliance with relativism - that his legacy in What is History? is still so potent among British historians. His objectivist appeal in What is History? is potent because it is not of the naive variety. We know the Carr historian cannot stand outside history, cannot be non-ideological, cannot be disinterested, or be unconnected to her material because she is dispassionate. But she is telling us what actually happened because she can overcome those obstacles. She knows that the significance of the evidence is not found solely in the evidence. The historian, as he said, "does not deal in absolutes of this kind" (Carr 1961: 120). There can be no transcendental objective measures of truth. However, while accepting the "facts of history cannot be purely objective, since they become facts of history only in virtue of the significance attached to them by the historian" (Carr 1961: 120), Carr was forced by his naked objectivist desire to underplay the problems of historical form and the situatedness of the historian. he did this by arguing that the standard for objectivity in history was the historian's "sense of the direction in history" by which he meant the historian selected facts based not on personal bias, but on the historian's ability to choose "the right facts, or, in other words, that he applies the right standard of significance" (Carr 1961: 123).

Carr's philosophical sleight-of-hand produced the objective historian who "has a capacity to rise above the limited vision of his own situation in society and history" and also possesses the capacity to "project his vision into the future in such a way as to give him a m-ore profound and more lasting insight into the past than can be attained by those historians whose outlook is entirely bounded by their own immediate situation" (Carr 1961: 123). The objective historian is also the historian who "penetrates most deeply" into the reciprocal process of fact and value, who understands that facts and values are not necessarily opposites with differences in values emerging from differences of historical fact, and vice versa. This objective historian also recognises the limitations of historical theory. As Carr says a compass "is a valuable and indeed indispensable guide. But it is not a chart of the route" (Carr 1961: 116).

Social theory historians (constructionists) understand past events through a variety of methods statistical and/or econometric, and/or by devising deductive covering laws, and/or by making anthropological and sociological deductive-inductive generalisations. For hard-core reconstructionist-empiricists on the other hand, the evidence proffers the truth only through the forensic study of its detail without question-begging theory. These two views are compromised by Carr's insistence that the objective historian reads and interprets the evidence at the same time and cannot avoid some form of prior conceptualisation - what he chooses simply (or deliberately loosely?) to call "writing" (Carr 1961: 28). By this I think he means the rapid movement between context and source which will be influenced by the structures and patterns (theories/models/concepts of class, race, gender, and so forth) found, or discovered, in the evidence.

For Carr the evidence suggests certain appropriate explanatory models of human behaviour to the objective historian which will then allow for ever more truthful historical explanation. This sleight-of-hand still has a certain appeal for a good number of historians today. The American historian James D. Winn accepts this Carr model of the objective historian when he says that deconstructionist historians ". tend to flog extremely dead horses" as they accuse other historians of believing history is knowable, that words reflect reality, and their un-reflexive colleagues still insist on seeing the facts of history objectively. Few historians today, thanks to Carr, work from these principles in pursuit of, as Winn says ". the illusory Holy Grail of objective truth" but strive only to ground ". an inevitably subjective interpretation on the best collection of material facts we can gather" (Winn 1993: 867-68). At the end of the day, this position is not very much different to the hard line reconstructionist-empiricist.

What Carr is doing then in What is History? is setting up the parameters of the historical method - conceived on the ground of empiricism as a process of questions suggested to the historian by the evidence, with answers from the evidence midwifed by the application to the evidence of testable theory as judged appropriate. The appropriate social theory is a presumption or series of connected presumptions, of how people in the past acted intentionally and related to their social contexts. For most objective historians of the Carr variety, his thinking provides a more sympathetic definition of history than the positivist one it has replaced, simply because it is more conducive to the empirical historical method, and one which appears to be a reasoned and legitimate riposte to the deconstructive turn.

For such historians Carr also deals most satisfactorily with the tricky problem of why they choose to be historians and write history. The motivation behind the work of the historian is found in the questions they ask of the evidence, and it is not, automatically to be associated with any naked ideological self-indulgence. Any worries of deconstructionists about either ideology, or inductive inference, or failures of narrative form has little validity so long as historians do not preconceive patterns of interpretation and order facts to fit those preconceptions. Carr would, I think, eagerly challenge the argument that historians are incapable of writing down (reasonably) truthful narrative representations of the past. The position that there is no uninterpreted source would not be a particularly significant argument for Carr because historians always compare their interpretations with the evidence they have about the subject of their inquiry. This process it is believed will then generate the (most likely and therefore the most accurate) interpretation.

So, when we write history (according to the Carr model) our motivation is disinterestedly to re-tell the events of the past with forms of explanation already in our minds created for us through our prior research in the archive. 'Naturally' we are not slaves to one theory of social action or philosophy of history - unless we fall from objectivist grace to write history as an act of faith (presumably very few of us do this? Do you do this?). Instead we maintain our models are generally no more than 'concepts' which aid our understanding of the evidence indeed, which grow out of the evidence. We insist our interpretations are independent of any self-serving theory or master narrative imposed or forced on the evidence. It is the 'common sense' wish of the historian to establish the veracity and accuracy of the evidence, and then put it all into an interpretative fine focus by employing some organising concepts as we write it. We do it like this to discover the truth of the past.

To conclude, Carr's legacy, therefore, shades the distinction between reconstructionism and constructionism by arguing we historians do not go about our task in two separate ways with research in the sources for the facts, and then offering an interpretation using concepts or models of explanation. Rather the historian sets off, as Carr says ". on a few of what I take to be the capital sources" and then "inevitably gets the itch to write". This I take to mean to compose an interpretation and ". thereafter, reading and writing go on simultaneously" (Carr 1961 28). For Carr this suggests the ". untenable theory of history as an objective compilation of facts. and an equally untenable theory of history as the subjective product of the mind of the historian. " is much less of a problem than any hard-nosed reconstructionists might fear. It is in fact the way in which human beings operate in everyday life, a ". reflection of the nature of man" as Carr suggests. (Carr 1961: 29). Historians, like Everywoman and Everyman work on the evidence and infer its most likely meaning - unlike non-historians we are blessed with the intellectual capacity to overcome the gravitational pull of our earthly tethers.

The idée fixe of mainstream British historians today is to accept history as this inferential and interpretative process that can achieve truth through objectivism. Getting the story straight (from the evidence). The unresolved paradox in this is the dubious legacy of What is History?. I assume a good number of historians recommend Carr to their students as the starting point of methodological and philosophical sophistication, and a security vouchsafed by the symmetry between factualism, objectivism and the dialogic historian. While I am unconvinced by its message, I think this is why What is History? remains, for the majority of British historians, a comforting bulwark against post-constructive and post-empirical history.

Appleby, Joyce, Hunt, Lynn, and Jacob, Margaret (1994) Telling the Truth About History, W.W. Norton and Co., London.

Callinicos, Alex (1995) Theories and Narratives: Reflections on the Philosophy of History, Cambridge, Polity Press.

Carr, E.H. (1961) What is History? London, Penguin.

------------ (1987) What is History? (Second Edition) London, Penguin.

Collingwood R.G. (1994) The Idea of History (First published 1946) Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Iggers, Georg, G. (1997) Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge, Hanover, NH, Wesleyan University Press.

Jenkins, Keith (1995) On 'What is History?', London, Routledge.

----------- (1997) Postmodern History Reader, London, Routledge.

Knight, Alan (1997) "Latin America" in Bentley, Michael (ed.) Companion to Historiography, London, Routledge.

Marwick, Arthur, (1970) The Nature of History, London, Macmillan.

Munslow, Alun (1997) Deconstructing History, London, Routledge.

------------- (1997) "Authority and Reality in the Representation of the Past" Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer, pp. 75-87.

Norman, Andrew (1991) "Telling it Like it Was: Historical Narratives on Their Own Terms", History and Theory Vol. 30, pp. 119-135.

Novick Peter (1988) That Noble Dream: The 'Objectivity Question' and the American Historical Profession, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Stanford, Michael (1994) A Companion to the Study of History, Oxford, Basil Blackwell

Stromberg, Roland N. (1994, Sixth Edition) European Intellectual History Since 1789 Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall.

Tosh, John (1991) The Pursuit of History London, Longman.

Vann, Richard T. (1987) "Louis Mink's Linguistic Turn," History and Theory Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 1-14

Winn, James A. (1993) "An Old Historian Looks at the New Historicism," Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 35 No. 4, pp. 859-870.


Westward Expansion: Definition, Timeline, and Map

The very word “West” in American history has all sorts of different connotations from cowboys and Indians to dust bowls and Davy Crockett, the American West is as diverse as it is expansive.

The drive that led the Founding Fathers, and particular Thomas Jefferson, to seek agreements that would allow American soil to stretch from sea to sea, is one that shaped and shook the very foundations of the republic.

American progress has been defined by the Manifest Destiny, a 19th century belief that the growth of the American nation to encompass the entirety of the Americas was inevitable—but it also presented many challenges.

Recommended Reading

Emancipation Proclamation: Effects, Impacts, and Outcomes
The American Revolution: The Dates, Causes, and Timeline in the Fight for Independence
The Louisiana Purchase: America’s Big Expansion

But to understand the true story of westward expansion in the United States, one must go back far earlier than just Thomas Jefferson’s talk of Manifest Destiny, and, in fact, even early than the formation of the United States, with the 1783 Treaty of Paris.

This treaty, with Great Britain, make apparent the first parameters of the United States, which stretched from the Eastern seaboard to the Mississippi River at the end of the Revolutionary War. After the defeat at Yorktown in 1781, the British hope to remain controller of the American colonies was futile, however, it was two more years until peace was attempted.

The thirteen original colonies, which were at war against the British crown, were allied with France, Spain, and Holland, and the national interests of these foreign countries further complicated American’s desire for independence.

With John Adams, John Jay, and Benjamin Franklin as national envoys to Britain, the treaty solidified the independence of the American colonies and recognized the United States of America as an independent nation.

But more than that, it established the new country’s boundaries to the west, south, and north the newly formed country would stretch from the Atlantic to the Mississippi river, the Florida border to the south, and the Great Lakes and Canadian border to the north, giving the country a significant amount of land that had not originally been a part of the thirteen colonies.

These were new lands that many states, including New York and North Carolina, tried to claim, when the Treaty almost doubled the American territories.

Where Manifest Destiny ties into the progression of the country is here: the ideologies and discussions of the time. During the time, talk of the expansion of freedoms of commerce, society, and intellectualism of the newly minted American country were fiercely involved in the politics and policies of the late 18th, and early 19th century.

Thomas Jefferson, who was the president at the time of the Louisiana Purchase, used Manifest Destiny in his correspondence to convey the belief of America’s need, and right, to continue it’s country borders outward.

After the expansion of the 13th original colonies during the Treaty of Paris, the country took heart in it’s need for growth and continued its pursuit west.

When, in 1802, France prohibited U.S. merchants from conducting commerce in the port of New Orleans, President Thomas Jefferson sent an American envoy to discuss the alteration of the original treaty.

James Monroe was that envoy, and with the help of Robert Livingston, the American minister to France, they planned to negotiate a deal that would allow for the United States to purchase territory from the French—originally a section as small as half of New Orleans—to allow Americans to set up commerce and trade in the Louisiana port.

However, once Monroe arrived in Paris, the French were on the brink of another war with Britain, losing ground in the Dominican Republic (then the island of Hispaniola) due to a slave uprising, and were suffering from a lack of resources and troops.

With these other factors plaguing the French government, they made Monroe and Livingston an amazing offer: 828,000 miles of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million dollars.

With Jefferson at mind to expand to the Pacific, the US government jumped at the offer and finalized the deal on April 30, 1803. Once again, the size of the country was doubled, and cost the government roughly 4 cents an acre.

The thirteen original colonies, along with the Louisiana, Dakotas, Missouri, Colorado, and Nebraska territories, expanded outward, with the new parameters extending all the way to the natural line of the Rockies, and with it the hopes and dreams of a free, farmed, and commercially viable American West continued.

One of the positive outcomes that followed the Louisiana Purchase was that of the expeditions of Lewis and Clark: the first American explorers out West. Commissioned by President Jefferson in 1803, a group of select U.S. Army volunteers under the direction of Captain Merriweather Lewis and his friend, Second Lieutenant William Clark, embarked from St. Louis and ultimately crossed the American West to arrive at the Pacific Coast.

The expedition was discharged to map the newly added American territories and find useful trails and routes throughout the western half of the continent, with additional need for dominance in the area before Britain or other European powers set in, scientific study of plant and animal species and geography, and the economic opportunities available for the young country out west through trade with the local Native populations.

Their expedition was successful in the mapping of lands and establishing some claim over the lands, but it was also very successful in the creation of diplomatic relations with some 24 indigenous tribes of the area.

With journals of indigenous plants, herbs, and animals species, as well as detailed notes of the natural habitats and topography of the west, Jefferson reported the duo’s findings to Congress two months after their return, introducing Indian corn to the diets of Americans, the knowledge of some hitherto unknown tribes, and many botanical and zoological findings that created an avenue for further trade, exploration, and discoveries for the new nation.

However, for the most part, the six decades that followed the purchase of the Louisiana territories were not idyllic. Some years after the Louisiana Purchase, the Americans were once again embroiled in a war with Britain—this time, it was the war of 1812.

Begun over trade sanctions and restrictions, the British enticement of Native American hostility against western bound American settlers, and the American desire to continue expanding westward, the United States declared war on Britain.

The battles were conducted over three theatres: Land and sea on the American-Canadian border, a British blockade on the Atlantic coast, and in both the Southern United States and the Gulf Coast. With Britain tied up in the Napoleonic Wars on the Continent, the defences against the US were primarily defensive during the first two years of the war.

Later, when Britain could devote more troops, the skirmishes were tiresome, and eventually a treaty was signed in December of 1814 (although the war continued into January of 1815, with one remaining battle in New Orleans who didn’t hear of the treaty being signed).

The Treaty of Ghent was successful at the time, but let to the United States signing again at the Convention of 1818, again with Great Britain, over some unsettled issues with the Treaty of Ghent.

This new treaty stated explicitly that Britain and America would occupy the Oregon territories, but the United States would acquire the area known as the Red River Basin, which would eventually become included in the state territories of Minnesota and North Dakota.

In 1819, the American borders were reorganized again, this time as a result of adding Florida to the union. After the American Revolution, Spain acquired all of Florida, which prior to the Revolution, was held jointly by Spain, Britain, and France.

This border with Spanish territory and the new America caused many disputes in the post-Revolutionary War years due to the territory acting as a runaway slave haven, a place where Native Americans moved freely, and also a place where American settlers relocated and rebelled against the local Spanish authority, which was sometimes supported by the US government.

With the various wars and skirmishes of the new state in 1814 and again between 1817-1818, Andrew Jackson (prior to his presidential years) invaded the area with American forces to defeat and remove several native populations even though they were under the care and jurisdiction of the Spanish crown.

With neither the American nor the Spanish government wanting another war, the two countries came to an agreement in 1918 with the Adam-Onis Treaty, which, named after Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spanish foreign minister Louis de Onis, moved authority over the Floridian lands from Spain to the US in exchange for $5 million and to relinquish any claim on the Texan territory.

Though this expansion was not necessarily West, the acquisition of Florida proceeded many events: the debate between free and slave states and the right to Texas territory.

In the events that led up to the Texas Annexation in 1845, the next great land aquisition of the US, the twenty-five years before that presented many conflicts and problems for the American government. In 1840, forty percent of Americans–roughly 7 million–lived in the area known as the trans-Appalachian West, going out west to pursue economic opportunity.

These early pioneers were Americans that took Thomas Jefferson’s idea of freedom, which included farming and landownership as the starting level of a flourishing democracy, to heart.

In America, versus the social makeup of Europe and it’s constant working class, a burgeoning middle class and its ideology flourished. However, this early success was not to last uncontested, while the questions of whether or not slavery should be legal throughout the westerns states became a constant conversation surrounding the acquisition of new lands.

Just two years after the Adam-Onis Treaty, the Missouri Compromise entered on the political stage with the admittance of Maine and Missouri into the union, it balanced one as a slave state (Missouri) and one a free state (Maine).


The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology

Martin M. Winkler’s The Roman salute: Cinema, History, Ideology is the first and largely successful attempt to characterise and demystify what has become known in popular culture as il saluto romano or the “Roman salute”.

Winkler’s argument is essentially that the Roman salute is in fact not Roman at all, but became associated with Rome retrospectively through pre-1935 cinema’s need to provide its audience with “visual activity on the screen” (p.83). The Italian Fascists, and later the Nazis, appropriated the salute and imbued it with symbolism from which it cannot be disentangled. Winkler argues that in the aftermath of World War II movie-makers from Allied countries portrayed Rome as a Fascist/Nazi metaphor and the Roman salute as loaded with the ideology of those regimes. Winkler’s ultimate claim is that cinema presents its audiences with “irreal history” (p.11), the paradox of which is not discernible to them. To him the acceptance of the historical veracity of the Roman salute in cinema is an example of “potent fiction” edging out “real history” (p.11).

In support of his thesis, Winkler first traces the origins of the Roman salute, looking for hints in ancient sources. He then turns to its treatment in the last two hundred years in a variety of media, to conclude with a detailed discussion of the salute in cinema. The political ideology with which Fascism and Nazism imbued the salute is also expounded.

The Roman salute as a gesture in cinema has never been examined in such detail as in Winkler’s study. This volume thus adds further depth to the ever-increasing scholarship on ancient cultures and cinema, exemplified by the works of Gideon Nisbet, Maria Wyke and Jon Soloman. Winkler is himself one of the foremost specialists on Classical Antiquity in cinema, and this study is an important addition to his previous analysis of the subject. 1

The book contains seven chapters, headed by a tripartite introduction and footed by a brief conclusion. Three appendices provide primary material that is too lengthy for the main body of the text. In the first part of the Introduction, “History and Ideology: Half-Truths and Untruths” (pp.1-6), the author sets the scene for a study of the Roman salute in its historical context, particularly in relation to various far-right groups or the “extreme fringes” of society (p.2), such as the American Falangist Party. The Second part, “Ideology and Spectacle: The Importance of Cinema” (pp.6-11) examines the ways in which ideology is entangled with visuality, cinema’s only medium. The third part, “About This Book” (pp.11-15), provides a concise summary of each chapter, Winkler’s rationale in respect of his use of evidence, and his source material. The author also notes the immense range of his intended audience: scholars, teachers and advanced students in classical studies, Roman history, art history, twentieth-century European and American history, film, media and cultural studies (p.14). Winkler discusses his use of images and his desire to have included even more, were it not for publishing restrictions. Last, he notes that his book is intended to open up discussion of the Roman salute and provide his audience with an introduction to this topic and suggest possible avenues for further research.

In Chapter One (pp.17-41), “Saluting Gestures in Roman Art and Literature”, the author examines the use of salutes in the ancient world, including the Greek social handshake and military salute as evidenced on the arches of Titus and Constantine, and on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius. Discussions of the columns are exemplified using several friezes from each. Monumental evidence of Domitian’s military campaigns are also discussed at length. Winkler’s consideration of literary evidence includes all the key sources—Horace, Livy, Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, Quintilian, Plutarch, Suetonius and even Silius Italicus. Returning to archaeological sources, Winkler covers both Greek and Roman examples of various salutes, again with visual evidence. He concludes the survey by discussing the possible interpretations that could be, and have been, made regarding ancient salutes. This chapter is convincing in its claim that the Roman salute, as a specific gesture, did not exist in Antiquity.

Chapter Two (pp.42-56), “Jacques-Louis David’s Oath of the Horatii“, is devoted almost entirely to a close study of David’s 18th-century painting. For the purpose of analysing the Roman salute, Winkler sees the ‘Oath of the Horatii’ as an ideological cross-road. In it he recognises a scene intended to depict a particular (albeit fabricated) occasion from Antiquity that also contains propagandist messages for its contemporary audience. The author traces the origins of the painting and the cultural and political contexts surrounding its inception, ultimately concluding it to be the “starting point for an arresting gesture that progressed from oath-taking to what will become known as the Roman salute” (p.55).

Chapter Three, “Raised-Arm Salutes in the United States before Fascism” (pp.57-76) provides an overview of raised-arm salutes in 19th-century America prior to the emergence of Fascism in Europe. The author first turns to the early form of the Pledge of Allegiance, which originally included an entirely similar gesture to the one that came to be used by Fascists and Nazis. This uncomfortable association is not explored in depth Winkler simply asserts that the gesture had no political or historical connotations in the United States. Next, Winkler begins with an examination of portrayals of Antiquity in cinema since its beginnings in the 19th century. He expounds the particular problems which directors face in providing their audience with devices that would readily “bring the Romans back to life”: what costumes, diction or gestures would help? (p.66). By the end of this chapter, Winkler has provided a useful analysis of stage direction techniques and examined the dramatic force of the Roman salute.

Having placed the Roman salute within its historical, social and political contexts, and having explored its use as a theatrical device on stage, Winkler now turns to pre-WWI cinematic depictions of salutes in Chapter Four, “Early Cinema: American and European Epics” (pp.77-93). The popularity of movies with religious themes, particularly the so-called ‘passion’ works, is discussed, especially in so far as they give an air of credibility to the details therein. Such films, like the 1925 movie Ben Hur, were often epic in scale and visually spectacular, features which became the norm for movies on religious subjects. The author notes that the cinema took over many conventions that had become ubiquitous in theatre, the Roman salute amongst them. This is an important step in establishing the link between the Roman salute and its use in the movies.

Chapter Five, “Cabiria: The Intersection of Cinema and Politics” (pp. 94-121), is a pivotal one which traces and discusses the use of the Roman salute in Italian cinema from 1914. Winkler sees the film Cabiria as a catalyst for the intersection of movies and politics, and he makes a convincing case for this proposition. Successful political movements usually have a poster-child, and in 1914 Italy had one in Gabriele D’Annunzio, whom Winkler identifies as the “most famous man of letters at the time and a cultural and literary figure well known throughout Europe” (pp.95-96). The chapter is split into three parts. Part 1 provides biographical material on D’Annunzio and his involvement with Cabiria. Part 2 discusses the transition of the Roman salute from an effective visual gesture to a political symbol in Cabiria. Part 3 pursues the seemingly natural evolution from D’Annunzio to Mussolini, and the former’s crucial role as a founding father of Fascism. In Winkler’s view, the films Cabiria and Scipione l’Africano are indelibly linked, literally and ideologically, with both D’Annunzio and Mussolini.

Chapter Six, “Nazi Cinema and Its Impact on Hollywood’s Roman Epics” (pp.122-150), traces the “pseudohistorical model of empire provided by Italian Fascism” (p.122) and its imitation in Nazi Germany. The ideological context of Nazi Germany is explored Wagner and Hitler are representative of the appeal of the concept of the Roman Empire to would-be imperialists. With this as the backdrop, Winkler turns to an examination of the Nazi salute and compares it to the Fascist saluto romano. Winkler backs up his argument regarding the Nazi fashioning of a new Roman Empire with further evidence of gesture emulation, such as Hitler’s use of standards. Winkler points out that German cinema at this time reflected Nazi ideals in the choice of both subject matter and cinematography. Lengthy discussion of Olympische Spiele, the two-part epic produced following the 1936 Berlin Olympics, provides Winkler with a neat way to segue into discussion of the interconnection between, and confusion around, the almost identical Olympic salute and the now Nazi/Fascist gesture. The last section of the chapter is devoted to a close examination of the Romans in post-war films such as William Wyler’s Ben Hur and Mervyn LeRoy’s Quo Vadis, as well as other associations in science fiction and American propaganda films. Winkler finds Quo Vadis particularly instructive, on account of its overt references to Nazism and Fascism, and examines several scenes in some detail, analyzing LeRoy’s use of the Roman salute and other devices. Perhaps a separate chapter on Quo Vadis would have provided more scope to explore these themes.

Chapter Seven, “Visual Legacies: Antiquity on the Screen from Quo Vadis to Rome” (pp.151-177), rounds off Winkler’s analysis of the Roman salute with a sweeping look at its use in post-WWII media. Part One, Cinema: From Salome to Alexander (pp.151-169), covers an eclectic variety of movies from 1953 to 2007. The Roman salute, he notes, is not always closely aligned in such films with Nazism or Fascism, although its associations with dictatorial authority are present as vestigial elements reminiscent of those political movements. Winkler bolsters his argument with a particularly heavy use of images in this chapter. Part 2 offers an interesting examination of the Roman salute in television, from Star Trek to Rome (pp.169-177). This section effectively illustrates the pervasive use of the gesture and its connotations.

In the Conclusion (pp.178-183) Winkler promises a final “comprehensive assessment of the cinematic history of the raised-arm salute” (p.178). He lists a veritable United Nations of ethnicities covered in the book. He does introduce some new evidence at this point, discussing John Huston’s film The Bible: In the Beginning, and weaving in varieties of the right-arm gesture that further illustrate its use as a dramatic device. After this, he ties in material already covered with brief discussions of further evidence, ultimately concluding that “the term ‘Roman salute’ makes no historical sense” (p.180) and its place as a cinematic device has converted a fictional construct to an accepted fact.

The Conclusion is followed by three appendices (pp.185-194), in which Winkler provides an English translation of Livy’s account of the Horatii and Curiatii episode, the Roman salute according to Il Capo-Squadra Balilla (that is, the Italian Fascists’ organization for young men), and a bibliographical summary of modern Italian and German scholarship on Fascism, Nazism and Classical Antiquity. Except for their bibliographical content, these appendices do not seem to enrich the book further.

This book is an invaluable guide to a gesture that has been widely used yet little understood. It is accessible to the scholar, through its lucid analysis of a plethora of evidence, and to the general reader, given its clear and jargon-free diction. Equally useful and entertaining are the pertinent illustrations. Yet it is this very depth and breadth, in terms of both targeted audience and range of material, that provides Winkler with such an unwieldy task. Winkler rightly calls this book a “solid introduction” (p.15) to a huge subject area, and he admits that more evidence could be unearthed to support his argument (or conflict with it). Winkler is attempting to address “several fields of scholarship simultaneously” (p.13) and to appeal to the scholar and non-academic reader alike. Such a multifocal viewpoint means that this study at times suffers from inevitable compromises. From a scholar’s perspective, a comprehensive and systematic gathering of evidence, and related analysis, would have further enriched the book, whilst at the same time general readers would no-doubt have appreciated more illustrations, possibly reproduced in colour. Furthermore, when attempting to reconstruct the intentions of a film or stage director, Winkler’s representation of the nature of the evidence is often problematic. At times, for example, he detects directorial intent behind slightly different performances of the gesture, whereas such differences may conceivably have been unintended and insignificant. Within the framework of the evidence used by the author and his own mandate, this book is, nevertheless, an important introduction to a fascinating and hitherto overlooked subject.

1. M. M. Winkler, Classical Myth and Culture in the Cinema (editor and contributor), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001 Gladiator: Film and History, Blackwell, Oxford, 2004 Spartacus: Film and History, Blackwell, Oxford, 2007 Troy: From Homer’s “Iliad” to Hollywood Epic, Blackwell, Oxford, 2007 Cinema and Classical Texts: Apollo’s New Light, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009.


AA 1774, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Aaron, possible representation of (painting), (5) 14b.

Abbott, E., drawing by, (15) 47a.

Acaster, Ann 1834, monument, (8) 22a.

Acklam
-, Arms of, (8) 22b.
-, Elizabeth 1722/3, floor-slab, (8) 22a.

Adam and Eve, representations of (brass), (8) 22b.

Adam, Robert, influence of, lxxxi.

" Style: lxxviii, lxxxii (89) 115b, Pl. 169 (147) 127a (254) 156a, Pl. 163 (334) 185b.

Adams
-, Jane 1684/5, Thomas 1722, Margaret 1730, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Stephen, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

Adams House, The, (340) 187a, Fig. 117, Pl. 6.

Addison
-, James, drawings endorsed by, (46) 102b.
-, Joseph, portrait bust of (plasterwork), (82) 113a.

Adelphi Buildings, London, fireplace said to have come from, (44) 98a, Pl. 179.

Aesculapius: emblems of (ironwork), (480) 230b, Pl. 194 representation of (plasterwork), (344) 189b, Pl. 168.

sop's Fables, episodes from (carved stone), (9) 24a.

Agar, Joseph 1847, monument, (24) 52a.

" and Chadwick Ltd., tannery built for, (69) 107b.

Aikroyd, Bernard 1761, and daughters, floor-slab, (6) 19b.

Aislabie
-, George, Registrar of the Ecclesiastical Court in York, house sold to, (35) 70a.
-, John, Chancellor of the Exchequer, (35) 70a.

Albion, The, house formerly known as, (205) 141a.

" Iron and Brass Works: location of former, 141a sale of, (205) 141a.

Aldwark, 105b107b.

" House, location of, (62) 106b.

Alexander
-, Arms of, impaled by Herbert, (4) 11b.
-, Priest of St. Denys, advowson given by, (6) 15a.

Allanson
-, George, iron windows by, (45) 100a.
-, Thomas, plumber, (45) 100a.

Allen, Richard, Clerk of Works at Minster, building designed by, (153) 129a.

All Saints, churches of
-, Pavement: (1) 1a, Fig. 12, Pls. 12, 18 inscription plate now at, (15) 48b paten now at, (14) 46b.
-, Peasholme Green, site of, 179a.

Almayn, John, glazier, lii.

Alms-dishes, see under Plate, Church and Civic.

Almshouses: (38) 89a, 91a (41) 96a, Pl. 152 (42) 96b, Fig. 54, Pl. 153 (43) 96b former, (119) 120b.

Altar-frontals
-, 17th-century, leather, (13) 41b.
-, 18th century, (2) 9b.

Altars, mediaeval: xliii (2) 7a (10) 28a (12) 37b possible fragment of, (5) 15a.

Ambler, Ann 1823, Abraham 182., floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Amos, prophet, representation of (glass), (13) 42a.

Ampleforth
-, Prebend of, property belonging to, (469) (470) 225a.
-, William of, mason, (33) 60a.

Anderson
-, Dr. Tempest, house occupied by, (480) 229b.
-, Dr. William Charles, alterations carried out for, (480) 229b.

Andrews, G. T., see Architects.

Angel Inn, property formerly known as, (215) 143a.

Angels, representations of
-, Glass: (1) 3b (2) 8a, b, 9a (6) 17b, 18b, Pl. 55, 19a (10) 28b, 29a, b (12) 38a (13) 42a. Nine Orders of: l (10) 28a, Pl. 54 (13) 42a, b, Pls. 52, 53, 62.
-, On Seal, (44) 99a, Pl. 92.
-, Stone: (1) 2a (8) 20b, Pl. 30 (11) 34b, Pl. 29 (12) 37b (14) 45a, Pl. 29 (22) 51b (36) 79a, Pl. 158 (39) 93a, b.
-, Wood: (5) 14a (14) 45b (34) 64b.

Angle-bracket Corbel, mediaeval, (22) 51b.

Anglers' Arms, (194) 138a.

Anglesey Arms, house formerly known as, (389) 203a.

Anne, Queen: arms of, (12) 40a portrait of (glass), (38) 91a, Pl. 186.

Archbishops and Bishops, representations of (glass): li (2) 8b, 9a (6) 17b (10) 28b (12) 38b (13) 42b (14) 46a see also Bishops.

Archbishop's Palace: area occupied by grounds of, 129a destruction of, (35) 69b surviving chapel of, 129a.

Arches, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous.

Architects
-, Andrews, George Townsend: xcviii buildings designed by: (48) 103a, Pl. 100 (203) 141a (388) 202b (391) 203b, Pl. 155 gateway designed by, (325) 182a survey by, (36) 78a see also Robinson, P. F., and Andrews, G. T.
-, Atkinson
-,-, John Bownas and William: xcvii alterations designed by: (35) 70b, 76a, plan Pl. 1 (39) 91b (45) 100b buildings designed by: (285) 167b, Pl. 156 (304) 174a (405) 208a, Pl. 156 (451) 220b churches restored by: (10) 26a (13) 40b.
-,-, Peter, junior: xcvii bridge designed by, (50) 104b, Pl. 116 council chamber designed by, (36) 78b design by, 156b and Sharp, R. H., building designed by, (46) 102b.
-,-, Peter, senior: xcvii house designed by, (77) 110a, Fig. 64, Pl. 146 style of, (319) 180b, Pl. 142.
-,-, Thomas: xcvii crescent designed by, xcii house designed and occupied by (probable), (383) 202a, Pl. 143 monument 1798, (15) 48b.
-,-, William: xcvii (8) 20b see also John Bownas and William, above.
-, Atkinson and Phillips, survey by, (37) 83a.
-, Bell, Frederick, (14) 44b.
-, Bellwood, William, design by, (1) 2a.
-, Boyle, Richard, 3rd Earl of Burlington: xcvii (45) 100a.
-, Brakspear, (5) 12b.
-, Brierley and Rutherford, restorations by: (193) 137a (194) 138b (240) 149b.
-, Brierley, Leckenby, Keighley and Groom: drawings preserved by, xciii offices occupied by, (254) 155b.
-, Butterfield, William, (11) 31a.
-, Carr, John: xcvii gifts by, (44) 99b houses designed by: (82) 112a, Pl. 101 (89) 114a, Pl. 109 (possibly) (417) 212b, Pl. 112.
-, Coates, Mr., (12) 36b.
-, Demaine, James: xcvii (45) 100b.
-, " and Brierley: (9) 23a (39) 91b.
-, Dykes, W. H., (8) 20b.
-, Etty, William: advice given by, (38) 89a house possibly designed by, (156) 130a.
-, Fisher, C., house used as office by, (84) 113b.
-, " and Hepper: (1) 2a (4) 11a.
-, Fowler, C. Hodgson: (5) 12b (14) 44b.
-, Goldie, George: xlii 130a.
-, Gould, Rawlins: xcviii house used as office by, (84) 113b.
-, Hansom, Charles Francis and Joseph Aloysius: xlii, xcviii (7) 20a.
-, Harper, John: xcviii alterations by, (47) 103a house built for, (395) 205b terrace designed by, (395) 205a, Pl. 154.
-, Hepper, W., house used as office by, (84) 113b.
-, Johnson, Francis, (61) 106a.
-, Jones, George Fowler: (12) 36b (32) 55b.
-, Mawbey, E. G., (36) 78b.
-, Mennim, A. M., (387) 202b.
-, Moore, Temple, restoration work by: (34) 63a, b, 64b, 65a, b, 66a, 67a (35) 71a, 75b, 76a, b.
-, Oates, John, John Edwin, and Matthew, xcviii.
-, O'Corall, Sir John, (45) 100b.
-, Pace, George, (10) 25a.
-, Penty, W. G., (15) 47a.
-, Phillips, Matthew, xcvii.
-, Pickersgill, Thomas: xcviii churches restored by: (6) 15b, 19a (9) 23a tannery designed by, (68) 107b.
-, Pickersgill and Oates: buildings possibly designed by, 117a plan for new market place by, 173b.
-, Pritchett, James Pigott: xcvii buildings designed by: (26) 52a, Pl. 66 (31) 54b, Pl. 66 (41) 96a, Pl. 152 (279) 165a, Pl. 151 (281) 165b (324) 181b, Pl. 8 (339) 187a facade designed by, (45) 100b, Pl. 96 plan by, 173b see also Watson, C., and Pritchett, J. P., and Watson, Pritchett and Watson.
-, Rawstorne, John: xcvii (30) 54b.
-, Robinson, Peter Frederick: xcviii and Andrews, G. T.: buildings designed by: (301) 174a, Pl. 155 (394) 204b, Pl. 100 internal fittings by, (395) 205a office of, (84) 113b.
-, Sharp, Richard Hey: xcvii building designed by, (154) 129b, Pl. 152 church restored by, (15) 47a see also Atkinson, Peter junior, and Sharp, R. H.
-, Simpson, James, of Leeds: xcviii (24) 52a, Pl. 66.
-, Thorpe, William H., of Leeds, (27) 53b.
-, Wakefield, William, design requested from, (45) 100a.
-, Watson
-,-, Charles: xcvii and Pritchett, J. P.: buildings designed by: (27) 52b (29) 54a (49) 104a, Pl. 150 designs by, (154) 129b see also Watson, Pritchett and Watson.
-,-, William: xcvii: see also Watson, Pritchett and Watson.
-, Watson, Pritchett and Watson, (392) 203b, Pl. 153.
-, Wood, W. H., (5) 12b.

Architectural Details, miscellaneous
-, Pre-Conquest
-,-, Columns, bases or capitals of, (11) 33b.
-,-, Lintel, arched, or window head (fragment), (11) 33b.
-, Mediaeval
-,-, Angle-bracket corbel, (22) 51b.
-,-, Arch, of timber, (22) 51b.
-, 11th-century
-,-, Finial cross, (4) 12a.
-, 12th-century
-,-, Capitals: (1) 5a (33) 59b.
-,-, Columns, (35) 75b, 76a, Pl. 88.
-,-, Corbel-heads, (6) 17a, Pl. 28.
-,-, Nook-shaft (fragment), carved, (1) 5a.
-,-, Voussoirs: (1) 5a (possible) (2) 9b (10) 29b, Pl. 28.
-, 13th-century
-,-, Arrow slits, (40) 95a.
-,-, Barrel vault, (40) 95a.
-,-, Base, circular, (5) 15a.
-,-, Moulding, (10) 29b.
-, 15th-century
-,-, Capitals, (37) 84a.
-,-, Corbel-heads, (4) 12a, Pl. 29.
-,-, Gargoyle, (8) 22b.
-,-, Hood bracket, (174) 134a.
-, 16th-century
-,-, Archways: (40) 95a (189) 136a.
-, 17th-century
-,-, Doorcase, (136) 125a.
-,-, Gate-piers, (62) 106b.
-, 18th-century
-,-, Corbels, (33) 60a.
-, 19th-century
-,-, Columns, Tuscan, (142) 126a.

Architraves, lxxxi, Fig. 9, p. lxxxiii.
-, 18th-century, (140) 126a.
-, 19th-century: (143) 126b (399) 207a (404) 208a, Fig. 9n, o.
-, See also Doors and Doorways and Windows.

Archways, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous.

Armour, 17th-century
-, Breastplate, (12) 37b.
-, Helmet, of wood, (1) 3b.
-, Pot-helmet, (12) 37b.

Arrow Slits, 13th-century, (40) 95a.

Arsenal, hall used as, (39) 91b.

Artists and Surveyors
-, Abbott, E., (15) 47a.
-, Baines, Edward, (22) 51a, Pl. 1.
-, Beckwith, J., (34) Fig. 37, p. 64b.
-, Boddy, W. J., Pl. 2.
-, Boys, Thomas Shotter, (393) 204a.
-, Buck, Nathaniel, (409) 208b.
-, " Samuel, (254) 155b.
-, Buckler, J. C.: (76) 110a (392) 203b (393) 204a Pl. 2.
-, Cave, Henry: xxxiv, lix, lxxiii, lxxix (33) 58b (35) 74a 128b (311) 176b (487) 232b Pl. 3.
-, Cossins, John: lxxvii (207) 141b (233) 148a (234) 148a (250) 152b (254) 155b (275) 162b (411) 210b 231b.
-, Farington, J., (247) 151a.
-, Greig, J., (35) 71a.
-, Halfpenny, Joseph: (6) 17a (36) 79a (40) 93b.
-, Horsley, Benedict, 231b.
-, Jefferys, Thomas, (207) 141b.
-, Lindley, Charles, (45) 102b.
-, Monkhouse, W., and Bedford, F.: (6) 15b (10) 26a Pl. 2.
-, Nicholson, George: xxxiv (6) 15b 128b (311) 176b, 177a (313) 178a (317) 179a Pl. 3.
-, Rysdael, painting signed by, (35) 74a.
-, Speed, John: lix (22) 51a.
-, Towne, Charles, (35) 75a.
-, White, T., (315) 178b.
-, " Dr. William, (80) 111b.

Arundel, Archbishop, altar consecrated by, (33) 58b.

Ash, John, house occupied by, (503) 237a.

Ashton
-, Arms of, (12) 38b.
-, Hugh, shield for, (12) 38b.

Askwith
-, Arms of, (1) 3a.
-, Mrs., house occupied by, (442) 219a.
-, Robert 1597, brass, (1) 3a, Pl. 40.

Assembly Marks: lxxii (33) 60b (151) 128a (222) 145a (244) 150b (276) 163a (291) 171a, b (311) 177b (471) 226a (537) 241b.

" Rooms, (45) 100a, Fig. 57, Pls. 9699.

Assizes, hall used for, (36) 78a.

Astington, James 1774, Elizabeth 1787, James 1780, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Athelstan, King, hospital founded by, (40) 93b.

Atkinson
-, Benjamin, haberdasher, house built by, (445) 219a.
-, " 1773, Mary . . . ., floor-slab, (15) 49a.
-, James 1839, Ann 1840, monument, (8) 22a.
-, " George 1729, monument, (14) 46a.
-, John, monumental mason, (15) 48b.
-, " Bownas and William, see Architects.
-, Joseph, monumental mason, xcvii.
-, Peter, junior, see Architects.
-, " senior, see Architects.
-, Rev. Robert 1767, floor-slab, (14) 46a.
-, Thomas, see Architects.
-, " 1798, Ann 1774, Mary 1796, monument, (15) 48b.
-, William, see Architects.

Atkinson and Phillips, architects, survey by, (37) 83a.

Attics: introduction of, lxi early use of: (193) 138a (240) 149a (307) 174b (366) 196b (427) 216a.

Augsburg Work (probable), 16th-century: (8) 22b (13) 43b.

Augusta, Princess of Wales, portrait medallion of (marble), (35) 76b, Pl. 85.

Augustinian Friary, see Religious Foundations.

Aumbries: (2) 7a (11) 34b (14) 45b (33) 59b.

Austin Canons, chaplain brothers living by the rules of, (40) 94a.

Avray, Robert, monumental sculptor, (4) 11b.

Awkingham, daughter of John, 18th-century monument, (14) 46a.

Aynly, Richard, Keeper of the Common Hall, (36) 78a.

Ayre's Yard, through-passageway known as, (370) 197b.

Back Bedern, location of, (33) 57b.

" Lendal, street formerly known as, 166a.

Back-plate, of iron, for ring handle, 15th-century, (38) 90b.

Bacon, John, carpenter and joiner, (395) 205b.

Bagnall, John, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Plasterers.

Bagnio, The, lxxx.

Baines
-, Edward, map by, (22) 51a, Pl. 1.
-, Henry, alderman: houses built by, (254) 155b property bought by, (252) 155a.

Bakeners Lane: former mediaeval lane, 236b tile works in, xcvi.

Baker
-, Ellen 1837, brass, (2) 7b.
-, Joseph, theatre manager, (47) 103a.

Baker's Lane, former, mediaeval origin of, 135b.

Balconies, see Cast Iron and Wrought Iron.

Balusters, Balustrades
-, 17th-century: (1) 5a (488) 234a, Pl. 189. Splat: (34) 65a (456) 221b. c. 1700: (276) 163a (330) 184b (399) 207a.
-, 18th-century: (26) 52b (38) 90a (89) 115a (116) 119a (310) 176a (349) 192b (440) 219a (463) 223a (477) 228a. Chinese fret: (396) 206b (490) 234b.
-, 19th-century, (27) 54a.
-, See also Cast Iron, Ironwork and Staircases.

Bands
-, On buildings, external, lxxvii.
-, On chests, of iron, 13th and 16th-century, (37) 88a.

Banks: (285) 167b, Pl. 156 (301) 174a, Pl. 155 (392) 203b, Pl. 153.

Banks, Christopher, panelling by, (44) 97a.

Barber and North, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

" " Whitwell, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

" Cattle and North, silversmiths (44) 99b.

Barge-boards, carved
-, 16th-century: (317) 179a (478) 228b.
-, 17th-century: (37) 88a (311) 176b.

Barker
-, Edward, house occupied by, (279) 165a.
-, Elizabeth, flagon given in memory of, (11) 35b.
-, Emmanuel 1783, headstone, (9) 25a.
-, John 1844, monument, (13) 43a.
-, Lucy 1826, Rev. Thomas 1829, monument, (12) 39a.
-, Mr., see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Engravers.
-, Thomas 1724, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, " and Frances, children and grandchild of, 1725, monument, (11) 35a.

Barmby, former prebendal house of, (467) 223b.

Barneby, Richard, site belonging to, (436) 217b.

Barnett, John Joseph, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glasspainters and Glaziers.

Barrel Vault, 13th-century, (40) 95a.

Barrett, William 1706, floor-slab, (6) 19b.

Barstow
-, Alice and children, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Thomas, house bought by, (252) 155a.

Bartle Garth or Yard, location of former, (33) 57b.

Barton
-, John, master mason of Minster, (36) 77a.
-, Joseph, carpenter, (2) 9b.
-, Thomas, bequest by, (36) 77b.

Base, circular, 13th-century, (5) 15a.

Basements: lxxvii, xciii.
-, 13th-century, barrel-vaulted, (40) 95a.
-, 14th-century, (244) 150b.
-, 18th-century: (117) 119b (249) 151b (287) 170a (376) 200a. Vaulted: (89) 115a (250) 155a (277) 164a.

Basin, pewter, 18th-century, (6) 19b.

Bateman
-, Hester, of London, silversmith, (1) 4a.
-, Peter and Jonathan, of London, silversmiths, (32) 56b.

Bateson, William, mason, (45) 100a.

Bath, Mrs. Elizabeth 1736, monument, (13) 43a.

Bath-house, Roman, site of, 174a.

Baths: domestic, xciii, xciv public, (282) 166b.

Battridge, Sarah 1784, William 1788, Frances 1808, headstone, (6) 19b.

Batty
-, Ambrose, innkeeper, (136) 124a.
-, Paul, nonconformist chapel built by, (28) 54a.

Bawtry
-, Arms of, (44) 99b.
-, Thomas, tankards given by, (44) 99b.

Bayeux, Thomas of, office of Treasurer established by, (35) 69a.

Baynes' Hotel, public house formerly known as, (368) 196b.

Beadale, John, railings by, (44) 97a.

Bealby
-, Ann, monument erected by, (32) 56b.
-, Varley 1836, Ann 1850, monument, (32) 56b.

Bean
-, Arms of, impaled by Wood, (13) 43a.
-, William, churchwarden, (14) 46b.

Bear, The, inn formerly known as, (142) 126a.

Beauchamp, arms of, (8) 21b.

Beaumont, arms of, impaled by Grammer, (12) 39a.

Becket, St. Thomas, representations of (glass): (possible) (6) 17b martyrdom of, (12) 38a story of, (12) 38a.

Beckfield Lane, Acomb, door-case now at, (369) 197b.

Beckwith
-, J., drawing probably by, (34) Fig. 37, p. 64b.
-, Ray 1799, monument, (11) 35a.
-, Thomas . . . ., Frances and Catherine 1773, monument, (11) 35a.
-, William, Jane, . . ., Ann, inscription to (glass), (12) 38b.

Bedern: lvii (33) 57a-58a former entry to, (189) 136a.

" Chapel: (33) 58a, Fig. 34, Pl. 20 bell from, xliv font-cover from, xlviii.

" Hall, (33) 57b, 60a, Fig. 36, Pl. 65.

Beech Tree, house formerly known as, (213) 142b.

Beeston, Ann 1798, memorial stone, (17) 49b.

Beilby, Benjamin 176., floor-slab, (13) 43a.

Belcombe, Mariana 1842, monument, (12) 39a.

Bell
-, Arms of, impaled by Hungate, (5) 14a.
-, Christopher, Ann, Ellen, Francis, 1784, floor-slab, (9) 25a.
-, Frederick, architect, (14) 44b.
-, John, bequest by, (6) 15b.
-, " 1802, and others, floor-slab, (14) 46a.
-, Richard 1639, brass, (5) 14a.
-, Timothy, churchwarden, (6) 19a.

Bellamy, John, rector, bequest by, (15) 46b.

Bell-founder, grave-slab of, 14th-century, (6) 19b.

Bell-founders and Bell-founding: xliii, xliv see also under Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Bell-frames, xliv, Fig. 1, p. xlv.
-, 15th-century: (2) 7b, Fig. 1b (3) 10b, Fig. 1c (11) 34b, Fig. 1a (14) 45b.
-, 16th-century (probably), (15) 48a, Fig. 1d.
-, 17th-century, (1) 2b, Fig. 1e.
-, 18th-century, (9) 24b, Fig. 1h.
-, 19th-century, (6) 17a.

Bell-houses, xliii.

Belloe, John, grant of college buildings to, (34) 62b.

Bells, xliii.
-, Mediaeval, (1) 2b.
-, 15th-century, (13) 41b.
-, 16th-century: (2) 7a (Flemish), (4) 11a (14) 45b.
-, 17th-century: (1) 2b (2) 7a (4) 11a (5) 14a (6) 17a, Pl. 39 (8) 21a (11) 34b (12) 37b (13) 41b, Pl. 39 (37) 84b.
-, 18th-century: (6) 17a, Pl. 39 (9) 24b (10) 28a (11) 34b (13) 41b (14) 45b (15) 48a (33) 59b.
-, Date Unknown, (2) 7b.

Bellwood, William, architect, (1) 2a.

Belt, William, Recorder of York, property acquired by, (35) 70a.

Belwood
-, Arms of, (4) 12a.
-, Roger 1694, monument, (4) 12a, Pl. 43.

Bench-end, 15th-century, (6) 19b, Pl. 38.

Benches, see Seating.

Benedict the Jew, location of house of, 219b.

Benefactors' Tables: xlvi (1) 2b (2) 7b (5) 14a (8) 21a (9) 24b (12) 37b (14) 46a (15) 48a.

Benet's Rents, area known as, 146b.

Beningbrough Hall, staircase at, (35) 75a.

Benington or Bennington, Michael, churchwarden, (6) 17a, 19b.

Bennett, Thomas, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Benson
-, Mrs. Ann, flagons given by, (1) 4a.
-, G., antiquary: xliii bells recorded by: xliv (6) 17a (8) 21a (9) 24b (12) 37b plans by: (37) 87b (40) 93b, 94b.
-, Robert, Lord Bingley, property of, (34) 63a.

Bermyngham, Fulk, prebendary of Husthwaite, lease of prebendal house granted by, (34) 62a.

Besson, Leonard, renewal of gift of, (44) 99b.

Best, Marmaduke, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

Bethell, arms of, impaled by Morwood, (12) 40a.

Beverley
-, Bishop of, church used as temporary cathedral by, (7) 20a.
-, John 1778, floor-slab, (9) 25a.
-, Mary . . . ., floor-slab, (9) 25a.
-, Thomas 1475, Alice, brass, xlvi.

Bewlay, Henry, butcher, house occupied by, (429) 216a.

Bickerton, Francis, work supervised by, (44) 97a.

Bigland, Georgina 1820, brass, (12) 37b.

Billingham, Henery (sic) 1703, floor-slab, (2) 9a.

Bilton
-, George 1773, and children 1766, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, Prebend of, fragment of building belonging to, (464) 223a.
-, William 1823, monument, (12) 39a.

Bilton-Wilson, Joseph 1842, monument, (9) 24b.

Bishophill House, ceiling from, (417) 212b.

Bishoprick, Robert 1814, floor-slab and monument, (1) 4a.

Bishops, representations of: (stone), (1) 2a see also Archbishops and Bishops.

Black Bull Inn, location of former, 132a.

" " Lane, alley known as, (517) 238a.

Blackburn, Nicholas, senior: land belonging to, (434) (435) 217a property of, (438) 218b.

Black Death, effect of, l.

" Horse, house formerly known as, (520) 239a.

" " Passage, length of friary wall visible in, (22) 51a.

Blacksmith, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Blacksmith's Shop, location of former, (502) 236b.

Black Swan, (317) 179a, Fig. 110, Pl. 126.

" " Inn, (136) 124a.

Blakburn, John 1426/7, and Katherine, probable floor-slab of, (11) 35b.

Blake Street: 107b111a boundary mark in, (59) 105a excavations in, 220b.

Blakey, Richard, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bell-founders.

Blaksly, Mr., carver and gilder, (45) 100b.

Blanchard's Lane, location of former, 122a.

Blanshard
-, Arms of, (12) 39b.
-, George, property possibly in tenure of, (353) 193a.
-, John, house rebuilt by, (492) 234b.
-, " 1770, George 1779, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, " 1770, Mary 1789, monument, (12) 39b.
-, Margaret 1731, George 1709, brass, (11) 34b.
-, Wilkinson 1743, Elizabeth 1789, George 1741, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, William, house built for, (394) 204b.

Bloomsbury, The, building formerly known as, (229) 146b.

Blue Bell, (177) 134b.

Bluecoat Boy, representation of (glass), (8) 21b.

" School, building occupied by, (39) 91b.

Board, The: (321) 181a former, (194) 138b.

" Inn, The, (161) 132b.

Boat House, The, (253) 155a.

Boddy
-, William, smith, (45) 100a.
-, W. J., view by, Pl. 2.

Bolling, John, house built by, (377) 200a.

Bolton, Sophia Margaret 1821, monument, (12) 39a.

" Percy, timber from: xcvii (37) 82a.

Book, 16th-century, (1) 2b.

Bookbinders Alley, passage formerly known as, 160b.

Bookland Lane, passage formerly known as, 160b.

Bookshops, existence of, 220b.

Booth
-, Richard 1741, Martha 1724, Jane 1758, floor-slab, (15) 49a.
-, William, Archbishop of York, licence granted to, (34) 62a.

Bootham Bar: provision of foot-passages to, (325) 182a removal of barbican of, 204a.

Borthwick Institute of Historical Research: (39) 91a design and faculty preserved in, (1) 2a.

Boundary Marks, parish: (18) 49b (5359) 105a (250) 152b effigy formerly used as, (22) 51a position of former, 172a statue serving as, 117b.

Bourn, Rev. John 1741, floor-slab, (11) 35a.

Bower, arms of, impaled by Squire, (12) 39b.

Bowes
-, Arms of, (4) 12a.
-, Mrs. Ellen: flagon given by, (12) 40a monument erected by, (12) 39b.
-, John 1754, floor-slab, (8) 22a.
-, " and George, houses built for, (335) 185b.
-, Sir Martin: house possibly built by, (317) 179a plea for preservation of church by, (5) 12b sword given by, (44) 98b.
-, Thomas 1777, monument, (4) 12a.
-, William, mayor, rebuilding of church begun by, (5) 12b.
-, " 1439, Isabella 1435, brass, (5) 14a.

Bowes Morrell House: lvii (537) 241a, Figs. 156, 157, Pl. 118.

" Sword, The, (44) 98b.

Bowling Green, site of early, (33) 57b.

Bowls, bronze, 7th-century: (11) 36a hanging, (11) 36a.

Box-pews, see Seating.

Boydon, John, bequest by, (6) 15b.

Boyes, Joseph and son 1762, monument, (9) 24b.

Boyle, Richard, 3rd Earl of Burlington, see Architects.

Boys, Thomas Shotter, view by, (393) 204a.

Bracebrig, Thomas, house probably built by, (413) 211a.

Brackets
-, Stone
-,-, Mediaeval: (33) 59b (289) 170b.
-,-, 12th-century: (6) 17a, Pl. 28 (15) 48a (33) 59b.
-,-, 13th-century, (51) 104b.
-,-, 14th-century, (11) 34b, Pl. 29.
-,-, 15th-century, (36) 79a.
-,-, 18th-century (possibly), (33) 60a.
-, Timber
-,-, 15th-century, carved, from entrance, (174) 134a.
-, See also Ironwork and Leadwork.

Bradley
-, R., monumental mason, (32) 56b.
-, Thomas, churchwarden, (14) 46b.

Braithwaite, Robert, butcher, house occupied by, (308) 175b.

Brakspear, restoration by, (5) 12b.

Bramham, prebend of: property of, 231b surviving remains of prebendal house of, 231b, (485) 232a.

Brass
-, Door Furniture, 18th-century, (89) 115a.
-, See also Plate, Church and Civic.

Brasses, monumental, xlvi.
-, Figure
-,-, 16th-century, (1) 3a, Pl. 40.
-,-, 17th-century, (10) 28a, Pl. 40.
-, Heraldic
-,-, 17th-century: (4) 11a (5) 14a (12) 37b.
-,-, 18th-century: (4) 11b (5) 14a (10) 28a.
-,-, 19th-century, (11) 34b.
-, Inscriptions
-,-, 14th-century, (1) 2b.
-,-, 15th-century: (1) 3a (2) 7b, Pl. 40 (4) 11b (5) 14a with chalice, (13) 41b.
-,-, 16th-century: (6) 17a (10) 28a, Pl. 40 (13) 41b, Pl. 40.
-,-, 17th-century: (1) 2b (4) 11b (5) 14a (12) 37b (13) 41b (14) 46a.
-,-, 18th-century: (1) 3a (4) 11b (8) 21a (10) 28a (11) 34b (15) 48a.
-,-, 19th-century: (1) 2b (2) 7b (4) 11b (5) 14a (10) 28a (11) 34b (12) 37b.
-, Indents: xlvi (1) 3a (2) 7b (6) 17a, b (9) 24b (10) 28a (11) 34b (12) 37b (14) 46a (15) 48a, b (17) 49b.

Braziers, heating by, lxxiii.

Breastplate, 17th-century, (12) 37b.

Bretgate: stone houses mentioned at, xxxiii streets formerly known as, 149a 167a.

Brewery, building formerly part of, (212) 142b.

Brick, see Brick-work, Building Materials and Houses and Public Buildings.

Bricklayers, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Brick-work, lxxviii.
-, Mediaeval, (23) 51b.
-, 17th-century: (15) 47a (37) 84a (87) 114a (93) 116b (207) 141b (213) 142b (252) 155a (311) 177a.
-, c. 1700, (488) 234a.
-, 18th-century: (3) 10a (27) 54a (34) 64a (35) 76a (52) 104b (129) 121b (235) 148b (251) (253) 155a (258) 156b (264) 157a (291) 171b (323) 181b (485) 232a (517) 238a.
-, c. 1800, (361) 195a.
-, 19th-century: (229) 147a (264) 157a polychrome, (354) 193b (485) 232a (517) 238a.
-, See also Buildings Materials, Brick, and Houses and Public Buildings, Brick.

Bridges: xxxv (50) 104b, Pl. 116.

Brierley and Rutherford, see Architects.

" Leckenby, Keighley and Groom, see Architects.

Briggs
-, William 1683, Ann 1673, and grandchildren, floor-slab, (2) 9b.
-, " 1823, Rev. George 1827, Frances 1824, floor-slab and monument, (5) 14b.

Briggs' Coffee House, house formerly known as, (483) 231a.

Bristol: ancient churches at, xxxiii building of quays at, xxxv.

Brogden, Robert, of Tockwith, public house designed for, (451) 220b.

Bromflet(?), arms of, (14) 45b.

Bronze Bowls, 7th-century: (11) 36a hanging, (11) 36a.

Brook
-, Thomas, houses of, (341) (342) 187b.
-, " 1817, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, " 1795, Ann 1836, and children, monument, (12) 39b.

Brooke, William 1789, Rachel 18. floor-slab, (8) 22a.

Brown
-, Elizabeth 1832, and children, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, W. P., timber-framed houses superseded by department store of, 206a.

Buck
-, Nathaniel, sketch by, (409) 208b.
-, Samuel, drawing by, (254) 155b.

Buckle
-, Joseph 1760, monument, (8) 22a.
-, " 1818, Esther 1834, monument, (2) 9a.
-, Marmaduke, scratching of, (193) 137a.
-, Thomas, churchwarden, (6) 17a.

Buckler, J. C., see Artists and Surveyors.

Buckton, Samuel, gift of, (38) 91a.

Builders and Contractors
-, Coates, William, (6) 19a.
-, Duckett, John, headstone 1833, (6) 19b.
-, Lockey, George, headstone 1838, (2) 9a.
-, Lucas, Samuel, (6) 19a.
-, Mountain, J. Rt., (46) 102b.
-, Weatherley, Ralph, (7) 20a.

Building Materials
-, Brick: lxi, lxii, lxxiii, lxxv, lxxvii, lxxix, lxxx, lxxxi, xcv, xcvi see also Brick-work and Houses and Public Buildings, Brick.
-,-, 14th-century, (37) 83a, b.
-,-, 16th-century: (34) 65a (35) 75b (37) 83a, b, 84a.
-,-, c. 1600: (276) 163a (346) 192a.
-,-, 17th-century: (32) 55b (33) 59a (34) 63b (37) 88a (38) 89b (39) 92a, 93a (62) 106b (162) 132b (165) 132b (174) 133b (193) 138a (216) 143a (223) 145b (242) 150a (297) 173a (306) 174b (312) 178a (317) 179a (329) 183b (343) 189a (349) 192b (420) 213b (422) 214a (447) 219b (485) 232a (527) 239b (537) 241b.
-,-, c. 1700: (276) 163a (478) 228b.
-, Pantile, xcvi.
-, Plaster, see Ceilings, Plaster Decorated, and Plasterwork.
-, Plaster Rendering: lxi, lxii, lxxiv, lxxv.
-, Roman Cement, xcv.
-, Slate, xcvi.
-, Stone: xxxiii, lviii, lxxv, lxxvii, lxxxi, lxxxii, xcv (23) 51b (26) 52a (31) 54b (33) 60a (34) 63a, b (35) 71b (36) 79a, b, 80a (37) 82a, 83a, 84a (40) 94a (41) 96b (47) 103a (49) 104a (50) 104b (51) 104b (52) 104b (62) 106b, 107a (140) 126a (142) 126a (149) 128a (153) 129b (244) 150b (248) 151b (249) 151b (254) 155b (270) 158b (281) 165b, 166a (285) 167b (289) 170b (301) 174a (309) 176a (378) 201a (391) 203b (392) 204a (464) 223a (469) 225a (499) 235b (503) 237a see also Stonework.
-, Stone Flags, see Ceilings, Stone-flagged, and Floors, Stoneflagged.
-, Stucco: lxxxi xcv.
-, Tiles, coloured, (455) 221b.
-, Timber: xcvii (31) 54b (36) 79a (38) 90b (39) 93a (69) 107b 127b (442) 219a.
-, Timber Framing: lxii assembly marks, lxxii floor construction, lxv, Fig. 4, p. lxvi roof construction, lxviii, Figs. 6, 7, pp. lxx, lxxi scarf joints, lxvi, Fig. 5, p. lxvii wall bracing, lxiii, Fig. 3, p. lxiv (33) 60a, Fig. 36 (34) 63a, 64a (37) 84a, b, 86a, b, 88a, Fig. 50, Pl. 70 (38) 89b, 90b (39) 93a, Pl. 75 (43) 96b (61) 105b (91) 116a (109) 118a (111) 118a, b (119) 120b (120) 120b (144) 126b (151) 128b, Fig. 77 (189) 136b (211) 142b (216) 143a (225) 146b (244) 150b (247) 151a (265) 157b (271) 161a (275) 162b (276) 163a (299) 173b (318) 180a (337) 186b (345) 191a (347) 192a (357) 194b (360) 195a (367) 196b (379) 201b (413) 211a (418) 213a (423) 214b (424) 215a (425) 215a (438) 218b (439) 218b (441) 219a (443) 219a (447) 219b (456) 221b (459) 222a, b (465) 223a (467) 223b (468) 224b (477) 228a (481) 231a (496) 235b (497) 235b (509) 237a (524) 239a (525) 239b (529) 240a (530) 240a (538) 241b (539) 242a see also Buildings and Houses and Public Buildings, Timber-framed.

Buildings
-, 11th-century, of timber, discovery of, 127b.
-, 16th-century, timber-framed: (299) 173b, Pl. 120 (307) 174b, Figs. 3j, 108, Pl. 122.

Bull Inn, location of, 122a.

Bulmer
-, Elizabeth 1745, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, Francis, merchant, alterations carried out for, (320) 181a.

Burdon, Jane 1822, William 1823, floor-slab, (5) 14b.

Burial Grounds: xlii (16) 49a (18) 49b (20) 49b see also Churchyards and Graveyard.

Burials
-, Roman, 236a.
-, Saxon: xxxix, xlii (16) 49a 180b.

Burnell, Margaret 1787, monument, (20) 50a.

Burns Hotel, public house formerly known as, (269) 158a.

Burton
-, George, bricklayer, (45) 100a.
-, Dr. John, house leased by, (156) 130b.

Busfield, William, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

Butchers: hall of guild of, xxxv, 156a street mainly occupied by, 213a.

Butterfield, William, architect, (11) 31a.

Buxton, Samuel, grocer, houses built by, (233) 147b.

Calvert, John 1782, Sarah 1808, and children, headstone, (1) 4a.

Calvinistic Baptists, chapel occupied by, (28) 54a.

Cambridge, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Cam Hall Garth, area formerly known as, 117b.

Campbell
-, Colen, elevation illustrated by, (44) 97a, Pl. 93.
-, Maryanne 1806, brass, (10) 28a.

Canons Residentiary: house built to accommodate, (154) 129b house previously occupied by, (277) 163b.

Canterbury, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Capitals, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous.

Cap of Maintenance, 16th-century, (44) 99a.

Cappe
-, Mrs. Catherine 1821, monument, (32) 56b.
-, Rev. Newcome 1800, monument, (32) 56b.

Cargate or Kergate, street formerly known as, 149b.

Carlisle, Earl of, college occupied by, (34) 62b.

Carmelite Friars: bricks bought from, (37) 82a tile works of, xcvi.

" Friary, see Religious Foundations.

Caroline Place or Row: formation of, 167a linen manufactory at, 167a, 236b.

Carpenter
-, Mr., carver, (12) 36b, 40a.
-, Samuel, painter, (45) 102b.

Carpenters: fraternity maintained by, (21) 50a see also Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Carr
-, John, see Architects.
-, Thomas, bequest by, (36) 77a.
-, William, carpenter and joiner, (287) 168a.

Carron, of Falkirk: grates by: (35) 74a, Pl. 87, 75b (231) 147a style of, (329) 183b.

Cartouches
-, 17th-century, (36) 79a, Pl. 182.
-, 18th-century, (156) 130b, Pl. 182.
-, See also Monuments, funeral, Wall-monuments (Cartouches).

Cartwright, William 1833, Mary 1820, floor-slab, (11) 35b.

Carvers, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Carvers and Gilders, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Carving
-, In Stone, xxxvi, xlvii.
-,-, Pre-Conquest: xxxvi, Pls. 2123 (1) 2b, Pl. 23 (6) 17a, Pl. 21 (11) 33a, b, 34a, b, Pls. 2123 (16) 49a, b, Pl. 21 (40) 95a, b, Pl. 21 (289) 170b, Pl. 23.
-,-, Mediaeval, (fragments), (378) 201a.
-,-, 12th-century: (1) 5a (2) 9b (6) 16b, Pl. 26, 17a, Pl. 28 (8) 21a, Pl. 38 (9) 24a, Pls. 26, 28 (10) 29b, Pl. 28 (15) 48a (35) 76b (309) 176a.
-,-, 14th-century: (11) 34b, Pl. 29 (37) 88a.
-,-, 15th-century: (2) 7a, Pl. 29 (4) 12a, Pl. 29 (8) 22b (10) 26b, Pl. 29 (11) 33a, 35a (14) 45a, Pl. 29 (22) 51b (36) 79a, Pl. 158 (378) 201a.
-,-, 16th-century: (8) 20b, Pl. 30 (12) 37a, b.
-,-, 17th-century, (36) 79a, Pl. 182.
-,-, 18th-century: (41) 96b, Pl. 182 (156) 130b, Pl. 182 (250) 152b, Pl. 113.
-,-, 19th-century: (1) 2a (7) 20a.
-, In Wood, lxxiii.
-,-, c. 1400, (40) 95b.
-,-, 15th-century: (bosses), (5) 14a, Pl. 31 (bench-end), (6) 19b, Pl. 38 (bosses), (10) 26b (misericordes), (11) 35b, 36a, Pl. 39 (bosses), (14) 45a, b (34) 63b, 64b, Pl. 198 (bosses), (36) 80a, Pl. 199 (39) 93a (boss), (142) 126a (174) 134a (bosses), (270) 160a, Pl. 134 (345) 191a.
-,-, 16th-century: (foreign), (10) 29b (bench-ends), (12) 40a (barge-boards), (317) 179a (door panels), (344) 189b, Pl. 197 (barge-boards), (478) 228b.
-,-, 17th-century: (1) 3a, Pl. 38, 4b, Pl. 36 (5) 14a, Pl. 35, 14b (13) 42a, Pls. 35, 38 (37) 88a (311) 176b, 177b (345) 191a (471) 226a, Pls. 170, 197 (478) 228b.
-,-, c. 1700, (font-cover), (33) 60a.
-,-, 18th-century: (10) 29b (12) 38a, Pl. 34, 40a, Pl. 37 (13) 42a, Pls. 36, 38, 43b, Pl. 37 (36) 80a, Pl. 197 (44) 98a, Pl. 197 (61) 106a, Pl. 200 (344) 189b, Pl. 200 (377) 201a, Pl. 200.
-,-, 19th-century: (1) 3b, Pl. 38 (14) 45a, b (15) 49a (39) 93b (49) 104a (271) 161a (487) 232b (488) 234a.

Casson, Stanley, silversmith, (8) 22b.

Cast Iron
-, Balconies: (48) 103b, Fig. 59 (272) 161b (395) 206a.
-, Balustrades, (31) 55b.
-, Columns: (24) 52a (31) 54b, 55b (388) 203a.
-, Fireplace Surround, (459) 222b.
-, Lamp Standards, (48) 103b.
-, Poor-box, (6) 19b.
-, Railings: (48) 103b (394) 204b.
-, Royal Arms, (6) 19b.
-, Safe, (14) 46b.
-, Window Guards, (411) 210b.
-, See also Carron, Grates, Ironwork and Staircases.

Castlegate, 111a115b.

" House, (89) 114a, Fig. 67, Pls. 109111.

" Postern Lane, lane formerly known as, 236a.

Castle Lane, lane formerly known as, 236a.

" Museum, items now in
-, Doorcase, 17th-century, (136) 125a.
-, Hood Bracket, 15th-century, (174) 134a.
-, Water Closet, early, (482) 231a.

Castle Yard, 7th-century bronze hanging bowl from, (11) 36a.

Cattle
-, R., site acquired from, (392) 203b.
-, Robert, director of gas company, xciv.

Cave, Henry, see Artists and Surveyors.

Cawood, stone from, (36) 77a.

Ceel, Christopher, inscription to (glass), (12) 38b.

Ceilings
-, In Churches
-,-, Plaster, (13) 41b.
-,-, Timber, (10) 26b.
-, In Nonconformist Chapels
-,-, Plaster Decorated 19th-century, (24) 52a.
-,-, Plaster Vaulted 17th-century, (32) 56a.
-, In Other Buildings
-,-, Plaster Decorated c. 1600, (137) 125a, Pl. 165. 17th-century: (61) 106a, Pl. 166 (131) 123a, Pl. 164 (137) 125a, Pl. 164 (270) 160a, Pl. 166 (471) 226a. 18th-century: (35) 74a, 76b, Pl. 84 (44) 98a (45) 102a, Pl. 168 (61) 106a, b, Pl. 168 (75) 109b (82) 112b, 113a, Pls. 102106 (89) 115b, Pl. 169 (249) 152a, Pl. 167 (254) 156a, Pl. 167 (270) 160a, Pl. 169 (344) 189b, Pl. 168 (417) 212b. 19th-century, (392) 204a.
-, Stone-flagged
-,-, 15th-century, (36) 80b.
-, Timber, (38) 90b, 91a.

Cellars, lxxvii.
-, c. 1600, (130) 123a.
-, 17th-century, (240) 149a.
-, 18th-century: (156) 130b (319) 181a. Arched, (453) 221a. Vaulted: (77) 111a (205) 141a (321) 181b.

Cely, Walter, college buildings and close granted to, (33) 57b.

Centenary Methodist Chapel: (24) 52a, Pl. 66 boundary mark on, (57) 105a.

Central Mission, tabernacle built for, 235a.

Centre-pieces
-, Architectural, 17th-century: (34) 64a, Pl. 77 (35) 71a, Pl. 83.
-, Silver, 18th-century, (44) 99a, Pl. 64.

Ceres, Goddess of Plenty, representation of (plasterwork), (82) 113a, Pl. 102.

Chains, civic, of gold, 16th and 17th-century, (44) 99a.

Chairs, see Furniture.

Chamber-pot, silver, 17th-century, (44) 99b.

Chambers
-, John, junior, glass-painter, li.
-, Richard, 18th-century memorial stone, (17) 49b.
-, Of Scarborough, sculptor, (4) 12a.

Chantries: Foundation of: (1) 1b (2) 5a, b (10) 25b (11) 30a, b (12) 36b (13) 40b (14) 44a (15) 46b (33) 58b. Properties built for endowment of: xxxv, xlii, lix (222) 143b (site of), (451) 220b (471) 225b. See also Churches and Chapels.

Chantry Chapels, see Churches and Chapels.

" Priests, accommodation for, lvii.

Chapel House, (25) 52a.

Chapels, nonconformist, see Churches and Chapels.

Chapman, Richard, innkeeper, (207) 141b.

Chapter House Street: 115b117a Roman column discovered in, (35) 69a.

Charcoal Dealers, street named from, 117b.

Charity, representations of: (stone), (10) 29b, Pl. 41 (silver), (44) 98b.

Charles II, arms of, see Royal Arms.

Charnel-vault, former, (5) 12b.

Chastity, Triumph of, representation of (glass), (8) 22a.

Chawner, Henry, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

Cheere, John, busts by, (82) 113a.

Chests, see Furniture.

Chimney-pieces, see Fireplaces and Overmantels.

Chimneys and Chimney-stacks, early: lxxiii, lxxiv (34) 65a (37) 84a (38) 89b (144) 126b (151) 128b (156) 131b (185) 136a (193) 138a (240) 149b (276) 163a (291) 171b (321) 181b (326) 182b (343) 189a (356) 194a (420) 213b (422) 214a (439) 218b (453) 221a (467) 223b (477) 228a (525) 239b.

Chinese Fret Balusters, see Balusters and Staircases.

Chippendale, Mary 1786, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Cholmeley, arms of, (12) 39a.

Christ, representations of
-, Corpus Christi (glass): (2) 8a, Pl. 46 (10) 29a, Pl. 46.
-, Crucifixion: (glass), li (glass), (6) 17b, Pl. 47, 18b (stone), (9) 24a (stone), (11) 34a, Pl. 22 (glass), (13) 42b.
-, Figure of: (glass), (6) 18a (stone), (8) 20b, Pl. 30 (glass), (11) 34b.
-, In Majesty (glass), (12) 38a.
-, Nativity (glass), (8) 22a.
-, Scenes from the Life and Passion of (glass): (1) 3b, Pls. 48, 55 (12) 38a, Pl. 49 (13) 42a.

Christ Church, former church of, xxxiv, xlix.

Christian Brethren, church used as meeting house by, (3) 10a.

Church Commissioners, property taken over by, (33) 57a.

Churches and Chapels: xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv, xxxixxli.
-, Dating from Pre-Conquest: (11) St. Mary, 30a, Fig. 24 (13) St. Michael, 40b, Fig. 27 (14) St. Sampson, 44a, Fig. 28 (15) St. Saviour, 46b, Fig. 29.
-, Dating from the 10th Century, (1) All Saints, 1a, Fig. 12.
-, Dating from the 11th Century: (4) St. Crux, 11a (5) St. Cuthbert, 12a, Fig. 16 (10) St. Martin, 25a, Figs. 22, 23.
-, Dating from the 12th Century: (2) Holy Trinity, 5a, Fig. 14 (3) St. Andrew, 10a, Fig. 15 (6) St. Denys, 15a, Fig. 17 (8) St. Helen, 20a, Fig. 20 (9) 22b, Fig. 21.
-, Dating from the 13th Century: (12) St. Michael-le-Belfrey, 36a, Fig. 26 (33) Bedern Chapel, 58a, Fig. 34 (40) St. Leonard's Hospital Chapel, 93a, 94b, Fig. 53.
-, Dating from the 14th Century, (37) Merchant Adventurers' Chapel, 84a, Fig. 49.
-, Dating from the 15th Century: (2) Chapel of St. James (Howme Chapel), 5b, 7a (6) St. Catherine's Chapel, 15b (14) St. Nicholas' Chantry, 44a.
-, Nonconformist, xlii, 52a56b.
-,-, Dating from the 17th Century, (32) Unitarian, 55b, Fig. 33.
-,-, Dating from the 18th Century: (25) Wesleyan Chapel (former), 52a (27) Friends' Meeting House, 52b, Fig. 31 (28) Grape Lane Chapel, 54a.
-,-, Dating from the 19th Century: (24) Centenary Methodist, 52a (26) Ebenezer Primitive Methodist, 52a, Fig. 30 (27) Friends' Meeting House, 52b, Fig. 31 (29) Lendal Congregational, 54a (30) New Street Chapel, 54b (31) Salem Chapel, 54b, Fig. 32.
-, Roman Catholic, xlii.
-,-, Dating from the 19th century, (7) St. George, 20a.

Church Lane, former mediaeval lane, 236b.

" Street, 117a.

Churchyards: xlii former: (3) 10b (17) 49b (19) 49b erection of houses on: xxxv, xlii, lix (222) 143b (451) 220b (471) 225b see also Burial Grounds and Graveyard.

Cistern, see Leadwork.

City Art Gallery: Glass panels now in: (36) 80a (488) 234a, Pl. 186. View in, xlii.

" Commission, police station established at offices of, 201b.

" Garage, former, excavations under, 220b.

" Wall, house incorporating sections of, (282) 166b.

Civil War, damage during: (6) 15b (9) 23a (14) 44b (33) 57b (36) 78b.

Clapham, Sarah 1843, floor-slab, (14) 46a.

Clark
-, Ann 1775, Ann her daughter 1781, John 1792, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Mrs. Grace 1689, floor-slab, (13) 43a.
-, Mr., whitesmith, (33) 58b.
-, Richard, bequest of lead by, (10) 25b.
-, " 1797, Margaret 1787, and children, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, William 1796, Frances 1819, Frances Ann 1799, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Clarke, Richard 1815, monument, (14) 46a.

Clifford Street, pre-Conquest stone found in, (11) 33b.

Clifton, Thomas 1754, Catherine 1760, and family, monument, (4) 12a.

Clitherow, St. Margaret: building wrongly associated with, (436) 217b home of, (423) 214b.

Clockmaker, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Clocks, 19th-century: (10) 29b (13) 42a.

Close
-, M. 1767, and children, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, Miles, jury boxes made by, (36) 78a.

Closets
-, Projecting: (61) 106a (72) 109a (146) 126b (147) 127a, b (210) 142a (233) 148a (264) 157a (353) 193b (409) 209b (410) 210a.
-, Water, early: xciii, xciv (482) 231a.

Closing-ring, 12th-century, (1) 3a, Pl. 33.

Clough
-, Edward 1839, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Robert, bricklayer, (440) 218b.
-, " 1791, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, " 1800, John 1797, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Coach and Horses, timber-framed houses replaced by, 167b.

Coach-houses, see Outbuildings.

Coade and Sealy, of London, monumental masons, (8) 22a.

Coates
-, Mr., architect, (12) 36b.
-, William, builder, (6) 19a.

Cobb, Elizabeth 1795, headstone, (15) 49a.

Cobble Pavement, Roman, (35) 69a.

Coffee Houses, buildings formerly used as: (353) 193a (483) 231a.

" Yard: 231b232b, Fig. 148, Pl. 7 passageway leading to, (229) 146b.

Coffin Lids, xlvii.
-, Mediaeval: (2) 7b (8) 21a (9) 24b (15) 48b.
-, 12th-century, (10) 28a.
-, 13th-century: (1) 3a (2) 7b, Pl. 40 (10) 28a (11) 34b (13) 42a (15) 48b.
-, 13th or 14th-century: (2) 7b (5) 14a.
-, 14th-century: (2) 7b (8) 21a (10) 28a (22) 51a.
-, Date Unknown, (10) 28a.

Coffins, xlvii.
-, Pre-Conquest: (15) 46b (16) 49a.
-, Mediaeval, (2) 7b.
-, 14th-century, (child's), (22) 51a.

Coin, 9th-century, cross marked with, xxxvii.

Colburn, John, Lord Mayor, flagon given by, (13) 43b.

Collecting Shovels, 18th-century, (13) 42a.

Colleges, mediaeval, lvii see also Religious Foundations.

College Street, 117b.

Colliergate: xxxiii 117b121b, Pl. 6.

Colthurst
-, Arms of, (10) 29b.
-, Thomas 1588: brass, (10) 28a, Pl. 40 monument, (10) 29b.

Coltman, John, inscription to (glass), (12) 38b.

Colton, Thomas and Mary, posset cups with initials of, (32) 56b.

Columns, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous, Cast Iron, Ironwork and Roman.

Commemoration Tablet, Roman, reused, (11) 33b.

Common Hall Gates: building known as, (36) 77a building on site of, (44) 96b.

Common Hall Lane: (36) 80a, Fig. 48, Pls. 68, 69 122a.

" Lanes: (52) 104b, 105a 122a 220a 236b house built over, (140) 125b.

Communion Rails, xlvii.
-, 17th-century, (37) 84b.
-, 18th-century: (2) 7b, Pl. 34 (12) 38a, Pl. 34 (13) 42a, Pl. 38.

Communion Tables
-, 17th-century: (1) 3a, Pl. 35 (5) 14a, Pl. 35 (6) 17b (8) 21a (10) 28a (12) 38a (13) 42a, Pl. 35.
-, 18th-century, (2) 8a.

Composition Decoration: lxxxii, xcv (77) 111a (124) 121b (147) 127a, Pl. 179 (195) 140a (270) 160b (275) 162b, Pl. 179 (278) 164b, Pl. 180 (334) 185a, Pl. 160 (359) 194b (376) 200a (460) 222b (467) 224a (474) 227a (480) 231a (483) 231b.

Compton, Lady, portrait of, (35) 75a.

Coney Street: xxxiii 121b127b.

Coninggate, area referred to as, 149b.

Consecration Crosses, see Crosses, Consecration.

Consistory Court, former, (281) 165b, Fig. 104.

Consitt, Francis, engraver, house built by, (76) 110a.

Constantine, Emperor, possible representation of (glass), (8) 21b.

Constantius I, supposed burial place of, 105b.

Constitution Place, terrace houses known as, 167a.

Convocation of the Province of York, property sold as meeting place for, (34) 63a.

Conyars, . . . ., canon of York, 1686, floor-slab, (8) 22a.

Cookson, Isaac, of Newcastle on Tyne, silversmith, (2) 9b.

Cooper's Yard: entrance to, (507) 237a house in, (508) 237a.

Copley, Elizabeth 1776, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Coppergate: 127b128b excavations in, xxxiii, xxxviii, 127b.

Coppinger
-, Arms of, (13) 43a.
-, Katherine 1763, monument, (13) 43a.

Corbel-heads, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous, and Carving, In Stone.

Corbels, 18th-century, (33) 60a.

Cordwainers, location of hall of guild of, xxxv.

Cornices, 16001800, lxxviii.

Cornwall, William, tanner and brewer, house built by, (249) 151b.

Corpus Christi: Mystery plays in celebration of festival of, xxxv location of stations for, 122a, 220b. See also under Christ.

" Vitrearum Committee, identification system used by, liii, Fig. 2, p. liv.

Cortese, Joseph, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Plasterers.

Cossins, John, see Artists and Surveyors.

Coulson, Jane 1785, monument, (20) 50a.

Coulton
-, John, monumental mason, (11) 35a.
-, Rev. Richard 1713, Elizabeth 1731, monument, (11) 35a.

Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, chapel built for, (28) 54a.

Couper, Robert, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Masons.

Court, Thomas 1803, Matthew 1824, Mary 1826, monument, (4) 12a.

Cowles, George, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

Cowling, George 1778, Jane 1790, and children, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Coxen, Matthew, house probably occupied by, (333) 185a.

Crabtree, William, plasterer, (395) 205b.

Craftsmen and Tradesmen. See also Builders and Contractors and Sculptors and Monumental Masons.
-, Bell-founders
-,-, Blakey, Richard: xliii (14) 45b.
-,-, Curedon, William, xliii, xliv.
-,-, Dalton, George: xliii, xliv (9) 24b (13) 41b.
-,-, " Henry, xliii.
-,-, " Robert, xliii.
-,-, Jurdan, Henry, xliii.
-,-, Kirkham, John de, possible coffin lid of, xlvii.
-,-, Oldfield, Henry, senior: xliii (2) 7a.
-,-, " William: xliii, xliv (1) 2b (2) 7a (8) 21a (12) 37b.
-,-, Quarnbie, Robert: xliii (2) 7a.
-,-, Seller, Edward, junior: xliii, xliv (10) 28a (15) 48a.
-,-, " " senior: xliii, xliv (6) 17a (11) 34b.
-,-, " William, xliii.
-,-, Smith, Abraham, xliii.
-,-, " Samuel, junior: xliii, xliv.
-,-, Smith, Samuel, senior: xliii, xliv (4) 11a (5) 14a (9) 24b (11) 34b (13) 41b.
-,-, Tunnoc, Richard, windows given by, xlix.
-, Blacksmith
-,-, Hick, Joseph, messuage acquired by, (502) 236b.
-, Bricklayers
-,-, Burton, George, (45) 100a.
-,-, Clough, Robert, (440) 218b.
-,-, Disney, James, (45) 100a.
-,-, Fentiman, William, (442) 219a.
-,-, Fleming, William, (477) 228a.
-,-, Nelstrop, William, (390) 203a.
-,-, Potter, William, (45) 100a.
-,-, Powell, Richard, and Son, (395) 205b.
-,-, Rusby, James, (277) 163b.
-,-, Snare, Quintin, (45) 100a.
-,-, Swale, Richard, (82) 112a.
-,-, Towell, Samuel, of Cawood, house sold by, (319) 180b.
-,-, Wynn, William, (308) 175b.
-, Carpenters and Joiners
-,-, Bacon, John, (395) 205b.
-,-, Banks, Christopher, (44) 97a.
-,-, Barton, Joseph, (2) 9b.
-,-, Carr, William, (287) 168a.
-,-, Close, Miles, (36) 78a.
-,-, Dam, David and James, (36) 77b.
-,-, Denking, Lancelott, (38) 89a.
-,-, Etty, William: (45) 100a property leased to, (440) 218b.
-,-, Flemyng, Thomas, (12) 36b.
-,-, Foulford, John, (36) 77b.
-,-, Gilbertson, John, (38) 89a.
-,-, Grant, William, (82) 112a.
-,-, Gray, Mr., (14) 44b.
-,-, Halfpenny, William, (277) 163b.
-,-, Headlam, John, (2) 7b.
-,-, Heworth, Robert, house built by, (417) 212b.
-,-, Howgill, John, (45) 100a.
-,-, Lonsdale, Robert: house rebuilt by, (224) 146a property owned by, (223) 145b.
-,-, Mudd, William, property leased to, (440) 218b.
-,-, Norres, Nycholes, (36) 77b.
-,-, Raisin, Matthew, (45) 100a.
-,-, Smith, James, (2) 8a.
-,-, Swan, Francis, lease shared by, (440) 218b.
-,-, Sykes, John, (12) 36b.
-,-, Terry, John: (44) 97a (45) 100a.
-,-, Williamson, Thomas, (12) 36b.
-, Carvers
-,-, Carpenter, Mr., (12) 36b, 40a.
-,-, Dickinson, Bernard, (45) 100a.
-,-, Etty, William, (12) 36b, 38a, Pl. 34, 40a.
-,-, Hall, Nicholas, (1) 4b, Pl. 36.
-,-, Harvey, Daniel, (44) 97a, Pl. 197.
-,-, Milburn, G. C., (1) 2a.
-,-, Mitley, Charles: houses built by, (287) 168a monument 1758, (5) 14b, Pl. 42.
-,-, Perett, Christopher, (36) 78b, 80a, Pl. 197.
-,-, Shillito, Daniel: lxxxi (82) 112a.
-, Carvers and Gilders
-,-, Blaksly, Mr., (45) 100b.
-,-, Staveley, John: lxxxii (45) 102b (460) 222b house owned by, (483) 231a.
-,-, Staveley, William: lxxxii (483) 231b houses built for, (460) 222b.
-,-, Wolstenholme, family: lxxxii (147) 127a (376) 200a.
-,-, " John, (39) 91b, 93b.
-,-, " Thomas: composition ornament by, (124) 121b style of, (77) 111a (480) 231a.
-, Clockmaker
-,-, Newey, G. J. F., (13) 42a.
-, Engravers
-,-, Barker: (4) 11b (10) 28a.
-,-, Consitt, Francis, house built by, (76) 110a.
-,-, Holme, Robart, (6) 17a.
-,-, Mann, Joshua: xlvii (12) 37b (13) 41b (14) 46a.
-, Glass-painters and Glaziers
-,-, Almayn, John, lii.
-,-, Barnett, John Joseph: xlix, lii (13) 42a, b (36) 79b.
-,-, Chambers, John, junior, li.
-,-, Gyles, family, xlix.
-,-, " Henry: xlix, lii (8) 22a (35) 76b (36) 78a, 79b, Pl. 187 (38) 89a, 91a, Pl. 187 (287) 170a, Pl. 187 (488) 234a.
-,-, Harvey, H. W., (36) 78a.
-,-, Hodgson, Thomas: xlix (335) 185b (395) 205b.
-,-, Knowles, J. W.: (4) 11b (10) 28a, b, 29a (14) 44b (35) 76b home and workshop of, (488) 233b.
-,-, Peckitt, William: xlix, lii (36) 78a, 80a (287) 170a, Pl. 187 (488) 234a, Pl. 186.
-,-, Powell, (6) 18b, 19a.
-,-, Thompson, William, lii.
-,-, Thornton, John, style associated with school of, l.
-,-, Wailes, William, (10) 26a.
-, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths
-,-, Adams, Stephen, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, Barber and North: (1) 4a (5) 14b shop designed for, xciii.
-,-, " " Whitwell: (1) 4a (5) 14b.
-,-, " Cattle and North, (44) 99b.
-,-, Bateman, Hester, of London, (1) 4a.
-,-, " Peter and Jonathan, of London, (32) 56b.
-,-, Best, Marmaduke: (6) 19b (9) 25a (13) 43b (44) 99b.
-,-, Busfield, William: (1) 4a (10) 29b.
-,-, Casson, Stanley, (8) 22b.
-,-, Chawner, Henry, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, Cookson, Isaac, of Newcastle on Tyne, (2) 9b.
-,-, Cowles, George, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, FG, (10) 29b.
-,-, Gale, George, carved panels from house of, (344) 189b.
-,-, Grundy, William, of London, (1) 4a.
-,-, Harington or Harrington, Christopher: (44) 98b brass 1614, (10) 28a, Pl. 40.
-,-, Holmes, William, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, IB, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, IH, of London, (14) 46b.
-,-, Kidder, John, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, Kirby, Roland, (1) 4a.
-,-, Lofthouse, Seth, of London: (8) 22b (44) 99b.
-,-, Mangey, Christopher, (5) 14b.
-,-, Mangy, George, (12) 40a.
-,-, N. W. & Co., (14) 46b.
-,-, Oliver, John, (12) 40a.
-,-, Pearson, Peter, (2) 9b.
-,-, Pitts, W., and Preedy, J., of London, (44) 99a.
-,-, Plummer, John, (44) 99b.
-,-, Podie, Peter, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, RC/JB, (14) 46b.
-,-, RG, of London, (32) 56b.
-,-, RI, (10) 29b.
-,-, Thompson, family, property acquired from, (137) 125a.
-,-, " John, (5) 14b.
-,-, TL, of London, (32) 56b.
-,-, Tweedie, Walter, of London, (44) 99b.
-,-, Vedeau, Ayme, (10) 29b.
-,-, WB, of London, (14) 46a.
-,-, WH, (44) 98b.
-,-, WI, of London, (10) 29b.
-, Ironfounders
-,-, Gibson, Joseph, xci.
-,-, " and Walker, (395) 205b.
-,-, Walker, John: xci (32) 55b dwelling-house of, (514) 237b.
-,-, " William, (48) 104a.
-, Masons
-,-, Ampleforth, William of, (33) 60a.
-,-, Barton, John, (36) 77a.
-,-, Bateson, William, (45) 100a.
-,-, Couper, Robert: (10) 25b (36) 77a (51) 104b.
-,-, Ellis, William, (45) 100a.
-,-, Forman, John, (12) 36b.
-,-, Grantham, Hugh, (3) 10a.
-,-, Harbert, Robert, (12) 36b.
-,-, Laycock, Mr., (14) 44b.
-,-, Myers, Jeremiah, (2) 7b.
-,-, Smith, Leonard, (45) 100a.
-,-, Sympcock, James, (12) 36b.
-,-, Taylor, Mr., (323) 181b.
-,-, Thirsk, Henry: (44) 97a (45) 100a.
-, Painters
-,-, Carpenter, Samuel, (45) 102b.
-,-, Hanson, Charles James: (2) 9b (395) 205b.
-,-, Horsley, Mr., (2) 9b.
-,-, Jack, Richard, (44) 98a.
-, Plasterers
-,-, Bagnall, John: lxxxvi (45) 100a.
-,-, Cortese, Joseph: lxxxvii (82) 112a.
-,-, Crabtree, William, (395) 205b.
-,-, Henderson, James: lxxxvii (45) 100b (82) 112a house of, (75) 109b.
-,-, Mansfield, Isaac, lxxxvii.
-,-, Nelthorpe, Richard, (44) 97a.
-,-, Perritt, Thomas, lxxxvii.
-,-, Potter, William, (45) 100a.
-,-, Richardson, Mr., (82) 112a.
-,-, Rose, Joseph, junior and senior, lxxxvii.
-,-, Snare, Quintin, (45) 100a.
-,-, Ward, Matthew, (82) 112a.
-, Plumber
-,-, Allanson, Thomas, (45) 100a.
-, Plumbers and Glaziers
-,-, Crofts, Martin and James, messuage acquired by, (502) 236b.
-,-, Linton, Jeoffrey: xlix (12) 38a.
-, Slater
-,-, Overend, Leonard, (395) 205b.
-, Smiths
-,-, Allanson, George, (45) 100a.
-,-, Beadale, John, (44) 97a.
-,-, Boddy, William, (45) 100a.
-,-, Maugham, John, (12) 36b.
-,-, Silcock, William, (45) 100a.
-,-, Tobin, Maurice: lxxxix (82) 112a.
-, Whitesmiths
-,-, Clark, (33) 58b.
-,-, Theakston, John, lease granted to, (287) 168a.

Crathorne, Robert 1482, brass, (1) 3a.

Creed, Lord's Prayer and Decalogue
-, On Reredoses: (2) 9b (13) 43b, Pl. 37.
-, Tables of: (5) 15a (37) 84b.

Creed Play, performance of, (36) 77b.

Croft
-, Martin 1797, memorial stone, (17) 49b.
-, " 1800, memorial stone, (17) 49b.

Crofts, Martin and James, plumbers and glaziers, messuage acquired by, (502) 236b.

Cromwell House, (296) 172b, Pl. 144.

Crosby
-, Mary 1798, headstone, (15) 49a.
-, Thomas, innholder, public house bought by, (398) 207a.

Crosses
-, Consecration: xliii (2) 7a (10) 28a (12) 37b.
-, Finial, 11th-century, (4) 12a.
-, Latin, 15th-century, (2) 7a, Pl. 29.
-, Lead, 9th-century, (11) 36a.
-, Maltese, 19th-century, (9) 24a.
-, On Bell, 17th-century, (6) 17a.
-, On Coffin Lids, xlvii.
-,-, 12th-century, (10) 28a.
-,-, 13th-century: (1) 3a (2) 7b, Pl. 40 (10) 28a (11) 34b.
-,-, 13th or 14th-century, (5) 14a.
-,-, 14th-century: (2) 7b (10) 28a (22) 51a.
-, On Grave-slabs
-,-, Pre-Conquest: xxxvii, xxxviii (11) 34a.
-,-, 14th-century, (6) 19b.
-, Standing
-,-, Pre-Conquest (fragments): xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxviii (11) 34a, Pls. 22, 23 (40) 95b, Pl. 21 (289) 170b, Pl. 23.
-,-, Tau, 15th-century, (glass), (6) 17b.
-,-, See also Market Crosses.

Cross Keys Tavern, chapel used as, xxxix.

Crossland, Lieut. John 1813, monument, (12) 39b.

Crucifixion, see under Christ.

Cuckold's Corner, 203b.

Cumberland, Duke of: house occupied by, (249) 151b row of houses named in honour of, (287) 168a.

" House, (249) 151b, Fig. 91, Pl. 138.

" Row: (287) 167b, Fig. 105, Pl. 4 street formerly known as, 167b.

" Street: xxxiv 128b129a.

Cundell, Robert, churchwarden, (1) 4b.

Cupboards, see Furniture.

Cupid, representation of (glass), (8) 22a.

Cups, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Curedon, William, bell-founder and brazier, xliii, xliv.

Currer
-, Rev. Danson Richardson, church plate given by, (12) 40a.
-, D.R. 1837, Henry George 1837, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Henry George 1837, monument, (12) 40a.
-, John Richardson 1840, monument, (12) 39b.

Curtoys, Ann 1805, brass, (11) 34b.

Cussons, Richard, churchwarden, (1) 4b.

Cutler, arms of, impaled by Herbert, (4) 11b.

Cutt-a-Feather Inn, house on site of, (396) 206b.

Dallin
-, Rev. James 1838, monument, (2) 9a.
-, " " 1838, Elizabeth 1864, monument, (2) 9a.

Dalton
-, George, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bell-founders.
-, Henry, brazier and bell-founder, xliii.
-, Robert, brazier and bell-founder, xliii.
-, Thomas 1806, Phebe, Cordelia Bulmer 1828, floor-slab, (11) 35b.

Dam, David and James, carpenters, (36) 77b.

Danby
-, Thomas 1458, Matilda 1463, brass, (2) 7b, Pl. 40.
-, William, house occupied by, (82) 112a.

Daniel, William 183., floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Danish
-, Conquest, destruction caused by, 180b.
-, Kings, reference to pre-Conquest palace of, 149b.

Darby(?), Alice 1746, and others, floor-slab, (13) 43a.

Darcy
-, Arms of: (hatchment), (5) 14b impaled by Harrison, (4) 11b.
-, Sir Arthur, site granted to, (40) 94a.

Darley family, of Aldby and Buttercrambe, site of house of, (137) 125a.

Darnley, arms of: (10) 29b impaled by Sheffield, (10) 29b.

Darvall, Roger 1813, monument, (12) 39a.

Darwin, William, verger, house leased to, (274) 161b.

Date-stone, 18th-century, (60) 105b.

David and Saul, representation of (glass), (8) 21b.

Davidson, George 1779(?), Elizabeth 1774, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Davies
-, Richard . . . ., Ann 1758, Eleanor 1759(?), floor-slab, (13) 43a.
-, Robert, town clerk and antiquary: xcii house built for, (395) 205b.

Davis, R., churchwarden, (13) 41b.

Davyes, Barbara 1765, Elizabeth 1767, brass, (8) 21a.

Davygate, 129a.

Davy Hall, prison and liberty, site of: (20) 49b 129a (287) 167b.

" Tower, summer-house built in angle of, (499) 235b.

Dawnay
-, Arms of, (12) 37b.
-, Thomas 1683, brass, (12) 37b.

Dean and Chapter
-, Ashlar blocks sold by, (36) 77a.
-, Church in hands of, (12) 36a.
-, House sold to, (277) 163b.
-, Houses built for: (279) 165a (323) 181b (339) 187a (340) 187a.
-, Property owned by: (35) 71a (273) 161b.
-, School built for, (49) 104a.

Dean Court Hotel, part of house absorbed into, (333) 185a.

Deanery Gardens, park formerly known as, 129a.

Dean's Park, 129a, b.

Decalogue, see Creed, Lord's Prayer and Decalogue.

Dedications
-, All Saints, (1) 1a.
-, Holy Trinity, (2) 5a.
-, " " The Blessed Virgin and St. Katherine, (33) 58a.
-, St. Andrew, (3) 10a.
-, St. Anne, (15) 46b.
-, St. Anthony, (39) 91a.
-, St. Catherine, (6) 15b.
-, St. Crux, (4) 11a.
-, St. Cuthbert, (5) 12a.
-, St. Denys, (6) 15a.
-, St. George, (7) 20a.
-, St. Helen, (8) 20a.
-, St. James: (2) 5b (6) 15b (15) 46b.
-, St. John the Baptist, (6) 15b.
-, " " " " and St. John the Evangelist, (11) 30b.
-, " " " Evangelist, (15) 46b.
-, St. Katherine, (10) 25b.
-, St. Laurence, Lawrence: (10) 25b (15) 46b.
-, St. Leonard, (40) 93b.
-, St. Margaret, (9) 22b.
-, St. Martin, (10) 25a.
-, St. Mary: (10) 25b (11) 30a.
-, St. Michael: (12) 36a (13) 40b.
-, " " or St. Nicholas, (6) 15b.
-, St. Nicholas: (9) 23a (10) 25b (14) 44a (15) 46b.
-, St. Peter, (10) 25b.
-, St. Sampson, (14) 44a.
-, St. Saviour, (15) 46b.
-, St. Thomas the Martyr: (10) 25b (15) 46b.
-, St. William, (34) 62a.
-, Virgin Mary: (6) 15b (15) 46b (22) 50b.

Dedication Stone, pre-Conquest, (11) 33b, Pl. 21.

De Grey House, (394) 204b, Fig. 127, Pl. 100.

" " Rooms, (48) 103a, Fig. 58, Pl. 100.

Demaine, James, see Architects.

" and Brierley, see Architects.

Denking, Lancelott, carpenter, (38) 89a.

Dennis, Richard [1678], floor-slab, (2) 9b.

Desks, see Furniture.

De Vere, arms of, (2) 9a.

Dickinson, Bernard, carver, (45) 100a.

Disney, James, bricklayer, (45) 100a.

Dixon
-, James and Sons, name inscribed on pewter salver, (9) 25a.
-, Leonard, of Castleford, 1780, floor-slab, (6) 19b.

Dixon's Yard, carriageway leading to, (513) 237b.

Dobson
-, Arms of, impaled by Thompson, (11) 35b.
-, D. 1758, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, John James 1763, and family, monument, (15) 48b.

Dodsworth, Roger, antiquary: brass recorded by, (11) 30b glass identified by, li monuments recorded by, xlvi, (9) 24b.

Dome, glazed, 18th-century, (334) 185b.

Domesday Book, churches mentioned in: (1) 1a (4) 11a (5) 12b (11) 30a.

Dominican Friary, site of, xxxiv.

Doncaster, Thomas, property leased by, (476) 228a.

Donne, John, inscription on pewter patens, (6) 19b.

Donors, representations of (glass): li, lii (2) 8a, 9a (6) 18a, b (8) 21b (10) 28a, b (12) 38a, b (13) 42b.

Doorcase, 17th-century, (136) 125a.

Door Furniture
-, Brass, 18th-century, (89) 115a.
-, Iron, 15th-century, (38) 90b.
-, See also Closing-ring and Hinges.

Doors and Doorways
-, In Churches and Chapel
-,-, 12th-century, (6) 16b, Pl. 26.
-,-, 13th-century: (10) 26b (33) 59b.
-,-, 14th-century: (10) 26b (11) 32b (33) 59b.
-,-, 15th-century: (4) 11b, Pl. 158 (5) 14a, Pl. 26 (9) 23b (13) 42a (14) 46a, Pl. 26.
-,-, 17th-century: (1) 3a (4) 11b (10) 26b.
-,-, 18th-century: (2) 8a (6) 17b (13) 42a, Pl. 36 (14) 46a.
-,-, 19th-century: (2) 8a (33) 60a.
-,-, See also Porches, Of Churches.
-, In Other Buildings
-,-, External Mediaeval, lxxiii. 13th-century, (40) 94b. 14th-century, (37) 83a, Pl. 71. 15th-century: (34) 63a, Pl. 158, 63b, 64a (36) 79a, Fig. 47, Pl. 158 (38) 90b, Pl. 158 (bracket), (174) 134a (424) 215a (434) 217a (437) 218b, Pl. 200 (485) 232a, Pl. 200. 16th-century: (317) 179a (330) 184a. 16001800, lxxviii. 17th-century: (34) 64a, Pl. 77 (35) 71a, Pl. 83 (37) 87b, Pl. 71 (136) 125a (471) 226a. c. 1700, (296) 172b, Pl. 159. 18th-century: (35) 76a (61) 106a, Pl. 159 (77) 110b (89) 115a (156) 130b (249) 151b, Pl. 159 (250) 152b, Pl. 113 (275) 162b, Pl. 160 (277) 163b (319) 180b (330) 184a (334) 185a, Pl. 160 (340) 187a, Pl. 160 (341) 187b (369) 197b (375) 199b (383) 202a, Pl. 161 (397) 206b (407) 208b, Pl. 160 (411) 210b, Pl. 159 (483) 213b. 19th-century: xcv (83) 113b (133) 123b (205) 141a, Pl. 161 (287) 168a (301) 174a, Pl. 161 (327) 183a (398) 207a (410) 210a, Pl. 161 (415) 211b (498) 235b.
-,-, Internal 15th-century: (36) 79a, Fig, 47, Pl. 162 (413) 211a. 16th-century, (70) 108a. 16001800, lxxxi, Fig. 9, p. lxxxiii. 17th-century: (36) 80a, Pl. 162 (130) 122b (174) 134a, Pl. 162 (317) 179b (368) 197a (483) 231b (487) 232b. c. 1700: (34) 65a (121) 120b, Fig. 9a, b (284) 167a. 18th-century: (35) 75a, 76b, Pls. 85, 163 (36) 79a, Pl. 162 (38) 90a, b (44) 98a (45) 102b, Pl. 99 (72) 109a (82) 113a, Pl. 107 (89) 115a, b, Pl. 111 (117) 119b, Fig. 9k (147) 127a (249) 152a (254) 156a, Pl. 163 (275) 162b, Pl. 162 (277) 164a (287) 168b, Fig. 9i, j, Pl. 163 (375) 199b (407) 208b, Fig. 9c, d (409) 209b, Fig. 9e-h (410) 210a (417) 212b (474) 227a (483) 231b, Pl. 163 (492) 235a. 19th-century: (37) 86b (90) 115b (154) 129b, Pl. 163 (391) 203b.

Dorothy Wilson's Hospital, (42) 96b, Fig. 54, Pl. 153.

Dossie, William 1808, monument, (12) 39b.

Doughty, M. Lovell 1748, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Dovecot, 17th-century, (480) 230a.

Drainage System, 18th-century, (319) 181a.

Drake
-, Arms of, (12) 39b.
-, Elizabeth Dalton 1746, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Francis, antiquary: (3) 10a (6) 15b (8) 21b (9) 23a (11) 30a (35) 70a (37) 83a (44) 97a 105b (250) 152b 180b 207b (411) 210b.
-, Nathan 1778, Mary 1825, and children, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Drapers' Company, arms of, (38) 90a.

Driffield
-, Robert 1772, floor-slab, (32) 56b.
-, " 1816, Mary 1806, and children, monument, (32) 56b.

Drinking Fountain, early, location of, 160b.

Duckett, John 1833, Mary 1797, Grace 1816, James 1820, Hannah 1847, headstone, (6) 19b.

Duckworth, Mary 1819, monument, (32) 56b.

Dugdale, Sir William, glass recorded by, (6) 17b.

Duke Gill Hall, location of former, 150b.

" of York, house formerly known as, (527) 239b.

Duncombe, Dean A. W., street renamed after, 129b.

" Place: 129b-131b boundary mark in, (55) 105a former gateway in, (40) 94a.

Dunning, John, warden of hospital, (38) 91a.

Durham, Prior of, church in possession of, (1) 1a.

Dutch Glass, 15th and 16th-century, (8) 21b.

" House, The, (297) 172b, Pl. 185.

Dykes, W. H., architect, (8) 20b.

Ealand, Richard, house leased to, (323) 181b.

Eaves Gutters, 19th-century, xcv.

Ebenezer Methodist Church, Bailiffe Bridge, pulpit now at, (11) 35b.

" Primitive Methodist Chapel, former, (26) 52a, Fig. 30, Pl. 66.

Eboracum Lodge of Freemasons, hall bought by, (405) 208a.

Ebor Brewery, site of, 105b.

" Buildings, former, (33) 58a.

" Tavern, part of house occupied by, (61) 106a.

Ebrauk, statue of, 117b.

Edgar, George Henry Lennox 1815, George Donald McKay 1820, monument, (5) 14b.

Edward, I, II, III, friary used as residence by, xli.

" IV, stone granted by, (34) 62a.

" VI, property granted by: (33) 57b (35) 69a.

Effigies, monumental, liv.
-, 14th-century, (22) 51a.
-, 17th-century, (4) 11b, Pl. 41.
-, 18th-century, (12) 39b, Pl. 44.

Efrard, Grim and Aese, inscription recording building of church by, (11) 30a, 33b.

Egerton, arms of, (4) 11b.

Egremond, William de, representation of (glass), li.

Egyptian Hall, design of room based on, (45) 101a, Pl. 98.

Elcock
-, Francis 1686, memorial stone, (17) 49b.
-, Richard, house inherited by, (156) 130b.

Electric Theatre, carved stones found in digging foundations of, (22) 51b.

Elim Tabernacle, 235a.

Elizabeth I, Queen, arms of, (44) 98b.

Ellerbek, Thomas, vicar, contract for supply of stone arranged by, (10) 25b.

Ellis
-, Thomas, senior, warden of hospital, (38) 91a.
-, William, mason, (45) 100a.

Ellison, Robert 1778, headstone, (6) 19b.

Ellwood, inscription on pewter paten, (6) 19b.

Elsley, C. H., director of gas company and Recorder of York: xciv house occupied by, (395) 205a.

Elwald, John and Agnes, Robert and Ellen, inscription to (glass), (12) 38b.

Elyott
-, Arms of, (2) 9b.
-, Lyonel 1689, floor-slab, (2) 9b.

Embroidery, 18th-century (fragments of), (2) 9b.

Emperor Sigismund's Sword, (44) 98a, Pl. 64.

Engine Houses, former: for fire engine, (288) 170a for water-pumping engine, (283) 166b.

England, arms of: (2) 7a, 9a (5) 14a (10) 29a, b.

Engravers, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Erghes, Richard, parson, (9) 22b.

Eskritt, Mary, property possibly sold to, (353) 193a.

Etherington, John, warden of hospital, (38) 91a.

Etridge's Royal Hotel: hotel formerly part of, (284) 167a location of, 166a.

Etty
-, John 1779, Matthew 1818, Esther 1829, monument, (1) 4a.
-, Lewis, rector, (13) 41b.
-, William: see Architects Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carpenters and Joiners Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers.

Evangelists: representations of (carved wood), (1) 3b, Pl. 38 symbols of, (13) 43b.

Ewbank, George, junior and senior, property of: (80) 111b (81) 111b.

Ewer and Dish, silver, 17th-century, (44) 99b.

Excavations: xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxviii, xxxix, xl (6) 17a (11) 33a (14) 44a (22) 51a (33) 60b (40) 94a 105b (105) 117b 127b 135b 148b (309) 176a 180b 220b (469) 225a.

Eyre
-, . . . ence 1746, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, John, land rented by, (311) 176b.

Eyre's Coach-house, fire service operated from, (388) 202b.

FG, silversmith, (10) 29b.

Fairfax
-, Charles, Viscount, of Emley, residence built for, (82) 112a.
-, Lord, property sold to, (35) 70a.

Fairfax House, (82) 112a, Fig. 65, Pls. 101108.

Faith, representations of: (stone), (4) 12a, Pl. 41 (silver), (44) 98b.

Fame, representations of: (silver), (44) 99a, Pl. 64 see also Mercy and Fame.

Farington, J., view by, (247) 151a.

Farrer
-, Frances 1680/1, brass, (12) 37b.
-, Richard 1780, Margaret 1764, monument, (12) 39b.

Farrow, see Ferrer.

Far Water Lane, street formerly known as, 134b.

Fawkes, arms of, impaled by Vavasour, (12) 39a.

Feasegate, 131b132a.

Featherstone, Mary 1835, floor-slab, (9) 25a.

Fences, wattle, discovery of, xxxiv.

Fentiman, William, bricklayer, house built by, (442) 219a.

Fenton
-, Prebend of: Former prebendal house of: (377) 200a location of gatehouse of, (321) 181a. Property of: (320) 181a (321) 181a.
-, Richard, houses built for, (68) 107a.

Fenton House, (377) 200a, Fig. 125, Pl. 8.

Ferrer or Farrow, Thomas, Prior of Hexham, lease of house granted by, (34) 62a.

Festival Concert Room, building formerly known as, (46) 102b.

Finch, Rev. Edward, Canon Residentiary of York Minster: property bought by, (35) 70a alterations by, (35) 70b.

Finclegayle, street first mentioned as, 132a.

Finial Cross, 11th-century, (4) 12a.

Finkle Street: 132a lane formerly known as, 166a.

Fireplaces and Overmantels, lxxiii, lxxxi, xcv.
-, 15th-century, (420) 213b.
-, 16th-century: (34) 65a (35) 75b (37) 84a, 88a (480) 229b.
-, c. 1600: (276) 163a (346) 192a, Pl. 174 (465) 223a.
-, 17th-century: (34) 67b (35) 74a, 75a, b, Pl. 174 (189) 136b (240) 149b (271) 161a (311) 177a, Pl. 175 (317) 179b, 180a (329) 183b (343) 189a (422) 214a (424) 215a (478) 228b (480) 230b, Pl. 175 (483) 231b (485) 232a (488) 234a (528) 240a.
-, c. 1700: (70) 108b (421) 213b (452) 221a (468) 225a.
-, 18th-century: (34) 65a, b (35) 74a, 75a, b, 76b, Pls. 8587 (37) 87a, Pl. 174 (38) 90a (44) 98a, Pl. 179 (45) 101b, 102a, Pl. 99 (61) 106a (72) 109a (77) 111a, Pl. 179 (82) 112b, 113a (89) 115a, b, Pl. 111 (91) 116b (117) 120a, Pl. 177 (133) 123b (147) 127a (156) 131b, Pl. 178 (199) 140b (232) 147b, Pl. 178 (249) 152a, Pls. 171, 178 (270) 160a (275) 162b, Pl. 179 (277) 163b, 164a, Pl. 176 (278) 164b (287) 168b, 170a, Pls. 176, 180 (312) 178a, Pl. 178 (330) 184b (340) 187b (376) 200a (378) 201a, Pl. 180 (407) 208b (418) 213a (419) 213b (472) 226b, Pl. 179 (483) 231b, Pl. 180 (492) 234b, Pl. 180 (499) 236a (516) 238a, Pl. 177.
-, c. 1800: (147) 127a, Pl. 179 (195) 140a.
-, 19th-century: (35) 76b, Pl. 179 (239) 148b (270) 160b (278) 164b, Pl. 180 (395) 206a (cast-iron surround), (459) 222b (467) 224a (480) 231a.

Fire Station, former, 19th-century, (388) 202b.

First Water Lane, street formerly known as, xxxiv, 149b.

Fisher
-, Ann 1827, William 1834, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, C., architect, house used as office by, (84) 113b.
-, Charles, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.
-, Family, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.
-, Frances 1839, headstone, (2) 9a.
-, John, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Fisher and Hepper, see Architects.

Fish Landing, location of former, 220a.

" Market, bridge used as, (50) 104b.

Fish-pond, of Foss, street built on ground originally covered by, 199a.

Fitzhugh(?), arms of, (8) 21b.

Five Lions, (505) 237a.

" Wounds, shield painted with (glass), (12) 38a.

Flagons, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Fleming, William, bricklayer, (477) 228a.

Flemish Bell, (4) 11a.

Flemyng, Thomas, joiner, (12) 36b.

Fletcher, Benjamin 1834, Mary 1829, Ann 1829, monument, (11) 35a.

Flintoft, J., see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Flood Bank, pre-Conquest, site of, 149a.

Floors
-, Brick, (319) 180b.
-, Inlaid Wood, (61) 106a.
-, Lime-ash: (122) 121a (123) 121a (134) 124a (165) 132b (177) 134b (247) 151b (254) 156a (307) 174b (479) 229a.
-, Mosaic, Roman, 105b.
-, Paved: (8) 22b (44) 98a (61) 106a.
-, Stone-flagged: (45) 101b (69) 107b (249) 152a (277) 163b (325) 182b.
-, Timber, lxv.

Floor-slabs, see Monuments, funeral.

Floor-tiles, 12th-century, (1) 5a, Fig. 13, p. 4b.

Folcard, Flemish monk, biography by, (12) 36a.

Font-covers, xlviii.
-, c. 1700, (33) 60a.
-, 18th-century: (2) 8a (10) 28a, Pl. 36.
-, 19th-century, (11) 34b.

Fonts
-, Mediaeval, (bowl), (10) 28a.
-, 12th-century, on 13th-century bases, (8) 21a, Pl. 38.
-, 15th-century: (4) 11b (6) 17b.
-, 17th-century, (11) 34b.
-, 18th-century: (2) 8a (5) 14a.
-, 19th-century, (5) 14a.

Footless Lane, street first recorded as, 166a.

Fordham Hotel, property formerly known as, (354) 193b.

Forman, John, master mason, (12) 36b.

Fortitude, representation of (silver), (44) 98b.

Fortress, Roman, see under Roman.

Foss
-, Fish-pond of: formation of, xxxiii street built on ground covered by, 199a.
-, River, quay of friary on, xli.

Foss Bridge, (50) 104b, Pl. 116.

Fossgate: xxxiii, 132a134b old view of, Pl. 3 stone coffin and lid found in, (22) 51a.

Foss Navigation, street given name from, 167a.

Foster
-, James Lancelot, inscription recording part taken in restoration of church by, (15) 48b.
-, Jos. 1709, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, Mary 1810, Robert 1845, and children, monument, (15) 48b.

Fothergill
-, Marmaduke, property of: (410) 210a (411) 210b.
-, Thomas, house of, (411) 210b.
-, Sir Thomas 1735, monument, (12) 39b.

Foulford, John, carpenter, (36) 77b.

Foundations, wooden pile, discovery of, xxxiv.

Fountayne
-, Mrs. E., house leased to, (280) 165a.
-, Dean John: crest of, (280) 165b, (340) 187a houses built by, (274) 161b, (280) 165a.

Fowler
-, C. Hodgson, see Architects.
-, Elizabeth 1804, Mary 1806, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Family 17801816, floor-slab, (13) 43a.
-, George 1802, Martha 1807, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Fox
-, George, of Bramham Park, college owned by, (34) 63a.
-, James, college leased by, (34) 63a.

Fox Inn, The, former, (346) 191a, Fig. 119.

France, arms of, (5) 14a.

Franciscan Friary, see Religious Foundations.

Fraser, Susanna 1812, Daniel 1832, monument, (8) 22a.

French Protestants, chapel used by, (37) 82b.

Friargate: xxxiv 134b.

Friaries: xxxiv, xli see also Religious Foundations.

Friars of the Sack, see Religious Foundations, Friaries.

" Terrace, (498) 235b.

Friends' Meeting House: (27) 52b, Fig. 31, Pl. 67 finds from, (11) 36a.

Frobisher, Nathaniel 1800, and infant son, monument, (1) 4a.

Fryer
-, James 1806, Margaret 1793, James 1816, Margaret 1776, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, " Robert 1840, and family: floor-slabs, (2) 9b monument, (2) 9a.

Fulford Road, theatre arcade removed to, (47) 103a.

Furniture
-, Chairs
-,-, 17th-century: (1) 3a, Pl. 38 (13) 42a, Pl. 38 (32) 56b.
-, Chests, xlvii.
-,-, 13th-century, (37) 88a, Pl. 35.
-,-, 16th-century: (6) 17b (37) 88a.
-,-, 17th-century: (1) 5a (13) 42a, Pl. 35.
-, Cupboards
-,-, 12th-century, (469) 225a.
-,-, 18th-century: (34) 65a (37) 87a (287) 168b (312) 178a.
-,-, 19th-century: (37) 86b (45) 102a (428) 216a.
-, Desks
-,-, 17th-century, (37) 84b.
-,-, 18th-century, (37) 87a.
-, Tables
-,-, 17th-century: (11) 36a (13) 43b.

Fysh, inescutcheon for, (13) 43a.

Gables, lx, lxi, lxxix.
-, Curved, Dutch or Shaped: (35) 71b, 74a, 75b, Pl. 88 (85) 114a, Pl. 136 (90) 115b (122) 121a (156) 131b (164) 132b, Pl. 136 (200) 141a, Pl. 136 (254) 156a (275) 162b (297) 173a (335) 185b, Pl. 136 (369) 197b.
-, Tumbled: (156) 131b (208) 141b (296) 172b (297) 173a (353) 193b (478) 228b (480) 230a (484) 232a (537) 241b.

Gail Garth, area known as, 156a.

Gale
-, Arms of, (344) 189b.
-, George, goldsmith, carved panels from house of, (344) 189b.

Galleries
-, In Churches, xlviii.
-,-, 18th-century, (12) 38a.
-,-, 19th-century: (6) 17b (choir), (7) 20a.
-, In Nonconformist Chapels
-,-, 19th-century: (24) 52a (26) 52b (27) 54a, Pl. 67 (28) 54a (30) 54b (31) 54b, Pl. 67.
-, In Secular Buildings
-,-, 18th-century: (38) 90a (musicians'), (44) 98a.

Garbutt, William, addition to house probably by, (61) 106a.

Gardeners' Arms, house formerly known as, (218) 143b.

Garderobe Shaft, 12th-century, discovery of base of, (469) 225a.

Garencieres
-, Theophilus, house built by, (458) 222a.
-, " Davye 1803, Prudence Elizabeth 1801, John Wade 1787, Theophilus 1797, monument, (8) 22a.

Gargoyle, probably 15th-century, (8) 22b.

Garland, Richard, house probably of, (208) 141b.

Garrick Coffee House, property formerly known as, (353) 193a.

Garrick's Head, The, property formerly known as, (353) 193a.

Garton, Thomas, chantry priest, bequest by, (34) 62a.

Gas, lighting by, see Lighting.

Gatehouses
-, Roman, xxxiii.
-, c. 1600, (215) 143a.
-, 17th-century, (37) 88a.

Gate-piers, 17th-century, (62) 106b.

Gates, iron, (32) 55b.

Gayle, George, church granted to, 105b.

Gee, Margaret 1818, floor-slab, (14) 46a.

Gent, Charles and Alice 1723, Adeliza 1761, monument, (12) 39a, b.

George III, arms of, (8) 22b, Pl. 32.

" IV, arms of, (13) 42a.

" Inn: former archway from courtyard of, (52) 104b surviving architectural details of, (142) 126a.

" Street, 134b135a.

Gibbs, James, design popularised by, lxxviii.

Gibson
-, Joseph, ironfounder, xci.
-, William, gardener, house sold to, (319) 180b.

Gibson and Walker, ironfounders, (395) 205b.

Gilbertson, John, carpenter, (38) 89a.

Gillow, Robert, vicar, bequest by, (33) 58b.

Girdlergate, part of street formed from widening of, 117a.

Glass, xlviii, Pls. 4563, 186, 187.
-, Mediaeval: (fragments), (14) 46a (38) 91a.
-, 13th-century, (6) 18b, Pl. 55.
-, 14th-century: (1) 3a, b, Pls. 48, 50, 55, 56 (2) 8a, b, 9a (6) 17b, 18a, b, Pls. 50, 60 (8) 21a, b (10) 29a (11) 34b, 35a (12) 38a, b, Pls. 49, 56 (13) 42b.
-, 15th-century: (1) 3b (2) 8a, b, 9a, Pls. 45, 46, 5559 (5) 14a (6) 17b, 18b, 19a, Pls. 47, 55 (8) 21b, 22a (10) 28a, b, 29a, b, Pls. 46, 51, 54, 56, 61 (11) 34b, 35a (12) 38a, b (13) 42a, b, Frontispiece, Pls. 52, 53, 62.
-, c. 1500, (8) 22a.
-, 16th-century: (8) 21b, 22a (12) 38a, b, 39a, Pls. 49, 63.
-, 17th-century: (8) 22a (14) 46a (35) 76b.
-, c. 1700: (8) 21b (36) 79b, Pl. 187 (38) 91a, Pl. 187.
-, 18th-century: (2) 8a (8) 21b (12) 38b (35) 76b (36) 80a (38) 91a, Pl. 186 (287) 170a, Pl. 187 (488) 234a, Pl. 186.
-, c. 1800, (12) 38b.
-, 19th-century: (4) 11b (6) 18a, b, 19a (10) 28a, b, 29a, b (13) 42a, b (35) 76b (36) 79b (335) 185b (492) 235a.

Glass-painters: xlix, l, li, lii evidence for location of trade of, 220b see also Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glass-painters and Glaziers.

Glaziers: lii see also Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glass-painters and Glaziers and Plumbers and Glaziers.

Glaziers' Company, arms of, (8) 22a.

Glazing: early, lxxv plate, 19th-century, (472) 226b.

Glover Lane, former, 180b.

God the Father, representations of: Glass: (1) 3a (2) 8a, Pl. 46 (10) 29a, Pl. 46 (13) 42b. Stone, (8) 20b, Pl. 30.

Gold, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Golden Fleece Hotel, The, (313) 178a.

" Hart, hotel formerly known as, (313) 178b.

" Lion: Inn formerly known as, (142) 126a. Public house, former: (398) 207a house formerly part of, (399) 207a.

" Slipper, (211) 142b.

Goldie, G., see Architects.

Golding, Thomas, college buildings and close granted to, (33) 57b.

Goldsmiths: street inhabited by, 220b see also Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

Goldsmiths' Company, arms of: (8) 21b (10) 28a, Pl. 40 (12) 38b.

Goodell, Thomas, peruke-maker, house bought by, (502) 237a.

Goodlad, Joseph 1811, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Goodramgate: xxxiii, 135a146a, Pl. 6 licence granted for bridge across, (33) 57a vicars maintained by rents from properties in, (33) 57a.

Goodricke, John, astronomer, house occupied by, (254) 155b.

Gothic Style: xciv (5) 12b (47) 103a (153) 129b (279) 165a, Pl. 195 (287) 168b, Pl. 180 (378) 201a, Pl. 148.

Gould, Rawlins, see Architects.

Government School of Design, school known as, (49) 104a.

Graa
-, Arms of, (11) 34b, Pl. 29.
-, Thomas, will of, (11) 30b.
-, William, chantry founded by, (11) 30b.
-, " and Joan: figure brass, xlvi probable tomb-chest of, (11) 35a.

Graa Chantry, (11) 30a, b.

Graham
-, Frances 1721, monument, (2) 9a.
-, Rev. John 1844, monument, (15) 48b.
-, Richard, flagon given by, (2) 9b.
-, " 1746, Cordelia 1763, floor-slab, (2) 9b.

Grammer
-, Arms of, (12) 39a.
-, Mary 1738, monument, (12) 39a.

Grant, William, joiner and carpenter, (82) 112a.

Grantham
-, Annais de, coffin lid with inscription to, (8) 21a.
-, Hugh, mason, (3) 10a.

Grapcunt Lane, lane formerly known as, 146b.

Grape Lane, 146b147a.

" " Chapel, (28) 54a.

Grapes Inn, public house formerly known as, (368) 196b.

Grates
-, 18th-century: (375) 199b (383) 202a (424) 215a.
-, 19th-century: (34) Fig. 41, p. 68b (37) 87a (90) 115b (115) 119a (250) 155a (326) 182b (428) 216a (430) 216b.
-, See also Carron.

Gratrix, Mary 1790, brass, (1) 2b.

Graves, Matthew 1771, sons Matthew 1772 and William 1773, headstone, (6) 19b.

Gravestones, see Monuments, funeral.

Graveyard: site of former, 162a see also Burial Grounds and Churchyards.

Gray
-, Mrs. E., plan by, (35) 71a.
-, Edwin, improvements commissioned by, (35) 71a.
-, Family, property bought by, (35) 70b.
-, Mr., joiner, (14) 44b.
-, Thomas, Master of St. Christopher's Guild, canvas stained and painted at expense of, (36) 77b.
-, William, alterations by, (35) 70b.

Gray's Court: xxxiii (35) 69a, 75a, Figs. 43, 44, Pl. 1.

Grayson, Rev. Isaac 1831, Mary 1831, brass, (11) 34b.

Great Bedern, (33) 57b.

" Flesh Shambles, street formerly known as, 212b.

Grecian Steps, steps known as, 151a.

Green
-, Mrs. Alice, tablet recording benefaction by, (14) 46a.
-, Amos 1807, monument, (11) 35a.
-, Arms of, (35) 71b.
-, Frank, of Nunthorpe Hall: fittings bought by, (35) 75a property bought by, (34) 63a, (35) 71a.
-, Martha 1723, floor-slab, (14) 46a.

Greenbury, Joshua, churchwarden, (6) 17a.

Greggs, Edward 1795, monument, (20) 50a.

Gregory, John 1792, Catherine 1823, and children, headstone, (1) 4a.

Greig, J., engraving by, (35) 71a.

Grews, William 1770, Jane 1790, monument, (13) 43a.

Grey
-, Archbishop Walter de, confirmation of statutes by, (33) 58a.
-, Earl de, impetus for erection of building given by, (48) 103a.

Grey Friars, river wall of, xxxv.

Grundy, William, of London, silversmith, (1) 4a.

Grunwell, William 1793, Ann 1794, monument, (20) 50a.

Guildhall, (36) 76b, Figs. 4648, Pls. 68, 69.

Guilds
-, Halls of: xxxv, lviii (36) 76b (37) 82a (38) 88b (39) 91a 156a 236b.
-, Mediaeval hospitals associated with, lvii.

Gutter, lead, 18th-century, (277) 163b.

Gylby, Rev. Thomas 1761, memorial stone, (17) 49b.

Gyles
-, Family, glass-painters and glaziers, xlix.
-, Henry, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glass-painters and Glaziers.

Gyliot, John and Joanna, monument, xlvi.

H. E. O., churchwarden, (5) 14a.

Haberdashers' Company, arms of, (4) 11b.

" Hall: xxxv 236b, Pl. 3.

Haddock, Capt. P. (1722?), floor-slab, (5) 14b.

Haden, William 1788, Thomas 1792, William 1800, headstone, (11) 35a.

Halfpenny
-, Joseph, see Artists and Surveyors.
-, William, joiner, (277) 163b.

Hall
-, George, tenement of, (311) 176b.
-, Jeremiah 1751, headstone, (14) 46a.
-, Nicholas, carver, (1) 4b, Pl. 36.
-, Robert, properties owned by, (349) 192b.

Halls, lx, lxi.
-, In Mediaeval Colleges: (33) 57b, 60a (34) 65b, 66a, 68b.
-, In Timber-framed Houses: (194) 138b (346) 191a, b, 192a (436) 217b (485) 232a (530) 240a (537) 241a, b.
-, See also Guilds, halls of.

Hamerton
-, Alan 1405, and Isabella, floor-slab, (13) 43a.
-, Arms of, (13) 43b.

Hammond, Misses Dinah and Grace, property acquired from, (89) 114b.

Hancock, William 1485, and Ellen, brass, (13) 41b.

Hands(?), Thomas, floor-slab, (14) 46a.

Hanging Bowls, bronze, 7th-century, (11) 36a.

Hanslap, Henry, Canon of Windsor, sword given by, (44) 98b.

Hansom, Charles Francis and Joseph Aloysius, see Architects.

Hansom Cab, The, (269) 158a.

Hanson, Charles James, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Painters.

Harbert, Robert, mason, (12) 36b.

Hardy
-, Christopher, churchwarden, (6) 17a.
-, Elizabeth 1690, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Hargrove, W., antiquary: (34) 63a (44) 97a (282) 166b.

Hargrove's Library, office used for, (141) 126a.

Harington or Harrington, Christopher, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

Harper, John, see Architects.

Harrison
-, Arms of: (4) 11b impaled by Herbert, (4) 11b.
-, James 1781, Mary 1810, Ann 1766, Elizabeth Joy 1767, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, John 1729, monument, (13) 43a.
-, Robert 1822, Ann 1823, monument, (12) 39a.
-, William 1799, Dorothy 1786, and others: floor-slab and monument, (13) 43a.

Hartley
-, Robert 1803, Jane 1808, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Thomas, alderman, brewer, house built by, (397) 206b.
-, " 1808, Jane 1833, monument, (8) 22a.

Harvey
-, Daniel, carver, (44) 97a, Pl. 197.
-, H. W., glass-painter, (36) 78a.
-, John, roof recorded by, (36) 77b, 79b.

Hastings, arms of, (12) 38a.

Hatchments: (4) 11b (5) 14a, b.

Hathelsaye, John de, foundation of chantry by, (15) 46b.

Hatter Lane, street formerly known as: xxxiv 149b.

Havergate, lane formerly known as, 147a.

Haver Lane, 147a.

Hawarden Place, location of former, (33) 58a.

Hawkesworth, Alice, bequest by, (6) 15b.

Hawk's Crest, houses formerly known as, (222) 144a.

Haxby, Thomas, musical instrument maker, houses built by, (74) 109b.

Hayes, T., of Beverley, monumental mason, (8) 22a.

Hay Market, site of, 179a.

Haymongergate, street formerly known as, 212b.

Haymonger Lane, lane formerly known as, 180a.

Hazlewood Castle, North Yorkshire, bells now at, xliii.

Headlam
-, Arms of, impaled by Redman, (61) 106b.
-, John, carpenter, (2) 7b.

Headstones, see Monuments, funeral.

Hearon, (?) John 176., Sarah 17. floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Heath Hall, Wakefield, fireplace removed to, (89) 115b.

Heating: of mediaeval buildings, lxxiii and ventilation, of chapel, (27) 53a, b.

Hebden, John 1766, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Hellekeld: buildings occupying probable site of, (244) 150a location of property known as, 149b.

Helmet, of wood, 17th-century, (1) 3b.

Helmsley, John de, chantry founded by, (14) 44a.

Henderson, James, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Plasterers.

Henry I, building materials granted by, (40) 93b.

" III, guildhall mentioned in charter of, (36) 76b.

" IV, visit of, xxxv.

" VI: charter granted by, (39) 91a licence granted by, (34) 62a.

" VII, visit of, 220b.

Hepper, W., architect, house used as office by, (84) 113b.

Herbert
-, Alexander 1668, hatchment, (4) 11b.
-, Arms of, (4) 11a, b.
-, Christopher, merchant, (311) 176a, b.
-, Henry 1667, Lady Lucy 1671, Elizabeth 1674, hatchment, (4) 11b.
-, Thomas, property of, (311) 176b.
-, Sir Thomas, house purchased by, (330) 184a.
-, " " 1681, Lucia 1671, brass, (4) 11a.

Herbert House, The, (311) 176a, Fig. 109, Pl. 121.

Herb Market, location of, 147a.

Heron, Henry Sydney 1798, gravestone, (15) 49a.

Hertergate, street formerly known as: xxxiv 134b.

Heselgrave, Ann 1797, and Robert, headstone, (14) 46a.

Hessay
-, Thomas, innholder, and Rosamund, property possibly sold by, (353) 193a.
-, William 1808, Elizabeth 1793, and children, monument, (4) 12a.

Hessey
-, Ann 1801, headstone, (6) 19b.
-, T., churchwarden, (13) 41b.

Hewan
-, Dorothy 1735, floor-slab, (13) 43a.
-, Joseph, house remodelled by, (306) 174b.

Hewley
-, Arms of: (36) 80a (41) 96b, Pl. 182.
-, Sir John: portrait of, (32) 56b room decorated at expense of, (36) 78b, (inscription) 80a.
-, Sir John 1697, Dame Sarah 1710, floor-slab, (15) 49a.
-, Lady Sarah: chair said to have been used by, (32) 56b chapel endowed by, (32) 55b hospital founded by, (41) 96a portrait of, (32) 56b.

Heworth, Robert, carpenter, house built by, (417) 212b.

Hick, Joseph, blacksmith, messuage acquired by, (502) 236b.

Hickneld Hackneld, 179a.

High Jubbergate, part of street known as, 149a.

" Ousegate: lxxvii 147a148b.

" Petergate, 180b186b, Pls. 5, 8.

Hilary House, chapel replaced by, 207b.

Hilileigh, Robert 1712, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Hill, William, operator of ferry, buildings leased to, (253) 155a.

Hinges, early, (375) 199b.

Hitch family, heraldry and monograms associated with (glass), (35) 76b.

Hodgson
-, Elizabeth, 18th-century hatchment, (5) 14b.
-, Of Highthorne, arms of, (5) 14b.
-, Thomas, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glass-painters and Glaziers.

Hog-backs: xxxvii (fragments), (11) 34b.

Holbeck, William, mayor, possible merchant's mark of, (36) 77b.

Holgate, Archbishop, property acquired by: (35) 69b 171b.

Holme
-, Alderman, timber-framed buildings belonging to, (524) 239a.
-, Robart, engraver, (6) 17a.

Holmes
-, William, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.
-, " 1558, brass, (6) 17a.

Holy Family, representations of (glass): (2) 8b, Pl. 51 (10) 29a, Pl. 51.

" Priests' House, Peasholme Green, lvii.

" Spirit, representations of: as dove (glass): (6) 19a (10) 28b, 29a in glory (carving), (13) 43b, Pl. 37.

Holy Trinity
-, Chantry established at altar of, (14) 44a.
-, Churches of:
-,-, Goodramgate: (2) 5a, Fig. 14, Pls. 9, 16 tenements built on churchyard of, (222) 143b.
-,-, King's Square: xxxix, xl bells from, xliii, xliv former churchyard of, (17) 49b salvers from, (14) 46b.
-,-, Micklegate: bosses reused in roof of, (4) 12a font and cover now at, (15) 48b.

Holy Trinity, Blessed Virgin and St. Katherine, chapel of, see Bedern Chapel.

" Trinity Priory, Micklegate, patronage of church passed to, (5) 12b.

Honorius III, papal bulla of, (16) 49a.

Hood Bracket, 15th-century, (174) 134a.

Hopwood, Jonathan, lease acquired by, (292) 172a.

Horner, Joseph, of Masham, butter factor, house built by, (319) 180b.

Hornpot Lane: 180b houses facing onto, (347) 192a.

Hornworkers, pits of, 180b.

Horrobine, Dorothy 1789, headstone, (9) 25a.

Horsefair, The, friary established in: xxxiv, xli (22) 50b.

Horsfield, Robert 1711, Elizabeth 1666, Mary 1668, Elizabeth 1673, Hannah 1719, and children, monument, (10) 29b.

Horsley
-, Benedict, plan by, 231b.
-, Mr., painter, (2) 9b.
-, Matthew 1810, and family, headstone, (6) 19b.

Hosier Row or Lane, row of houses known as, 174b.

Hospitals: Mediaeval: lvi (37) 82a, b, 83a (38) 89a (39) 91b. See also Almshouses and Religious Foundations.

Hotham
-, Dorothy 1799: floor-slab, (9) 25a monument, (9) 24b.
-, George Nathaniel, merchant and haberdasher, messuage occupied by, (430) 216b.
-, R. W., churchwarden, (6) 19a.
-, Robert Welborn 1806, and family, monument, (6) 19a.

Houses and Public Buildings
-, Mediaeval and Later
-,-, Stone: xxxiii lviii.
-,-, Stone and Timber Framing: (92) 116b (93) 116b 129a, Pl. 3.
-,-, Timber-framed: lviii (306) 174b (491) 234b.
-, 14th-century and Later
-,-, Timber-framed: (215) 143a, Pl. 119 (222) 143b, Fig. 86, Pls. 117, 130 (240) 149a, Pl. 117 (291) 171a, Fig. 107, Pl. 135 (364) 196a, Pl. 125 (436) 217b, Figs. 138, 139, Pl. 135 (471) 225b (530) 240a, Fig. 154.
-, c. 1400 and Later
-,-, Timber-framed, (537) 241a, Figs. 156, 157, Pl. 118.
-, 15th-century and Later
-,-, Timber-framed: (151) 128a, Figs. 76, 77 (174) 133b, Fig. 80, Pl. 120 (210) 142a, Fig. 85 (229) 146b (243) 150a (255) 156a (336) 186a, Pl. 5 (346) 191a, Fig. 119 (350) 192b, Fig. 3h (365) 196a (420) 213b, Fig. 136 (421) 213b, Fig. 136, Pl. 124 (422) 214a, Fig. 136, Pl. 124 (434) 217a (435) 217a (437) 217b, Fig. 139, Pls. 124, 135 (470) 225a (476) 227b, Fig. 145, Pl. 125 (478) 228a, Pl. 121 (479) 228b, Fig. 146, Pl. 125 (485) 232a, Fig. 148 (488) 232b, Fig. 148, Pl. 125 (519) 238b, Fig. 151, Pl. 118 (536) 240b, Fig. 155, Pl. 126.
-, c. 1500 and Later
-,-, Timber-framed: (130) 122a, Pl. 119 (184) 135b (193) 136b, Fig. 83, Pl. 122 (194) 138a, Fig. 84, Pl. 123 (343) 189a.
-, 16th-century and Later
-,-, Timber-framed: (70) 107b, Fig. 62 (186) 136a (223) 145a, Fig. 87 (242) 150a (311) 176a, Fig. 109 (312) 177b, Fig. 109, Pl. 7 (317) 179a, Fig. 110, Pl. 126 (353) 193a, Pl. 156 (362) 195a, Fig. 121, Pl. 125 (363) 195b, Fig. 123 (400) 207a (480) 229a, Fig. 147, Pl. 148.
-, c. 1600 and Later
-,-, Timber-framed: (124) 121a, Fig. 72 (165) 132b (185) 135b.
-, 16001800, lxxv.
-, 17th-century and Later
-,-, Brick: (162) 132b (166) 132b (195) 140a (320) 181a (381) 201b (483) 231a, Fig. 148 (484) 231b, Fig. 148 (486) 232b, Fig. 148 (528) 239b, Fig. 153.
-,-, Stone and Brick, (35) 69a, Figs. 4245, Pls. 8188.
-,-, Timber-framed: (162) 132b (311) 176a, Fig. 109, Pl. 121 (329) 183b, Fig. 113, Pl. 5 (351) 193a (361) 195a, Pl. 125 (427) 215a, Fig. 137 (452) 221a, Fig. 140 (453) 221a (454) 221b (487) 232b, Fig. 148, Pl. 125 (493) 235a, Fig. 149.
-, c. 1700 and Later
-,-, Brick: (121) 120b (189) 136a (219) 143b (284) 167a (296) 172b' Pl. 144 (316) 178b, Pl. 142 (335) 185b, Fig. 116 (489) 234a (510) 237b (525) 239b.
-, 18th-century
-,-, Brick, Notable: (61) 105b, Fig. 60, Pl. 138 (72) 109a, Fig. 63 (74) 109b, Pl. 143 (76) 110a, Pl. 143 (77) 110a, Fig. 64, Pl. 146 (82) 112a, Fig. 65, Pls. 101108 (85) 113b, Fig. 66 (89) 114a, Fig. 67, Pls. 109111 (91) 116a, Fig. 68, Pl. 148 (114) 118b, Fig. 69 (115) 118b, Pl. 141 (117) 119a, Fig. 70 (133) 123a, Fig. 73, Pl. 141 (135) 124a, Fig. 74 (137) 125a (147) 127a, Fig. 75 (157) 131b, Pl. 143 (158) 131b, Pl. 143 (175) 134a, Fig. 81 (233) 147b, Fig. 89, Pl. 144 (234) 148a, Fig. 90, Pl. 144 (249) 151b, Fig. 91, Pl. 138 (250) 152b, Fig. 92, Pls. 113115 (254) 155b, Fig. 94, Pl. 6 (265) 157b, Fig. 96 (272) 161a, Fig. 98, Pl. 7 (274) 161b, Fig. 99, Pl. 7 (275) 162b, Pl. 145 (277) 163b, Fig. 101, Pl. 139 (278) 164b, Fig. 102 (280) 165a, Pl. 142 (319) 180b, Pl. 142 (327) 183a, Fig. 112, Pl. 5 (330) 184a, Fig. 114, Pl. 5 (334) 185a, Fig. 115, Pls. 5, 147 (340) 187a, Fig. 117, Pl. 6 (344) 189a, Fig. 118, Pl. 140 (348) 192a, Fig. 120 (377) 200a, Fig. 125, Pl. 8 (378) 201a, Pl. 145 (383) 201b, Fig. 126, Pl. 143 (387) 202b, Pl. 149 (397) 206b, Fig. 129, Pl. 147 (407) 208a, Fig. 130 (408) 208b, Pl. 149 (410) 210a, Fig. 132, Pl. 141 (411) 210b, Fig. 133, Pl. 140 (413) 211a, Fig. 134 (416) 211b, Pl. 142 (417) 212b, Fig. 135, Pl. 112 (429) 216a, Fig. 137 (472) 226a, Fig. 143 (474) 226b, Fig. 144, Pl. 141 (477) 228a, Pl. 146 (516) 237b, Fig. 150 (521) 239a, Fig. 152. Terraces: (287) 167b, Fig. 105, Pl. 4 (375) 199b, Fig. 124, Pl. 137 (409) 208b, Fig. 131, Pl. 4.
-,-, Stone and Brick: (44) 96b, Fig. 55, Pls. 9395 (45) 100a, Fig. 57, Pls. 9699 (156) 130a, Fig. 78, Pl. 139.
-, 19th-century, xcii.
-,-, Brick, Notable: (46) 102b (48) 103a, Fig. 58, Pl. 100 (6668) 107a, Fig. 61 (173) 133a, Fig. 79 (256) 156a, Fig. 95 (324) 181b, Fig. 111, Pl. 8 (352) 193a, Pl. 156 (390) 203a, Pl. 149 (394) 204b, Fig. 127, Pl. 100 (395) 205a, Fig. 128, Pl. 154. Terraces: (181) 135a, Fig. 82, Pl. 149 (373) 199a (395) 205a, Fig. 128, Pl. 154 (404) 207b (451) 220a, Pl. 156 (512) 237b (513) 237b (531) 240b.
-,-, Stone and Brick, (279) 165a, Fig. 103, Pl. 151.

Howgill, John, joiner and carpenter, (45) 100a.

Howme
-, Arms of, (2) 7a, Pl. 29.
-, Robert de, chantry founded by, (2) 5b.

Howme Chapel, (2) 5b.

Huddersfield, stone from: xcvi (392) 204a.

Huddleston, near Sherburn-in-Elmet, stone from: xcv (10) 25b.

Hudson
-, Francis 1800, Susannah 1800, monument, (4) 12a.
-, George, table commemorating mayoralty of, (2) 9a.
-, Richard 1802, Elizabeth 1804, monument, (4) 12a.
-, William, house occupied by, (279) 165a.

Hughes
-, Arms of, (6) 19a.
-, Dorothy, 17th-century monument, (6) 19a, Pl. 42.
-, Thomas, alderman, gift by, (38) 89a.

Hungate: xxxiv 148b149a excavation in, (22) 51a selions of land near, xxxv.

Hungate
-, Arms of, (5) 14a.
-, Edmund 1614, brass, (5) 14a.
-, Robert 1619, brass, (5) 14a.

Hunt, Mary 1756, Ann 177., Francis 179., gravestone, (15) 49a.

Hunter, Alexander 1809, Elizabeth 1794, Ann 1814, and sons, monument, (12) 39b.

Hurst's Yard, 236b.

Husthwaite, prebendary of, lease of prebendal house granted by, (34) 62a.

Hutchinson
-, . 1765, floor-slab, (9) 25a.
-, Edward, churchwarden, (6) 17a.
-, James, Lord Mayor, ewer and dish given by, (44) 99b.
-, William 1772, monument, (13) 43a, Pl. 43.

Hutton
-, Barbara, flagon given in memory of, (11) 35b.
-, John, flagon given by, (11) 35b.
-, Richard, house of, (246) 151a.

Hygieia, representation of (plasterwork), (344) 189b.

IB: monumental mason, (12) 39b of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

IH, of London, silversmith, (14) 46b.

Images, see Carving.

Indents, see Brasses, monumental.

Industrial Buildings: (69) 107b (225) 146b (283) 166b (355) 194a premises altered for use as, (221) 143b.

Infilling, of timber framing, lxii, lxiii.

Ingram
-, Ann 1758, floor-slab, (14) 46a.
-, Sir Arthur, mansion built by, 129a.

Inns and Public Houses
-, Albion, former, (205) 141a.
-, Angel, former, (215) 143a.
-, Anglers' Arms, (194) 138a.
-, Anglesey Arms, former, (389) 203a.
-, Baynes' Hotel, former, (368) 196b.
-, Bear, The, former, (142) 126a.
-, Beech Tree, former, (213) 142b.
-, Black Bull, former, 132a.
-, " Horse, former, (520) 239a.
-, " Swan: (136) 124a (317) 179a former, 122a.
-, Bloomsbury, The, former, (229) 146b.
-, Blue Bell, (177) 134b.
-, Board, The: (161) 132b (321) 181a former, (194) 138b.
-, Bull, The, former, 122a.
-, Burns Hotel, former, (269) 158a.
-, Coach and Horses, 167b.
-, Cross Keys Tavern, former, xxxix.
-, Cutt-a-Feather, site of, (396) 206b.
-, Duke of York, former, (527) 239b.
-, Ebor Tavern, former, (61) 106a.
-, Five Lions, (505) 237a.
-, Fox, The, former, (346) 191a.
-, Gardeners' Arms, former, (218) 143b.
-, Garrick's Head, former, (353) 193a.
-, George, The, former (mediaeval): 121b (142) 126a.
-, Golden Fleece, (313) 178a.
-, " Hart, former, (313) 178b.
-, " Lion, former: (142) 126a (398) 207a.
-, " Slipper, (211) 142b.
-, Grapes, former, (368) 196b.
-, Hansom Cab, (269) 158a.
-, Hawk's Crest, former, (222) 144a.
-, Jackson's Hotel, former, (368) 196b.
-, King's Arms: (247) 151a former, (170) 133a.
-, King's Head, former: (158) 132a (477) 228a site of, (397) 206b.
-, Little John, (79) 111b.
-, Londesbro Arms, (368) 196b.
-, Lord Nelson, former, (494) 235b.
-, Market Tavern, (150) 128a.
-, Nag's Head, site of, (396) 206a.
-, Noah's Ark, former, (222) 144b.
-, Old George, former, (22) 51a.
-, " Turk's Head, former, (241) 150a.
-, " White Swan, (223) 145a.
-, Phoenix, The, (182) 135a.
-, Punch Bowl, former, (400) 207b.
-, Queen's Head, (174) 133b.
-, Red Calf, former, (336) 186b.
-, " Lion: (519) 238b former, (414) 211b site of, (207) 141b.
-, Robin Hood, former, (78) 111a.
-, Royal Oak, (210) 142a.
-, Shoulder of Mutton, former, (418) 213a.
-, Star and Garter, former, (241) 150a.
-, Talbot, site of: (344) 189b (345) 191a.
-, Thomas's Hotel, (284) 167a.
-, Three Cranes, (401) 207b.
-, " Cups, former, (518) 238a.
-, " Tuns, (149) 127b.
-, Tomlinson's Hotel, former, (368) 196b.
-, Wellington, The, former, (214) 142b.
-, White Dog, former, (491) 234b.
-, " Hart, former, (491) 234b.
-, " Horse, site of, (396) 206b.
-, Ye Olde Starre, (465) 223a.
-, York Arms, (324) 181b.
-, Yorkshireman, former, (148) 127b.

Inscriptions: (2) 9a (6) 19a (14) 46a (36) 80a, Pl. 197 (37) 87a (38) 91a, Pl. 182 (41) 96b, Pl. 182 (42) 96b, Pl. 182 (44) 97a (194) 138b (277) 163b (325) 182b (391) 203b (471) 226a see also Assembly Marks Brasses, monumental Carving Coffin Lids Creed Glass Masons' Marks Monuments funeral Plate and Scratchings.

Institute of Popular Science and Literature, hall built for, (405) 208a.

Irish Immigrants: (33) 57b 236b.

Ironfounders see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Ironwork
-, Back-plate, for ring-handle, 15th-century, (38) 90b.
-, Balustrades, (26) 52b.
-, Bands, on chests, 13th and 16th-century, (37) 88a.
-, Brackets, (12) 38a.
-, Columns: (26) 52b (27) 54a (28) 54a (30) 54b (46) 102b (311) 177b.
-, Gates, (32) 55b.
-, Railings: (32) 55b (156) 130b (395) 205b.
-, Torch Extinguisher, (334) 185a, Pl. 160.
-, See also Carron, Cast Iron, Grates and Staircases.

Ispingail, lane first recorded as, 219b.

Italianate Style: (285) 167b, Pl. 156 (391) 203b, Pl. 155.

Jack, Richard, painter, (44) 98a.

Jackson, Tobias 1833, floor-slab, (14) 46a.

Jackson's Hotel, public house formerly known as, (368) 196b.

James, Thomas 1732, monument, (12) 39a.

Jameson, Mr., solicitor, college leased by, (34) 63a.

Jaques
-, Elizabeth 1651, brass, (4) 11b.
-, John, merchant, tenement occupied by, (311) 176b.
-, Roger, property of, (311) 176b.

Jardine, Robert 1802, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Jeeb, Jane 1718, Judith 1718, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Jefferson, Francis 1756, Dorothy 1783, and children, monument, (1) 4a.

Jefferys, Thomas, map by, (207) 141b.

Jeffrys
-, Arms of, (12) 40a.
-, Susanna, alms-dish given by, (12) 40a.

Jenkins, Sir Henry, of Grimston, college owned by, (34) 62b.

Jenkinson, William, saddler, house occupied by, (429) 216a.

Jennings, William 1804, floor-slab, (13) 43a.

Jetties: lix, lx, lxii, lxiii, lxv, lxvi, Fig. 4, p. lxvi (34) 63a, 64a, b (37) 84a, 86a, 88a (70) 108a (130) 122b, Pl. 119 (149) 128a (150) 128a (151) 128a (162) 132b (165) 132b (174) 134a, Pl. 120 (184) 135b (185) 135b (189) 136b (193) 137a, Pl. 122 (194) 138b, Fig. 4a, b, Pl. 123 (211) 142b (215) 143a, Pl. 119 (222) 145a, Pl. 117 (225) 146b (229) 147a (240) 149a, Pl. 117 (244) 150b (255) 156a (291) 171a, b, Fig. 107, Pl. 135 (299) 173b, Pl. 120 (307) 174b, Pl. 122 (311) 176b, Pl. 121, 177b, Fig. 4c (313) 178b (317) 179a, Pl. 126 (318) 180a (321) 181b (329) 183b (343) 189a (350) 192b (351) 193a (353) 193a (360) 195a (362) 195a (365) 196a (366) 196a (367) 196b (418) 213a (420) 213b (421) 213b (422) 214a (437) 218b (441) 219a (452) 221a (456) 221b (468) 224b (470) 225b (471) 226a (476) 227b (478) 228b, Pl. 121 (479) 229a (480) 229b, Pl. 148 (487) 232b (488) 234a (536) 240b, 241a, Pl. 126 (537) 241a, Pl. 118.

Jewell, John, Bishop of Salisbury, book written by, (1) 2b.

Jews, street inhabited by: xxxiii 121b.

Johnson
-, Francis, architect, (61) 106a.
-, Peter, Recorder: civic plate given by, (44) 99b house built for, (89) 114a.
-, Richard 1789, Mary 1810, headstone, (9) 24b.

Johnston
-, David 1700, floor-slab, (14) 46a.
-, Henry, recordings by: xliii xlvi (2) 8a, b, 9a (6) 18b (9) 24b (10) 28b (11) 35b.

Joiners, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carpenters and Joiners.

Jolliff, William 1835, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Jones, George Fowler, see Architects.

Joubrettegat, street formerly named, 149a.

Jubbergate: 121b 149a, b bell-house in, xliii street formerly part of, 158a.

" Chapel, congregation formerly meeting at, (29) 54a.

Judges' Court, (133) 123a, Fig. 73, Pl. 141.

" Lodging: (250) 152b, Fig. 92, Pls. 113115 house formerly used as, (133) 123a.

Jurdan, Henry, bell-founder, xliii.

Justice, representations of: (silver), (44) 98b, 99a in a Triumphal Car (glass), (36) 80a.

Karr
-, John: chantry founded by executors of, (14) 44a probable merchant's mark of, (14) 45a, b, Pl. 29.
-, Thomas, bequest by, (14) 44a.

Kaye, Sir John Lister, house occupied by, (82) 112a.

Keep, Henry, antiquary: xlvi (9) 23a.

Kempe
-, Archbishop, licence issued by, (39) 91a.
-, Thomas, Bishop of London, probable arms of, (2) 8a, Pl. 45.

Kendal Marble Works, fireplaces from, (395) 205b.

Kendall, John 1823, Honor 1833, monument, (10) 29b.

Kergate, see Cargate.

Ketmongergate, street probably known as, 207b.

Kidder, John, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

Kidd's Yard, passageway named, (221) 143b.

Kilby
-, Thomas . . . ., floor-slab, (5) 14b.
-, " 1792, Grace 1793, monument, (5) 14b.

King Street: xxxiv 149b.

Kings, representations of (glass): (2) 8b (8) 21a (10) 29b (11) 34b (13) 42b, Pls. 53, 62.

King's Arms: (247) 151a former, (170) 133a.

" Court, 149b150b.

" Ditch (possible), 171b.

" Fish-pond: formation of, xxxiii landing on banks of, xxxiv.

" Head Hotel, house formerly known as, (158) 132a.

" " Inn: house built on site of, (397) 206b property formerly known as, (477) 228a.

" Manor, railings now at, (44) 97a.

" Square: 150b151a Roman gatehouse in, xxxiii.

" Staith: xxxv (1) 104b 151a152a building material removed for repairs at, (36) 77b.

" Tofts, establishment of friary in, xxxiv.

Kingston-upon-Hull, export of woollen cloth from, xxxv.

Kiplin, James, lease granted to, (189) 136b.

Kirby
-, Roland, silversmith, (1) 4a.
-, Thomas: bricks and iron railings supplied by, (395) 205b house built for, (395) 205b.

Kirkby, arms of, impaled by Waterhouse, (12) 39b.

Kirkham, John de, bell-founder, possible coffin lid of, xlvii.

Kitchens: lxxvii (35) 74a, Pl. 174 (89) 115a (117) 119b (250) 155a (270) 160a (375) 199b (395) 206a remains of, 15th and 16th-century, (105) 117b.

Knight, Rev. William: monument 1739, (12) 39a part of house rebuilt by, (91) 116a.

Knole Park, Kent, staircase modelled on that at, (35) 71a.

Knoll(?), arms of, (14) 45b.

Knowles
-, Anthony 1814, floor-slab, (15) 49a.
-, J. A.: glass identified by, (6) 19a home of, (488) 233b.
-, J. W., see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glass-painters and Glaziers.

Labours of the Months, representations of: (stone), (9) 24a, Pls. 26, 28 (wood), (64) 44b, Pl. 198.

Lady Hewley's Hospital, (41) 96a, Pl. 152.

" Peckett's Yard: 152a, Pl. 7 entrance to, (311) 176b houses in: (311) 177a (312) 177b, Pl. 7.

" Row, (222) 143b, Fig. 86, Pl. 117.

Lamb of God, representations of (glass): (8) 21b, 22a (13) 42b.

Lamp Standards, cast-iron, (48) 103b.

Lane, William 1484, and Katherine, brass, (4) 11b.

Laneham, Canon William of, site of close given by, (33) 57a.

Lanes, mediaeval: xxxiv 135b 236b.

Langley, Batty, fireplaces modelled on designs published by: lxxxii (35) 75a, Pl. 87 (117) 120a, Pl. 177 (516) 238a, Pl. 177.

Langton
-, Sir John, stone bought from quarry of, (10) 25b.
-, William 1466, brass, (13) 41b.

Lanterns
-, Of Churches: xl (1) 2b (8) 20b.
-, Of Secular Buildings: (377) 200b glazed: (45) 102a (147) 127b.

Last Judgment, figures from (glass), (1) 3b.

Latimer, arms of: (2) 9a (12) 38a.

Latrines, public, order for establishment of, xxxiv.

Lawson
-, Family, site of friary obtained by, (21) 50a.
-, Mary 1774, monument, (12) 39b.

Laycock
-, Mr., mason, (14) 44b.
-, Thomas: house of, xciv report by, xciii.

Laycon, Edmund, floor-slab commissioned by, (11) 35b.

Layerthorpe Bridge, building material removed for repairs at, (36) 77b.

Layland, Jacob 1760, Ellen 1751, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Lead Mill Lane, 152a.

Leadwork, lxxix.
-, Brackets, fall-pipe
-,-, 18th-century, (254) 155b, Pl. 181.
-, Cistern
-,-, 18th-century, (77) 111a.
-, Cross
-,-, 9th-century, (11) 36a.
-, Rainwater Gutter
-,-, 18th-century, (277) 163b.
-, Rainwater Heads and Pipes, Pl. 181
-,-, 16th-century, (480) 229b, Pl. 181.
-,-, 18th-century: (35) 71b (61) 106a, Pl. 181 (70) 108a (74) 109b (78) 111b (80) 111b, Pl. 181 (81) 111b (89) 115a (117) 119b (122) 121a (123) 121a (157) 131b (158) 132a (178) 134b (198) 140b (208) 141b (209) 142a (232) 147b, Pl. 181 (233) 148a, Pl. 181 (234) 148b (251) 155a (254) 155b (265) 157b (280) 165b (292) 172a (319) 180b (327) 183a (333) 185a (334) 185a (340) 187a, Pl. 181 (345) 191a (358) 194b, Pl. 181 (364) 196a (406) 208a (407) 208a (410) 210a, Pl. 181 (411) 210b (413) 211a (433) 217a (442) 219a (503) 237a (506) 237a (516) 237b.
-,-, 19th-century: (13) 43b (173) 133a (273) 161b.

Leatherwork, see Altar-frontals.

Leatherworker's Shop, pre-Conquest building used as, (309) 176a.

Lectern, 15th-century, (1) 3b, Pl. 38.

Leda, representation of, (35) 74a.

Leicester, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Le Marcery, shops known as, 149b.

Lendal: 152a156a bell-founding in, xliii boundary mark in, (58) 105a.

" Congregational Chapel, former, (29) 54a Trustees of, chapel built for, (31) 54b.

" Hill House, (282) 166b.

" House: (29) 54a former, house incorporating remains of, (252) 155a.

Leng, Elizabeth 1806, floor-slab, (5) 14b.

Lewis, David 1773, Margaret 1787, James 1804, headstone, (9) 25a.

Liberty of St. Peter: location of poor-house for, (33) 57b streets lying within: 180a (part) 220b.

Library, house used as, (395) 205a.

Liddell, Charles & Co., lead manufactory, location of, 152a.

Lidgett Grove Chapel, Acomb, pulpit removed to, (11) 35b.

Lifting Machinery, 19th-century, (221) 143b.

Lighting, gas: xciv (15) 47a (29) 54a (36) 78a.

Lime Street, site of, (22) 51a.

Lincoln, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Lindley, Charles, engraving by, (45) 102b.

Linen Manufactory: 167a 236b.

Lintel, arched, possible (fragment), pre-Conquest, (11) 33b.

Linton
-, Ann 1785, headstone, (6) 19b.
-, Jeoffrey, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Plumbers and Glaziers.

Lister
-, John, and wives, inscription to (glass), (12) 38a, b.
-, " Hardman 1810, brass, (10) 28a.

Little Alice Lane, street formerly known as, 117b.

Little Bedern, identification of, (33) 57b.

" Blake Street, street formerly known as, 129b.

" Coney Street, street formerly known as, 220a.

" John: (79) 111b part of house incorporated into, (78) 111a.

" Shambles, 156a.

" Stonegate: 156a, b house at corner of, (476) 227b.

Livery Collars and Badges, silver, 16th and 17th-century, (44) 99a.

Lloyd
-, Anne 1830, monument, (11) 35a.
-, Arms of, (11) 35a.
-, Marion 1821, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, " Christina 1821, monument, (12) 39a.

Locke, John, portrait bust of (plasterwork), (82) 113a.

Lockey, George 1838, headstone, (2) 9a.

Lodge, 19th-century, (153) 129a.

" Joseph 1758, Jeanetta 1774, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Loe, William [1678], floor-slab, (2) 9b.

Lofthouse, Seth, of London, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

Londesbro Arms, (368) 196b.

London, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Long, Elizabeth 1780, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

" Close Lane, 236b.

Lonsdale, Robert, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carpenters and Joiners.

Lop Lane, street formerly known as, 129b.

Lord Mayors' Tables: liv (1) 3b (2) 9a (5) 14b (12) 39a (13) 42b.

" Nelson, house formerly known as, (494) 235b.

Lord's Prayer, see Creed, Lord's Prayer and Decalogue.

Louth, Robert de, bequest by, (14) 44a.

Louvres, in mediaeval buildings: lxxiii possible: (33) 60b (39) 93a.

Lower Friargate, 134b.

Low Jubbergate, part of street known as, 149a.

" Ousegate, 156b157b.

" Petergate, 186b199a, Pl. 6.

Lowther, Susannah 1714, brass, (5) 14a.

Lucas, Samuel, builder, (6) 19a.

Lucifer(?), representation of (glass), (13) 42a.

Lucy, arms of, (8) 21b.

Ludham, Thomas de, vicar, houses erected in churchyard for: (10) 26a (139) 125b.

Lund
-, John, houses built by: (221) 143b (222) 144b.
-, Richard 1826, Sarah 1813, monument, (5) 14b.

MC, churchwarden, (4) 11a.

MH, churchwarden, (4) 11a.

MW, churchwarden, (4) 11a.

Mace-rests: liv (1) 3b (37) 84b.

Maces
-, 17th-century, (silver-gilt), (44) 98b, Pl. 92.
-, 18th-century, (wood), (37) 88a.

MackGibbon, Betty 1762, brass, (4) 11b.

Maclagan Memorial Hall, (34) 63a, 66a, Pl. 80.

Maison Dieu of St. John Baptist, references to, (38) 89b.

Mallatratt, Mrs. Phebe 1831, monument, (15) 48b.

Malt Shovel Yard, 236b.

Manars, Agnes, 149., monument, (9) 24b.

Manby, Louisa 1832, monument, (5) 14b.

Manchlin, Richard, churchwarden, (10) 28a.

Mancklin, Samuel 1687, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Mangey, Christopher, silversmith, (5) 14b.

Mangy, George, silversmith, (12) 40a.

Mann, Joshua, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Engravers.

Manor House, The: (514) 237b carriageway leading to, (513) 237b.

Mansfield, Isaac, plasterer, lxxxvii.

Mansion House: (44) 96b, Fig. 55, Pls. 9395 balusters resembling those at, (35) 75a portraits on loan at, (32) 56b site of chapel and maison dieu now occupied by, (36) 77a.

Marfitt
-, Thomas, property of, (358) 194b.
-, " glass dealer, nephew of above, property inherited by, (358) 194b.

Market Crosses, former: 175a 206a.

" Hall, former, 206a.

" Places: former: xxxiv 174b 206a: street built as, 173b.

Markets: xxxiii, xxxiv 173b.
-, Fish, bridge used as, (50) 104b.
-, Hay, site of, 179a.
-, Herb, site of, 147a.
-, Thursday: xxxiv 206a.

Marketshire, street of, 174b.

Market Street, 158a.

" Tavern, (150) 128a.

Markett, Henry, bequest by, (1) 1b.

Markham, Dean, painted glass kept in Minster by, (33) 58b.

Marmion(?), arms of, (12) 38a.

Marriage Feast at Cana, part of, possible representation of (glass), (5) 14a.

Marsar, Thomas, inscription to (glass), (12) 39a.

Marsh, The, area known as: xxxiv 207b.

Marshall
-, John, bequest by, (34) 62b.
-, Susan 1794, James 1796, monument, (12) 39b.

Masham, prebendary of, lease of prebendal house granted by, (34) 62a.

Mason
-, Isaac, drawing endorsed by, (46) 102b.
-, John 1828, monument, (32) 56b.
-, William 1708, and Jane, monument, (11) 35a.

Masonic Hall, (405) 208a, Pl. 156.

Masonry, Roman, see under Roman.

Masons, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Mason's Hospital, building formerly used as, (119) 120b.

Masons' Marks: (2) 9a (8) 22a (9) 24b (10) 29b (36) 80a.

Masterman, Henry, house built by, (450) 220a.

Maude, John 179., Elizabeth 1772, Mary 1825, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Maugham, John, smith, (12) 36b.

Maw, Francis, house occupied by, (62) 106b.

Mawbey, E. G., architect, (36) 78b.

Mawe, Mary 1823, monument, (12) 39a.

Mayer, John, initials probably for, (233) 148a.

Meaux Abbey, boundary of property of, (22) 50b.

Mechanics' Institute, The, former, (405) 208a.

Meek
-, Francis, property left to, (137) 125a.
-, James, Lord Mayor, (2) 9a.
-, " junior, Lord Mayor, (2) 9a.
-, Roger 1730, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Melrose
-, James, churchwarden: (6) 19a monument 1837, (6) 19a.
-, Walter 178., and Margaret, grand-daughter, floor-slab, (6) 19b.

Melrose House, (397) 206b, Fig. 129, Pl. 147.

Mennim, A. M., architect, (387) 202b.

Merchant Adventurers' Hall: (37) 82a, Figs. 49, 50, Pls. 7073 chapel of, 82b, 84a former hospital of, lvii.

" Adventurers of York, Company of: arms of, (37) 84b, Pl. 32, 88a house bought from, (311) 176a origin of, (37) 82a sale of bricks to, (22) 50b.

Merchantgate, 158a.

Merchants' Marks: (1) 2b (2) 7b (4) 11b (11) 34b (14) 45a, b, Pl. 29 (36) 79b, 80a.

" Staple, Calais, probable arms of, (5) 14a.

Merchant Taylors, Company of, arms of, (38) 91a, Pl. 186.

" " Hall: (38) 88b, Fig. 51, Pl. 74 hospital of, lvii.

Mercy, representation of (stone), (10) 29b.

" and Fame, representation of (stone), (4) 12a, Pl. 41.

Merske Street, street formerly known as, 148b.

Metcalfe
-, Elizabeth 1790, and children, monument, (12) 39b.
-, " 19th-century floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Mirabella 1843, headstone, (18) 49b.

Metham, arms of, (12) 38a.

Methodist New Connexion, chapel occupied by, (28) 54a.

Methodists, premises used as meeting places for: (33) 57b (289) 170b.

Micklegate House, fittings from, (35) 75a, b.

Middleton, Capt. Robert 1765, brass, (10) 28a.

Middle Water Lane: street formerly known as, 128b former mediaeval house in, 129a, Pl. 3.

Midland Bank: Nessgate, (285) 167b, Pl. 156 Parliament Street, (301) 174a, Pl. 155.

Milburn, G. C., carver, (1) 2a.

Mills, Robert and William, house occupied by, (280) 165b.

Milne, William Alexander 1834, monument, (12) 39a.

Milner, Thomas, house built by, (77) 110a.

Milner-White, Dean, glass restored under direction of: (12) 38a (13) 42a.

Milton, John, portrait bust of (plasterwork), (82) 113a.

Minerva, representation of (carved wood), (271) 161a.

Minster, The: church appropriated to Chapter of, (3) 10a fittings from: (12) 37b (13) 41b fittings now at: (10) 28a (33) 58b, 60a.

" Court, 158a160b.

" Fabric Rolls, references to rebuilding of church in, (12) 36b.

" Gate, mediaeval, demolition of, (324) 181b.

" Gates, 160b162a, Pl. 7.

" Library: chapel used as, 129a records and drawings preserved in: xciii (33) 57a (154) 129b.

" Song School, The, (49) 104a, Pl. 150.

" Stonemasons' Store, fittings now in: xlviii (33) 59b.

" Stone Yard, lodge forming part of buildings of, (153) 129a.

" Yard, 162a166a.

Mint Yard: area known as: (40) 94a 204a purchase of, (156) 130a.

Misericordes, see Seating.

Mitchell
-, Arms of, (12) 39a.
-, Mark 1778, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Thomas 1762, Ann 1773, monument, (12) 39a.

Mitley
-, Charles, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers, and Sculptors and Monumental Masons.
-, Mary 1773(?), monument, (5) 14b.

Molyneaux, Sarah 1841, headstone, (6) 19b.

Monk Bar Court: 141a carriageway to, (203) 141a.

Monkhouse, W., and Bedford, F., see Artists and Surveyors.

Monkwearmouth, evidence of Saxon quarrying at, xxxvi.

Monteiths, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Monuments, funeral, liv.
-, Floor-slabs
-,-, 14th-century, (11) 35b.
-,-, 15th-century: (6) 19b (11) 35b (12) 40a (13) 43a, b.
-,-, 17th-century: (2) 9b (5) 14b (8) 22a (11) 35b (12) 40a (13) 43a, b (15) 49a.
-,-, 18th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9b (5) 14b (6) 19b (8) 22a, b (9) 25a (11) 35a, b (12) 40a (13) 43a, b (14) 46a (15) 49a (32) 56b.
-,-, 19th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9b (5) 14b (6) 19b (9) 25a (11) 35a, b (12) 40a (13) 43a, b (14) 46a (15) 49a.
-, Gravestones
-,-, Pre-Conquest: xxxvii, xxxviii (1) 2b, Pl. 23 (6) 17a, Fig. 19, p. 19, Pl. 21 (11) 34a, b (16) 49a, b.
-,-, 14th-century, (6) 19b.
-,-, 17th-century, (17) 49b.
-,-, 18th-century: (15) 49a (17) 49b (20) 50a.
-,-, 19th-century: (13) 43a (14) 46a (17) 49b (20) 50a.
-,-, Date Unknown, (22) 51a.
-, Headstones
-,-, Pre-Conquest (fragment), (16) 49b, Pl. 21.
-,-, 18th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9a (5) 14b (6) 19b (9) 24b, 25a (11) 35a (13) 43a (14) 46a (15) 48b, 49a.
-,-, 19th-century: (2) 9a (6) 19b (11) 35a (13) 43a (14) 46a (15) 48b, 49a (18) 49b (19) 49b (32) 56b.
-, Tomb-chests
-,-, 14th-century, (11) 35a.
-,-, 17th-century, (4) 11b, Pl. 41.
-, Tomb Recess
-,-, 14th-century, (6) 19a.
-, Vault
-,-, 19th-century, (18) 49b.
-, Wall-monuments and Tablets
-,-, 15th-century, (9) 24b.
-,-, 16th-century, (10) 29b.
-,-, 17th-century: (4) 12a, Pls. 41, 43 (6) 19a, Pl. 42 (10) 29b, Pl. 41.
-,-, 18th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9a (4) 11b, 12a, Pl. 43 (5) 14b (6) 19a (8) 22a (9) 24b (10) 29b (11) 35a (12) 39a, b, Pls. 42, 44 (13) 43a, Pl. 43 (14) 46a (15) 48b (32) 56b.
-,-, 19th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9a (4) 11b, 12a (5) 14b (6) 19a (8) 22a (9) 24b (11) 35a (12) 39a, b, 40a (13) 43a (14) 46a (15) 48b (24) 52a (32) 56b.
-, Wall-monuments (Cartouches)
-,-, 17th-century, (12) 39a.
-,-, 18th-century: (5) 14b, Pl. 42 (11) 35a (12) 39a, b, Pl. 42 (13) 43a.

Moore, Temple, see Architects.

More, Thomas, prebendary of Masham, lease of prebendal house granted by, (34) 62a.

Moreton, Roger de 1382, Isabella 1412, brass, (1) 2b.

Morris, Col. Roger 1794, Mary 1825, Maria 1836, monument, (15) 48b.

Morritt, Bacon, property of, (35) 70a.

Mortain, Count of, church belonging to, (4) 11a.

Morwood
-, Arms of, (12) 40a.
-, Sir George 1680/1, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Mosaic Floor, Roman, 105b.

Moseley, Thomas 17 . floor-slab, (8) 22a.

Moses, possible representation of (painting), (5) 14b.

Mosey
-, John 1833, monument, (9) 24b.
-, Richard 1803, Ann . . .4, and sons, floor-slab, (9) 25a.

Mosley, Elizabeth and Richard, property acquired from, (417) 212b.

Moulding, 13th-century, (10) 29b.

Mounser, John, churchwarden, (14) 46b.

Mountain
-, J. Rt., drawings endorsed by, (46) 102b.
-, R., monumental mason, (14) 46a.

Mowbray, arms of, (2) 9a.

Mucky Pig Lane, street formerly known as, 132a.

Mudd
-, William, carpenter, property leased to, (440) 218b.
-, " 1771, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Mulberry Hall, (478) 228a, Pl. 121.

Munby
-, Joseph 1816, Jane 1819, and children, gravestone, (14) 46a.
-, Mr., house of, (392) 203b.

Murton Parish Church, cup now at, (14) 46b.

Museum Chambers, (46) 102b.

" Street, 166a167a.

Mushet, William 1792, monument, (11) 35a.

Muston, William, bequest by, (6) 15b.

Myers
-, Christopher 1832, Ann 1858, monument, (8) 22a.
-, Jeremiah, mason, (2) 7b.

Myres, Henry 1775, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Mystery Plays: xxxv location of stations for, 122a, 220b.

Mythological Scenes, representations of (plasterwork), (45) 102a, Pl. 97.

N. W. & Co., silversmiths, (14) 46b.

Nag's Head Inn, house built on site of, (396) 206a.

Nalson, Valentine 1722/3, brass, (10) 28a.

Napier, John, warden of hospital, (38) 91a.

National School for Girls, building occupied by, (38) 89a.

" Trust: house presented to, (35) 71a property modernised by, (299) 173b.

Navigation Road, 167a.

Nedlergate, street formerly known as, 212b.

Neile, Archbishop, cleaning of church ordered by, (9) 23a.

Nelson
-, John 1836, monument, (1) 4a.
-, " 1847, monument, (13) 43a.

Nelstrop, William, bricklayer, (390) 203a.

Nelthorpe, Richard, plasterer, (44) 97a.

Nessgate, 167b.

Neutgate, boundary mark from street formerly known as, (22) 51a.

Nevill, George, prebendary of Masham, (34) 62a, b.

Neville
-, Arms of: (5) 14a (12) 38a (22) 51b.
-, Family, location of town house of, 236b.
-, George, Archbishop of York, arms of, (2) 8a, Pl. 56.

Newark, Nicholas de, houses mentioned in compotus roll of, (215) 143a.

Newburgh Priory MSS., building accounts among, (82) 112a.

Newcombe, William 1779, William 1791, John 1796, headstone, (9) 25a.

New Connexion Chapel, pulpit removed to, (11) 35b.

" Deanery: xciv buildings demolished for, (270) 158b site of, 129a.

" Earswick Parish Church, alms-dish now at, (14) 46b.

Newey, G.J. F., clockmaker, (13) 42a.

Newgate, 170a171b.

New Market Place, plans for, 173b.

" Residence, building originally known as, (154) 129b.

Newst. Anne . . . . ., Christopher 1825, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

New Street, 167b170a.

" " Chapel, former: (30) 54b premises used as Minister's house for, (133) 123a.

Newton, Roger (1777), floor-slab, (1) 4a.

" Quarry, near Tadcaster, stone from, (36) 77a, b.

Niches
-, 14th-century, (33) 59a.
-, 15th-century: (11) 32b (39) 92a.
-, 17th-century, (9) 24b.
-, 18th-century: (45) 101b (249) 152a (270) 160a (317) 179b (334) 185b (369) 197b with shelves: (319) 180b (462) 222b (516) 238a.
-, 19th-century: (90) 115b (209) 142a.

Nicholson, George, see Artists and Surveyors.

Nine Orders of Angels, representations of, see under Angels.

Noah, representations of (glass), (13) 42b.

Noah's Ark, house formerly known as, (222) 144b.

Nonconformist Chapels, see Churches and Chapels.

Nook-shaft (fragment), carved, 12th-century, (1) 5a.

Norfolk
-, Thomas, property acquired from, (89) 114b.
-, " 1778, Elizabeth 1772, floor-slab, (11) 35b.

Norman Conquest, effect of, xxxiii.

" House, (469) 225a, Fig. 141, Pl. 89.

Norres, Nycholes, joiner, (36) 77b.

North
-, Arms of, (12) 39b.
-, Catherine and Christine 1734, monument, (12) 39b.

Northern Echo, photograph by, (437) 217b.

Northfolk Chantry, (11) 30a.

Northumberland, Henry Earl of, and others, licence granted to, (34) 62a.

Norton, escutcheon of pretence of, (4) 11b.

Norwich, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Nost, John, and Carpenter, Andrew, monumental masons, (12) 39b.

Nostell, Priory of, prebend held by, 231b.

Nowtgail, Nowtgate Lane, part of street formed from, 134b.

Nursaw, Thomas 1765, Jane 1790, Jane their daughter 1776, floor-slab, (13) 43a.

Oates, John, John Edwin and Matthew, architects, xcviii.

O'Corall, Sir John, architect, (45) 100b.

Offices: (141) 126a (probable) (298) 173a (304) 174a (391) 203b, Pl. 155 houses designed as, (279) 165a.

Ogleforth: 171b173b street previously regarded as part of, 115b.

Oglesby, Richard . . . ., Margaret 17. floor-slab, (11) 35a.

Old Coney Street, street originally known as, 152a.

" Deanery, site of: 129a school built on part of, (49) 104a.

Oldfield
-, Henry, senior, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bell-founders.
-, William, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bell-founders.

Old George Hotel, former, finds from stable-yard of, (22) 51a.

" Lane, lane formerly known as, 122a.

" Racket, The, building known as, (367) 196b.

" Residence, The, (277) 163b, Fig. 101, Pl. 139.

" Turk's Head, house formerly known as, (241) 150a.

" White Swan: (223) 145a, Fig. 87 building formerly serving as frontage to, (349) 192b.

" York, or Ebrauk, statue of, 117b.

Oliver, John, silversmith, (12) 40a.

Oliver Sheldon House, (61) 105b, Fig. 60, Pl. 138.

Ordinance of Taillours, guild first mentioned in, (38) 88b.

Osbaldeston, Sir Richard, house occupied by, (252) 155a.

Osbaldwick, prebend of, property formerly belonging to, (466) 223b.

Osbaldwyke, arms of, (10) 29b.

Osberht, styca of, cross marked with impressions of: xxxvii (11) 36a.

Osmond Lane, lane possibly formerly named, 152a.

Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, Guild of, (37) 82a.

Ouse Bridge, council chamber on: (36) 77a replacement of, (36) 78b.

Ousebridge Inn, public house formerly known as, (247) 151a.

Ousegate: xxxiii High, see High Ousegate Low, see Low Ousegate.

Outbuildings
-, Coach-houses
-,-, 18th-century: (35) 76a (39) 93b (60) 105b (288) 170a.
-, Outbuilding
-,-, 18th-century, (91) 116b.
-, Stables
-,-, 18th-century: (79) 111b (253) 155a (288) 170a (505) 237a.
-, Summerhouse
-,-, 18th-century, (499) 235b.
-, Workshops
-,-, c. 1600, (225) 146b.
-,-, 18th-century: (74) 109b (169) 133a.
-,-, 19th-century: (169) 133a (257) 156b (361) 195a.

Overend, Leonard, slater, (395) 205b.

Oxford, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

P.. se, Charles 1708, monument, (10) 29b.

Pace, George, architect, (10) 25a.

Painters, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Paintings, lvi.
-, 17th-century: (32) 56b (35) 74a (frieze), (317) 180a.
-, 18th-century: (panels), (5) 14b (35) 75a.
-, 19th-century, (door panels), (44) 98a.
-, See also Wall-paintings.

Palace, of Danish kings, reference to, 149b.

Palazzo Farnese, design of elevation based on, (391) 203b, Pl. 155.

Palladian Style: lxxvi, lxxvii, lxxxii (44) 96b, Pl. 93 (45) 101a, Pl. 98, 102a, Pl. 97 (250) 152b, Pl. 113.

Palladio, design based on interpretation of, (45) 101a.

Palmer, Richard and William, butchers, premises occupied by, (430) 216b.

Panelling, lxxxvi, Fig. 10, pp. lxxxiv, lxxxv lxxxix xcvii.
-, 16th-century, (fragment), (2) 9b.
-, c. 1600: (276) 163a (476) 228a.
-, 17th-century: (2) 9b (34) 67b (35) 75a, 76a, b (36) 80a, Fig. 10a (37) 84b, 86b (70) 108b (92) 116b (147) 127b (162) 132b (189) 136b (264) 157b (271) 161a (311) 177a, Pl. 175 (317) 179b, Pl. 170, 180a (326) 182b (336) 186b (353) 193b (368) 197a (378) 201a (418) 213a (427) 215b (459) 222b (471) 226a, Pls. 170, 197 (478) 228b (480) 230b, Pl. 175 (485) 232b (487) 232b (488) 234a.
-, 18th-century: (34) 65a, b (35) 74a, 75a, b, Fig. 10c, d, e (37) 87a (44) 98a, Pl. 95 (61) 106a, b (72) 109a (78) 111b (89) 115a, b, Fig. 10f (117) 120a (124) 121b (133) 123b (147) 127a, b, Pls. 172, 173 (156) 131b, Pl. 178 (232) 147b (249) 152a, Pls. 171, 178 (250) 152b, 155a, Fig. 93, p. 154, Pl. 115 (254) 156a (265) 157b (270) 160b (271) 161a (275) 162b (277) 163b (280) 165b (287) 168b (309) 176a (312) 178a, Pl. 178 (321) 181b (327) 183a (330) 184b (343) 189a (344) 189b (348) 192b (353) 193b (370) 197b (375) 199b, Fig. 10b, Pl. 172 (377) 201a (407) 208b (409) 209b, Pl. 173 (411) 210b (417) 212b (430) 216b (458) 222a (462) 222b (474) 227a (480) 231a (488) 234a (492) 234b (499) 236a (516) 238a, Pl. 171.
-, 19th-century: (27) 54a (391) 203b.

Pantile, xcvi.

Parchment Rolls, of receipts and expenses, 15th-century, (9) 25a.

Pargetting, lxxix.

Parkinson
-, Mary and children 1818, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Robert and Ursula 1818, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Parliament Street: 173174a finds from, (16) 49a.

Passage, vaulted, 13th-century, (40) 94a, Pl. 91.

Passion, The: instruments of (glass), (12) 38a scenes, see under Christ shield (glass), (1) 3b, Pl. 55.

Patens, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Patrick Pool, 174a, b.

Pavage Toll, grant of, xxxiv.

Pavement: xxxiii, xxxiv 174b178b chimney-piece from house in, (37) 88a finds from, (16) 49a market formerly in, 173b.

" cobble, Roman, (35) 69a.

Pavers Lane, 236b.

Paving, see Floors, Paved.

Payler, Thomas 1795, Mary 1759, Mary 1807, and son 1809, monument, (8) 22a.

Peace, representation of (stone), (4) 12a, Pl. 41.

Peacock, George, newspaper proprietor, premises built by, (141) 126a.

Pearson
-, Family, inn kept by, (207) 141b.
-, Peter, silversmith, (2) 9b.

Peasholme Green, 178b180a.

" House, (417) 212b, Fig. 135, Pl. 112.

Peckett
-, Alice, yard named after, 152a.
-, John, Lord Mayor: posset cups given by, (44) 99b wing probably added by, (312) 178a.

Peckitt
-, William, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Glass-painters and Glaziers.
-, " 1776, Anna 1787, monument, (20) 50a.

Peel Street, 236b.

Peirson
-, Elizabeth 1766, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, Hannah 1769, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Pelican in Piety, representation of (boss), (142) 126a.

Pemberton
-, Arms of, (82) 113a.
-, Mrs. Ann Mary, house occupied by, (82) 112a.

Penny Lane, lane sometimes known as, 219b.

Penty, W. G., architect, (15) 47a.

Perambulation Jugs, pewter, 18th-century, (2) 9b.

Percy
-, Arms of: (2) 9a (8) 21b (11) 34b.
-, Family: possible chapel of, (6) 15a possible fibula badge of, (22) 51a town house of: 236b (513) 237b.
-, Henry, 4th Earl of Northumberland, arms of, (6) 19b, Pl. 38.
-, " de, land given by, (22) 51b.
-, Stephen, chantry priest, prebendal house leased to, (34) 62a.
-, William de: advowson belonging to, (5) 12b church held by, (11) 30a.

Percy's Inn, houses on part of site of, (513) 237b.

Perett, Christopher, carver, (36) 78b, 80a, Pl. 197.

Perkins, Henry, property acquired from, (89) 114b.

Perpendicular Style: (279) 165a, Pl. 151 (281) 166a.

Perritt, Thomas, plasterer, lxxxvii.

Perrott, Andrew 1762, Martha 1785, and family: floor-slab, (15) 49a monument, (15) 48b.

Petergate: xxxiii 180a199a Saxon burials found under, xlii, 180b.

Peter Lane, 180a.

" Prison, demolition of: 162a (324) 181b.

Pews, see Seating.

Pewter, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Phillips, Matthew, architect, xcvii.

Phoenix Inn, The, (182) 135a.

Piccadilly: 199a corbel from, (6) 17a.

Pickering
-, Arms of: (12) 39b (44) 99b.
-, Mrs. Mary 1748, monument, (12) 39b.
-, William, renewal of gift of, (44) 99b.

Pickersgill, Thomas, see Architects.

" and Oates, see Architects.

Pigot & Co., directory published by, xcii.

Piscinae
-, Mediaeval: (8) 22b (part of) (14) 46a.
-, 13th-century: (11) 35b (probable) (40) 94b.
-, 13th or 14th-century, (33) 60a.
-, 14th-century, (11) 35b.
-, c. 1400, (9) 25a.
-, 15th-century: (2) 9b (11) 35b (probably) (15) 49a (possible) (34) 65b.
-, 19th-century, (11) 35b.

Pitts, W., and Preedy, J., of London, silversmiths, (44) 99a.

Plasterers, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Plaster Rendering, see Building Materials.

Plasterwork, lxxxvi.
-, 16th-century, (311) 177b.
-, 17th-century: (144) 126b (343) 189a (424) 215a (493) 235a.
-, 18th-century: (44) 98a (45) 102a, Pls. 97, 98 (82) 113a, Pls. 105, 108 (89) 115a (233) 148a (250) 155a, Pl. 114 (334) 185b (417) 212b, Pl. 112 (472) 226b.
-, 19th-century: (45) 102a (46) 102b (48) 104a (239) 148b (270) 160b (391) 203b (395) 206a (482) 231a.
-, See also Ceilings, Plaster Decorated, and Stencilled Decoration.

Plate, Church and Civic, lvi.
-, Base Metal
-,-, Cup 18th-century, (1) 4a, b.
-, Brass
-,-, Alms-dishes 16th-century: (8) 22b (13) 43b. 18th-century: (2) 9b (14) 46b.
-, Gold
-,-, Cup 17th-century, (44) 99b, Pl. 64.
-, Pewter
-,-, Almsdish 17th-century, (10) 29b.
-,-, Basin 18th-century, (6) 19b.
-,-, Flagons 18th-century: (1) 4b (6) 19b (13) 43b. Date Unknown, (with cover), (9) 25a.
-,-, Patens 17th-century, (6) 19b.
-,-, Perambulation Jugs 18th-century, (2) 9b.
-,-, Salver 19th-century (probably), (9) 25a.
-, Silver
-,-, Alms-dishes 17th-century, (12) 40a. 18th-century, (10) 29b.
-,-, Centre-piece 18th-century, (44) 99a, Pl. 64.
-,-, Chamber-pot 17th-century, (44) 99b.
-,-, Cups 16th-century, (12) 40a. 17th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9b (5) 14b (6) 19b (8) 22b (9) 25a (13) 43b (37) 84b (38) 91a (posset), (32) 56b. 18th-century: (1) 4a (10) 29b (12) 40a (14) 46a (posset, with covers), (44) 99b (standing, with covers), (44) 99b. 19th-century: (1) 4a (5) 14b (14) 46b.
-,-, Ewer and Dish 17th-century, (44) 99b.
-,-, Flagons 18th-century: (1) 4a (2) 9b (8) 22b (10) 29b (11) 35b (12) 40a (32) 56b. 19th-century: (1) 4a (5) 14b (13) 43b.
-,-, Monteiths 17th and 18th-century, (44) 99b.
-,-, Patens 16th-century, (12) 40a. 17th-century: (1) 4a (5) 14b (6) 19b (9) 25a (10) 29b (12) 40a (13) 43b. 18th-century: (2) 9b (8) 22b (10) 29b (12) 40a (14) 46b. 19th-century: (1) 4a (6) 19b.
-,-, Plates 17th-century, (32) 56b.
-,-, Punch Ladles 18th-century, (44) 99b.
-,-, Salvers 17th-century: (1) 4a (14) 46b. 18th-century, (1) 4a. 19th-century, (38) 91a.
-,-, Spoons 17th-century, (12) 40a. 18th-century, (10) 29b.
-,-, Tankards 17th-century: (37) 84b (38) 91a. 18th-century, (44) 99b.
-,-, Tea Urn 18th-century, (44) 99b.
-,-, Tureens 18th-century, (44) 99b.
-, Silver Gilt
-,-, Cups and Covers 17th-century, (standing), (44) 99b, Pl. 64. 19th-century, (44) 99b.

Plate-glazing, 19th-century, (472) 226b.

Plates, silver, 17th-century, (32) 56b.

Plows, William A., see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Plumbers and Glaziers: scratchings of, (2) 9a see also Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Plummer
-, John, silversmith, (44) 99b.
-, Thomas 1820, Mary 1813, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Podie, Peter, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

Polety, Troop Sgt. Major John 1829, Charles 1838, monument, (1) 4a.

Police Station: establishment of first, 201b range of houses formerly incorporating, 219b.

Pontefract Priory, advowson in possession of, (14) 44a.

Pontey, Jane 1840, gravestone, (14) 46a.

Poor-box, cast-iron, 19th-century, (6) 19b.

Pope, Alexander, portrait bust of (plasterwork), (82) 113a.

Popes, representations of (glass): (2) 8b (6) 17b, 18b.

Pope's Head Alley, 180a.

Porches
-, Of Churches
-,-, 12th-century, (9) 24a, Pl. 26.
-,-, 19th-century: (2) 7a (4) 11b (5) 13b (7) 20a.
-, Of Other Buildings
-,-, 15th-century, (timber), (142) 126a.
-,-, 17th-century, (34) 64a.
-,-, 18th-century: (timber), (38) 90b (89) 115a (254) 155b (270) 158b.
-,-, 19th-century: xcv (84) 113b (133) 123b (395) 206a.

Porticoes
-, 18th-century: (77) 110b (344) 189b (476) 228a.
-, 19th-century, (24) 52a, Pl. 66.

Posset Cups, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Post Office, main, 152b.

Pot-helmet, 17th-century, (12) 37b.

Potter, William, bricklayer and plasterer, (45) 100a.

Potts, Ann 1798, headstone, (14) 46a.

Poultryman's Yard, property said to have been known as, (60) 105b.

Powell
-, Mr., glass-painter, (6) 18b, 19a.
-, Richard, and Son, bricklayers, (395) 205b.

Prebendal Houses, former: (34) 62a, b (277) 163b (278) 164b (377) 200a (467) 223b 231b (485) 232a plan showing boundaries of, Fig. 148, p. 233.

Prebendaries, Prebends, see Ampleforth, Bilton, Bramham, Fenton, Husthwaite, Masham, Osbaldwick, Salton, and South Newbald.

Precentor's Court, 199a201a, Pl. 8.

Pre-Conquest
-, Cemetery, extent of, 180b.
-, Coffins: (15) 46b (16) 49a.
-, Coin, xxxvii.
-, Dedication stone, (11) 33b, Pl. 21.
-, Flood bank, site of, 149a.
-, Leatherwork's shop, site of, (309) 176a.
-, Palace, reference to, 149b.

Preston, Solomon, butcher, house probably occupied by, (442) 219a.

Price, Nicholas 1787, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Prickett
-, George, monteith given by, (44) 99b.
-, Sarah 1817, monument, (1) 4a.

Priestley, Ann 1831, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Priests' Colleges and Houses, lvii see also Religious Foundations.

Primitive Methodists, chapel formerly occupied by, (28) 54a.

Prince of Wales, badge of (on mace), (44) 98b.

Printers, street inhabited by, 220b.

Printing House, location of former, 231b.

" Works, 19th-century: (355) 194a workshop now forming part of, (225) 146b.

Prison: hall used as, (39) 91b wall and gatehouse of, location of, 236a.

Pritchett, James Pigott, see Architects.

Prophets, representations of (glass): (6) 17b (13) 42a.

Proprietary School, removal of school to buildings of, (49) 104a.

Provence, arms of, (2) 9a.

Providence Place, former terrace houses known as, 167a.

Public Baths, establishment of, (282) 166b.

" Buildings and Institutions, 57a105a see also Houses and Public Buildings.

" Houses, 19th-century, designs for, xciii see also Inns and Public Houses.

" Latrines, order for establishment of, xxxiv.

" Record Office, 16th-century map in, 219b.

" Square, mention of, 162a.

" Washing Place, location of, 151a.

Pudding Holes, probable site of: (51) 104b 151a.

Pulpits, lvi.
-, 17th-century: (1) 4b, Pl. 36 (5) 14b (6) 19b (37) 84b.
-, 18th-century: (2) 9b (11) 35b (32) 56b.
-, 19th-century, (31) 55b.

Pump Court, probable predecessor of, 149b.

Punch Bowl, house formerly known as, (400) 207b.

" Ladles, silver, 18th-century, (44) 99b.

Purey-Cust Chambers, (154) 129b, Pl. 152.

" " Nursing Home, stoneyard replaced by forecourt of, (153) 129b.

Pyemont, Annis 1837, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Quarnbie, Robert, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bell-founders.

Quays: of friary, xli Roman, 148b see also King's Staith.

Queen's Gallery, Somerset House, front elevation of, (44) 97a, Pl. 93.

" Head, (174) 133b, Fig. 80, Pl. 120.

Queen Street, part of street sometimes called, 105b.

RC/JB, silversmiths, (14) 46b.

RG, of London, silversmith, (32) 56b.

RI, silversmith, (10) 29b.

RM 1791, MM 1823, MM 1836, brass, (15) 48a.

Railings, see Cast Iron and Ironwork.

Rainwater Heads and Pipes, see Leadwork.

Raisin, Matthew, joiner and carpenter, (45) 100a.

Raper, Edward, monumental mason, (12) 39b.

Rawdon
-, Arms of: (4) 11b (44) 99b.
-, Lawrence 1626, Margery 1644, brass, (4) 11b.
-, Marmaduke, gifts by, (44) 99a, b.

Rawstorne, John, see Architects.

Rayson, Thomas, junior, drawings endorsed by, (46) 102b.

Recesses
-, In Ecclesiastical Buildings: (2) 9b (5) 14b (33) 60a (40) 94b tomb: (4) 12a (11) 35b see also Monuments, funeral.
-, In Secular Buildings
-,-, 18th-century: vaulted, (287) 170a with shelving, (383) 202a.
-,-, 19th-century, (405) 208a.
-,-, See also Aumbries and Niches.

Red Calf, property formerly known as, (336) 186b.

Redford, Susannah 1843, floor-slab, (9) 25a.

Red House, The, (156) 130a, Fig. 78, Pl. 139.

" Lion: (519) 238b, Fig. 151, Pl. 118 house formerly known as, (414) 211b.

Red Lion Inn, former, buildings occupying site of, (207) 141b.

Redman
-, Arms of: (5) 14b (6) 19a (61) 106b impaled by Hughes, (6) 19a.
-, Charles, house of, (61) 106a.
-, Felix, house probably built for, (431) 217a.
-, William, work on house completed by, (61) 106a.
-, " alderman, house probably built for, (431) 217a.

Regnart, of London, monumental sculptor, (32) 56b.

Religious Foundations
-, Colleges, lvii.
-,-, Of Vicars Choral, (33) 57a, b, 60a, Fig. 36.
-,-, St. William's, (34) 62a, Figs. 3741.
-, Friaries, xxxiv.
-,-, Augustinian: (21) 50a area occupied by grounds of, 152b houses on site of, (252) 155a, (254) 155b stable on part of river wall of, (253) 155a.
-,-, Carmelite: (22) 50b coffin possibly from church of, xlvii lane adjoining wall and gateway of, 220b street bounding grounds of, 149a.
-,-, Franciscan: (23) 51b extension of boundary of, 134b mayoral elections at, (36) 77a property on site of, (89) 114b remains of precinct wall of, (27) 54a, (88) 114a. See also Grey Friars, below.
-,-, Friars of the Sack: xli location of house of, 219b.
-,-, Grey Friars, river wall of, xxxv.
-, Hospitals, mediaeval, lvi.
-,-, St. Leonard's: (40) 93b, Fig. 53, Pls. 90, 91 advowson given to, (6) 15a building incorporating fragments of, (47) 103a lane along boundary wall of, 166a lane incorporated into precinct of, xxxiv street cut through former site of, 204a site of watergate of, 152b.
-,-, St. Nicholas, (9) 23a.

Renald, William, churchwarden, (14) 46a.

Reredoses
-, 18th-century: (2) 9b (12) 40a, Pl. 37 (13) 43b, Pl. 37.
-, 19th-century, (15) 49a.

Rhodes, Sarah 1813, monument, (4) 11b.

Richard II, appropriation of church by, (14) 44a.

" III, Creed play performed before, (36) 77b.

Richards, Henry 1783, monument, (1) 4a.

Richardson
-, Dinah 1788, monument, (9) 24b.
-, Francis 1828, Phebe 1802, and family, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, John 1786, and family, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, Martha 1829, monument, (12) 39a.
-, Mr., plasterer, (82) 112a.
-, Peter 1690, floor-slab, (13) 43a.
-, William 1679, floor-slab, (2) 9b.
-, " 1680, brass, (14) 46a.
-, Rev. William 1821, monument, (12) 39a.
-, " " 1837, monument, (12) 39a.

Richmond
-, Archdeacon of: advowson acquired by, (14) 44a lease of property granted by, (476) 228a.
-, Silvester, house let to, (340) 187a.

Riley, John (n.d.), floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Ripley, Richard, bequest by, (14) 44a.

River Walls: (52) 104b of friaries: xxxv (253) 155a.

Roads, Roman, see under Roman.

Roberts, Nicholas 17.7, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Robin Hood Inn, public house formerly known as, (78) 111a.

Robinson
-, Arms of, (4) 11b.
-, Hugh, house of, (244) 150b.
-, Rear-Admiral Hugh 1802, Mary 1852, and family, monument, (15) 48b.
-, Izabell and John 1606, brass, (4) 11b.
-, Matthew, property acquired by, (35) 70a.
-, Peter Frederick, see Architects.
-, Sir Tancred, hatchment, (4) 11b.
-, " " 1754, and Dame Mary, monument, (4) 11b, Pl. 43.
-, " William, Bart., house built for, (156) 130a.

Roe or Rowe, James, house possibly of, (345) 191a.

Roecliffe, John de, licence granted to, (37) 82a.

Rokeby, Sir Thomas, house occupied by, (252) 155a.

Rolls, parchment, see Parchment Rolls.

Roman
-, Bath-house, site of, 174a.
-, Burials, 236a.
-, Cobble pavement (part of), (35) 69a.
-, Columns: (35) 69a stones from, (11) 33b.
-, Commemoration tablet, re-use of, (11) 33b.
-, Emperor, supposed burial place of, 105b.
-, Fortress: xxxiii xxxiv lvii (40) 93b 105b 111a 121b 129a 131b.
-, Gatehouse, site of, xxxiii.
-, Masonry, re-use of: xcv (3) 10a (5) 12b (11) 33a.
-, Mosaic floor, 105b.
-, Quay, site of, 148b.
-, Roads, streets on lines of: xxxiii 111a 115b 121b 180a 220b.
-, Wharves, 236a.

Roman Catholic Churches, xlii see also Churches and Chapels.

" Cement, xcv.

Romans, use of gritstone by, xcv.

Romanus, John, Treasurer of the Minster, infirmary built by, (40) 94a.

Roofing Materials, xcv, xcvi.

Roofs and Roof Trusses
-, In Churches, xli.
-,-, Arch-braced 19th-century: (14) 45a (15) 48a.
-,-, Arch-braced Collar-beam 19th-century: (9) 24b (14) 45b (15) 48a.
-,-, Cambered 15th-century, (2) 7a.
-,-, Queen-post 19th-century, (15) 48a.
-,-, Wagon 15th-century, (5) 13b.
-, In Other Buildings, lxviii, Figs. 6, 7, pp. lxx, lxxi.
-,-, Arch-braced 15th-century, (270) 160a.
-,-, Arch-braced Collar-beam 15th-century: (34) 66a, b, Fig. 40 (39) 93a. 16th-century, (38) 89b, 90a.
-,-, Clasped-purlin 16th-century: (70) 108b (307) 174b (317) 180a (362) 195b. c. 1600: (111) 118a (124) 121b (337) 186b (379) 201b. 17th-century: (43) 96b (120) 120b (247) 151b, Fig. 7q (459) 222b (471) 226a (519) 238b. c. 1700, (237) 148b.
-,-, Collar-beam 15th-century, (34) 65a.
-,-, Collared-rafter Mediaeval, (93) 117a. 14th-century, (436) 217b, Pl. 130. 15th-century: (346) 192a (420) 213b (421) 214a (432) 214b (434) 217a (477) 228a (519) 238b, Fig. 6e. 16th-century: (318) 180a (400) 207b.
-,-, Common-rafter 17th-century, (223) 145b. c. 1800, (188) 136a.
-,-, Crown-post Mediaeval, (92) 116b. 14th-century: (37) 86b, Fig. 50, Pl. 133 (222) 145a, Fig. 6c, Pl. 127 (291) 171a, Fig. 6d (360) 195a (364) 196a (438) 218b (471) 226a (530) 240b, Pl. 135 (539) 242a. c. 1400, (537) 241b, Pl. 129. 15th-century: (130) 122b, Fig. 6f (151) 128b, Fig. 6h (174) 134a, Pl. 133 (229) 147a, Fig. 6j (243) 150a (270) 160a, Pl. 134 (336) 186b (367) 196b (420) 213b, Pl. 130 (437) 218b (439) 218b (441) 219a (467) 223b, Fig. 6g (476) 227b (478) 228b (479) 229a (485) 232a, Fig. 6i (488) 234a, Pl. 131 (536) 241a. c. 1500, (343) 189a. 16th-century, (353) 193b, Fig. 6k.
-,-, Coupled-rafter 18th-century, (428) 216a.
-,-, False Crown-post c. 1500: (193) 137a, Pl. 131, 138a (299) 173b, Fig. 6l.
-,-, Kerb-principal c. 1500, (194) 140a, Pl. 128. 16th-century: (194) 138b, Fig. 7m (242) 150a (270) 160a (350) 193a (363) 196a, Fig. 7p (364) 196a, Fig. 7n (413) 211b (465) 223a (480) 231a, Fig. 70. c. 1600, (366) 196b. 17th-century: (193) 138a (493) 235a, Fig. 7v. 18th-century: (116) 119a (314) 178b.
-,-, King-post 18th-century, (45) 101b. 19th-century, (143) 126b.
-,-, Mansard 19th-century: (330) 184a (359) 194b (394) 204b.
-,-, M-section 18th-century, (200) 141a.
-,-, Passing-brace 14th-century: (270) 160a, Pl. 134 (276) 163a, Fig. 6a. c. 1400, (131) 123a, Pl. 127.
-,-, Principal-rafter 16th-century, (223) 145b. c. 1600, (161) 132b, Fig. 7t. 17th-century: (32) 56a (37) 88a (111) 118b (177) 134b, Fig. 7s (311) 177a (312) 178a, Fig. 7w (427) 216a (456) 221b (537) 241b. 18th-century: (115) 119a, Fig. 7x (287) 170a (335) 186a (345) 191a, Fig. 7u (399) 207a.
-,-, Queen-strut 16th-century, (536) 241a, Fig. 7r.
-,-, Scissor-braced c. 1300, (276) 163a. 14th-century: (33) 59b, Fig. 34, 60a, Fig. 36, Pl. 65 (320) 181a, Fig. 6b.
-,-, Miscellaneous 14th-century, (456) 221b. 15th-century: (36) 80a, Fig. 47 (435) 217b. c. 1600, (215) 143a. 17th-century, (297) 173a. c. 1700, (525) 239b. 19th-century, (49) 104a.

Ros, arms of, (2) 9a.

Roscoa, Elizabeth 1804, brass, (1) 2b children of, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Rose, Joseph, junior and senior, plasterers, lxxxvii.

Rosemary Place, former terrace houses known as, 167a.

Royal Arms
-, Anne (carved wood), (12) 40a.
-, Charles II: (painted), (37) 84b, Pl. 32 (on mace), (44) 98b.
-, Elizabeth I (on sword), (44) 98b.
-, George III (painted), (8) 22b, Pl. 32.
-, " IV (painted), (13) 42a, Pl. 36.
-, Hanoverian: (painted), (1) 5a, Pl. 32 (painted), (2) 9b (glass), (335) 185b.
-, Stuart: (glass), (36) 79b, Pl. 187 (carved wood), (36) 80a, Pl. 182 (plaster), (343) 189a.
-, Victoria: (cast iron), (6) 19b (44) 98a (45) 102b.
-, William and Mary (painted): (1) 3b, 5a.

Royal Mint: (40) 94a 204a.

" Oak, (210) 142a, Fig. 85.

Rudd, Sarah 1821, monument, (12) 39b.

Rufus, William, church given by, (13) 40b.

Rumby, John, bequest by, (10) 25b.

Rumlay, William, will of, (1) 3a.

Rusby, James, bricklayer, (277) 163b.

Russell
-, George 1801, Ann 18. floor-slab, (15) 49a.
-, Richard, bequest by, (15) 46b.

Rysdael, painting signed by, (35) 74a.

Sabben
-, Eliza Maria, and Mary Caroline 1848, monument, (6) 19a.
-, James, rector, (6) 19a.

Sadler Lane, lane formerly known as, 206a.

Safe, cast-iron, 19th-century, (14) 46b.

St. Andrew
-, Chantry of, properties built to support, (471) 225b.
-, Churches of: Bishopthorpe, fittings now at, (4) 11a, b St. Andrewgate, (3) 10a, Fig. 15.
-, Parish of, (15) 47a.
-, Representation of (probable), (glass), (6) 19a.

St. Andrewgate: 201a203a parish boundary mark in, (53) 105a.

St. Andrew's Hall, (3) 10a, Fig. 15, Pl. 20.

" " House, (448) 219b.

" " Parish, boundary mark of, (53) 105a.

St. Anne
-, Chantry founded at altar of, (15) 46b.
-, Former chapel of, (50) 104b.
-, Representations of (glass): (2) 8b (10) 29a, Pl. 51.

St. Anthony, representation of pig of (carved wood), (39) 93b.

St. Anthony's Hall: (39) 91a, Fig. 52, Pl. 75 former hospital of, lvii parish boundary marks on, (56) 105a.

St. Athanasius, glass said to illustrate history of, (10) 26a.

St. Barbara, representations of (glass): (6) 19a (10) 29b.

St. Benedict: church of, 146b churchyard of, 156a.

St. Catherine, chapel of, (6) 15b.

St. Christopher
-, Chapel of, building on site of, (44) 96b.
-, Feast of, celebration of, (36) 77a.
-, Guild of, (36) 77a.
-, Representations of: (glass): (2) 8a, b, Pl. 57 (fragment), (6) 17b (12) 38a, b, Pl. 63 (carved wood), (34) 63b, Pl. 198.

St. Crux, church of: xxxiv xxxv xxxix xl xli (4) 11a, Pl. 2 building incorporating wall of, (430) 216b houses owned by feoffees of: (429) 216a, (430) 216b fittings formerly in: xliii, xliv (1) 3a, b, 4a, 5a, Pls. 35, 38, 40 (10) 29b.

St. Crux Burial Ground: (18) 49b parish boundary mark in, (54) 105a.

" " Parish, boundary mark of, (54) 105a.

" " " Room, (4) 11a.

St. Cuthbert, church of: (5) 12a, Fig. 16, Pl. 10 benefice united with that of, 105b.

St. Denys: church of, (6) 15a, Fig. 17, Pl. 11 representation of (glass), (6) 17b.

St. Edwin, possible representation of (glass), (8) 21b.

St. Francis, representation of (glass), (8) 22a.

St. George
-, Arms of (glass): (5) 14a (12) 39a.
-, Churches of: Fishergate, ruinous state of, xxxix, (19) 496 Roman Catholic, xlii, (7) 20a, Pl. 13.
-, Cross of: (carved wood), (36) 80a (on mace), (44) 98b.
-, Guild of, (36) 77a.
-, Representations of: (glass): (2) 8a, Pl. 57 (10) 29a (12) 38b, Pl. 63 (stone), (7) 20a (carved wood), (344) 189b.

St. George's Churchyard, former, (19) 49b.

" " Street, street formerly known as, 135a.

St. Helen
-, Church of: (8) 20a, Fig, 20, Pls. 2, 13, 17 bells from, (14) 44b.
-, Representation of (glass), (8) 21a.

St. Helen-on-the-Walls: church of, xxxix, xl, 105b parish of, (5) 12b.

St. Helen's Burial Ground, (20) 49b.

" " Lane, church approached by, 105b.

" " Square: 203a204a churchyard forming part of, (20) 50a old view of, Pl. 2.

St. Hugh of Lincoln, representation of (glass), (12) 38b.

St. James
-, Altar dedicated to, (6) 15b.
-, Chantry founded at altar of, (15) 46b.
-, Chapel of, (2) 5b, 7a.
-, Feast day of, (36) 77a.
-, Representations of (glass): (11) 34b (12) 38a, b.

St. James Major, figure identified as (glass), (6) 19a.

" " the Deacon, Acomb, church of, church plate now at, (14) 46b.

" " " Less, representation of (glass), (12) 38b.

St. Joachim, representations of (glass): (2) 8b, Pl. 51 (10) 29a, Pl. 51.

St. John del Pyke, church of: 171b acquisition of, (35) 69b parsonage house of, (91) 116a.

" " of Beverley, church used by, (12) 36a.

St. John's College of Education, property leased to, (35) 71a.

" " Hall, building sometimes known as, (38) 88b.

St. John the Baptist
-, Altar dedicated to, (6) 15b.
-, Chapel of, grant of licence for chantry in, (11) 30b.
-, Church of, 149a.
-, Fraternity of, guild connected with, (38) 88b.
-, Maison Dieu of, (38) 89b.
-, Parish of, (15) 47a.
-, Representations of: (glass): (2) 8a, Pl. 57 (6) 17b, 18b, Pl. 60 (8) 21b, 22a (11) 34b (12) 38b (13) 42a, b (wood), (14) 45b.

St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, altar of, (11) 30b.

" " " Evangelist
-, Chalice of (glass), (6) 18b, Pl. 47.
-, Chantry at altar of, (15) 46b.
-, Representations of (glass): (2) 8a, b (6) 17b, 18a, b, Pl. 60 (8) 21b (10) 29a.

St. Katherine
-, Altar dedicated to, (10) 25b.
-, Representations of (glass): (6) 19a (12) 38a, b.

St. Laurence, Lawrence: altar of, (15) 46b chantry founded at altar of, (10) 25b.

St. Leonard: church of, (40) 93b representation of(?) (glass), (6) 17b.

St. Leonard's Hospital, see Religious Foundations.

St. Leonard's Landing, property acquired for friary on, (21) 50a.

" " Lending Hill, 152b.

" " Place: 204a206a pre-Conquest stones from, (40) 95a wood-carving from summer-house in, (40) 95b.

St. Luke, representation of (glass), (10) 29a.

St. Margaret
-, Church of, (9) 22b, Fig. 21, Pl. 11.
-, Representations of (glass): (6) 18b (13) 42b.

St. Margaret's Landing, road leading to site of, 167a.

" " Terrace, houses formerly known as, 167a.

St. Mark, representation of (glass), (10) 29a.

St. Martin
-, Chapel of, 179a.
-, Church of: (10) 25a, Figs. 22, 23, Pls. 2, 9, 19 fittings formerly at, xlvi, xlvii houses built on churchyard of, (139) 125b.
-, Guild of, (39) 91a, b.

St. Martin of Tours, scenes from life of (glass): (10) 28a, b, Pl. 61 (12) 38b, Pl. 63.

St. Martin-on-the-Hill, former chapel of, xxxix.

St. Martin's Lane: (52) 104b 122a.

St. Mary
-, Chantry founded at altar of, (10) 25b.
-, Chapel of, bequest of lead for roof of, (10) 25b.
-, Churches of
-,-, Castlegate: (11) 30a, Figs. 24, 25, Pls. 14, 15 pulpit formerly in, lvi rectory of, (86) 114a.
-,-, Layerthorpe, parish of, (5) 12b.
-,-, Walmgate: 236b church united to, (9) 22b.

St. Mary-ad-Valvas, church of: xl 117b.

" " and the Holy Angels, chapel and college of, 129a.

" " Cleophas, and family, representation of (glass), (2) 8b, Pl. 59.

St. Mary Magdalene, friary established around chapel of, xxxiv.

St. Mary's Abbey: advowson held by, (4) 11a churches given to: (13) 40b (15) 46b hospital protected by, lvii.

St. Mary Salome, and family, representation of, (glass), (2) 8b, Pl. 59.

St. Mary the Virgin
-, Altar of, (6) 15b.
-, Chantries to: (14) 44a (15) 46b rents for endowment of, (222) 143b, (451) 220b.
-, Chapel to, (22) 50b.
-, Representations of: (glass): li, lii (1) 3b (2) 8b, Pl. 55 (6) 17b, 18b, Pl. 47 (stone), (11) 33a, (glass), 34b, (stone), 35a.
-,-, Annunciation (glass), (12) 38a, Pl. 49.
-,-, Assumption (glass), (6) 19a.
-,-, Coronation (glass): (2) 8b, Pl. 58 (8) 21b (10) 29a (12) 38a (13) 42a.
-,-, Queen of Heaven (glass), (8) 21a.
-,-, With Child: (bell plaque), (2) 7b (glass), (2) 8b (glass), (6) 18b (glass), (10) 29a, Pl. 51 (wood), (10) 29b (glass), (13) 42b (wood), (34) 63b, Pl. 198 (wood), (36) 80a.

St. Matthew, representation of (glass), (10) 29a.

St. Maurice, monument from church of, (2) 9a.

St. Michael
-, Altar possibly dedicated to, (6) 15b.
-, Church of: (13) 40b, Fig. 27, Pls. 13, 18 plate now at, (11) 35b.
-, Representations of: (stone), (8) 20b, Pl. 30 (glass), (12) 38a, Pl. 63 (wood), (13) 43b, Pl. 37.

St. Michael-le-Belfrey
-, Church of: (12) 36a, Fig. 26, Pls. 13, 19 extramural burial ground of, xlii.
-, Parish of, boundary mark of, (55) 105a.

St. Nicholas, altars dedicated to: (6) 15b (10) 25b (15) 46b.

St. Nicholas' Chantry, (14) 44a.

" " Hospital, porch from church of, (9) 23a.

St. Oswald, representation of (glass), (12) 38b.

St. Paul: arms of, (12) 38b representations of (glass): (6) 18a (12) 38a, Pl. 49 symbol for (stone), (12) 37a.

St. Paulinus, representation of (glass), (2) 9a.

St. Peter
-, Arms of, (10) 29a.
-, Chantry of, (10) 25b.
-, Chapel dedicated to, (40) 93b.
-, Liberty of, see Liberty of St. Peter.
-, Representations of: (glass): (5) 14a (6) 18a (12) 38a, b, Pl. 49 (on seals), (44) 99a.
-, Symbol for (stone), (12) 37a.

St. Peter-le-Willows, church of: demolition of, 236a, b sale of site of, (9) 22b.

St. Peter's Hospital: building originally known as, (40) 93b grant to, (9) 22b.

St. Peter's School: building originally known as, (49) 104a buildings occupied by: (3) 10a (33) 57b.

St. Peter the Little, former church of, 180a.

St. Sampson
-, Church of: (14) 44a, Fig. 28, Pls. 10, 17 houses built on churchyard of, (291) 171a.
-, Statue of, (14) 45a.

St. Sampson's Square, 206a207b.

St. Saviour
-, Church of: (15) 46b, Fig. 29, Pls. 12, 16 fittings from, (1) 2b, 3a, b, 4a, b, 5a.
-, Parish of, boundary marks of, (56, 57) 105a.

St. Saviourgate: xxxiii 207b211b Pl. 4.

St. Saviour's Place, 211b212b.

St. Sepulchre's, site of, 129a.

St. Stephen: church of, 135a possible representation of, (2) 9a.

St. Swithin's Lane: (16) 49a 180a.

St. Thomas, representations of (glass): (1) 3b, Pl. 48 (6) 18a, Pl. 60 (12) 38b.

St. Thomas the Martyr: altar dedicated to, (10) 25b chantry founded at altar of, (15) 46b.

St. Ursula, representations of (glass): (2) 8b, Pl. 58 (12) 38a, Pl. 49.

St. Wilfrid
-, Churches of: former: 130a 152b house standing on part of churchyard of, (250) 152b. Roman Catholic: xlii 130a.
-, Parish of, boundary marks of, (58, 59) 105a.
-, Representation of (glass), (12) 38b.
-, Symbol for (stone), (12) 37a.

St. William
-, Arms of: (12) 38b (34) 64b.
-, Remains of shrine of, 199a.
-, Representations of: (glass): (2) 8b (6) 17b (8) 21a (12) 38b (stone), (34) 63a.
-, Symbol for, (12) 37a.

St. William's Chapel, bells exchanged for some at, (15) 46b, 47a.

" " College: lvii (34) 62a, Figs. 3741, Pls. 7680 royal mint moved to, (40) 94a.

Salem Chapel, (31) 54b, Fig. 32, Pls. 66, 67.

Salmond, Julia 1860, Maria 1858, monument, (12) 39b.

Salthole Grese, steps known as, 151a.

Saltmarsh
-, Philip, house of, (62) 106b.
-, William, house of, 105b.

Saltmarsh House, gate-piers and boundary wall of, (62) 106b.

Salton, prebendary of, grant of lease of prebendal house by, (34) 62a.

Salvers, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Salvey Rents or Salvegate, street sometimes referred to as, 242b.

Salvin, Catherine 1807, monument, (12) 39b.

Sandercock
-, Rev. Edward 1770, monument, (32) 56b.
-, Rachel 1790, monument, (32) 56b.

Sanderson, Thomas 1803, floor-slab, (13) 43a and Elizabeth 1782, and others, monument, (13) 43a.

Sandford, possible arms of, (14) 45b.

Sangallo, elevation based on design by, (391) 203b.

Saracen's Head Coffee House, house formerly known as, (483) 231a.

" " Inn, house formerly known as, (483) 231a.

Saul, representation of (glass), (8) 21b.

Saunders, James 1824, monument, (1) 4a.

Savile, George, Viscount Halifax, land bought from, (156) 130a.

Saxon
-, Burials: xxxix, xlii (16) 49a 180b.
-, Coffin, (16) 49a.
-, Quarrying, xxxvi.
-, Stones, see Carving, Pre-Conquest.

Scarf Joints, lxvi, Fig. 5, p. lxvii.

School, 19th-century, (49) 104a, Pl. 150.

" Lane, former terrace houses known as, 167a.

Scott
-, Mr., property of, (234) 148a.
-, Susannah 1740/1, headstone, (9) 25a.
-, William 1840, Jane 1844, monument, (11) 35a.

Scratchings: (11) 35b (193) 137a (353) 193b plumbers' and glaziers', (2) 9a.

Screen, 15th-century, (37) 84b.

Screens Passage, c. 1400, (38) 90b, Pl. 188.

Scrope
-, John, 4th Lord Scrope, probable arms of, (6) 17b.
-, Of Masham, arms of (glass), (6) 17b differenced, (6) 17b.
-, Archbishop Richard, rebellion of, xxxv.
-, William le, master of St. Leonard's Hospital, probable arms of, (6) 17b.

Sculptors and Monumental Masons
-, Atkinson
-,-, John, (15) 48b.
-,-, Joseph, xcvii.
-, Avray, Robert, (4) 11b.
-, Bennett, Thomas: (2) 9a (5) 14b house probably built by, xcv, (386) 202b.
-, Bradley, R., (32) 56b.
-, Chambers, of Scarborough, (4) 12a.
-, Coade and Sealy, of London, (8) 22a.
-, Coulton, John, (11) 35a.
-, Fisher
-,-, Charles: (2) 9a (32) 56b.
-,-, Family: lv (1) 4a (2) 9a (4) 11b, 12a (6) 19a (11) 35a (12) 39a, b (13) 43a (14) 46a (15) 48b.
-,-, John, (4) 12a, Pl. 43.
-, Flintoft, J.: (2) 9a (8) 22a (12) 39a.
-, Hayes, T., of Beverley, (8) 22a.
-, IB, (12) 39b.
-, Mitley, Charles: (2) 9a (12) 39b.
-, Mountain, R., (14) 46a.
-, Nost, John, and Carpenter, Andrew, (12) 39b.
-, Plows, William A.: (1) 4a (4) 12a (6) 19a (9) 24b (14) 46a house acquired by, (503) 237a.
-, Raper, Edward, (12) 39b.
-, Regnart, of London, (32) 56b.
-, Skelton, Matthew: (5) 14b (8) 22a (9) 24b (12) 39b (13) 43a (15) 48b (32) 56b.
-, Stead, William, junior and senior: (5) 14b (15) 48b.
-, Taylor, Michael: (1) 4a (5) 14b (8) 22a (9) 24b (12) 39a, 40a (15) 48b (32) 56b.
-, Tilney J.: (12) 39a house of, (325) 182a.
-, Walker, of Nottingham, (13) 43a.
-, Walsh and Dunbar, of Leeds, (11) 35a.
-, Waudby, John: (9) 24b (15) 48b (24) 52a.

Sculpture, see Carving.

Seals, civic, (44) 99a, Pl. 92.

Seating, lvi.
-, Benches
-,-, 15th-century, (bench end), (6) 19b, Pl. 38.
-,-, 16th-century, (12) 40a.
-,-, 17th-century: (1) 5a (12) 40a (37) 84b.
-,-, 19th-century, (27) 54a.
-, Box-pews
-,-, 18th-century, (2) 9b.
-,-, 19th-century, (24) 52a.
-, Misericordes
-,-, 15th-century, (11) 35b, 36a, Pl. 39.
-, Pews
-,-, 17th-century, (37) 84b.
-,-, 19th-century: (1) 5a (in 17th-century style), (15) 49a (37) 84b.
-, Stalls
-,-, 19th-century, (in 15th-century style), (1) 5a.
-, See also Sheriffs' Seats and Window Seats.

Sedilia, 15th-century, (11) 36a.

Seller
-, Edward, junior and senior, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bellfounders.
-, William, bell-founder, xliii.

Semer, Robert, vicar: glass painted as gift of, (10) 28a rebuilding of church due to, (10) 25b representation of (glass), (10) 28a.

Severs, Thomas 1829, Frances 1832, floor-slab, (2) 9b.

Seymour, John 1841, Mary 1843, and daughters, monument, (8) 22a.

Shambles, 212b219a.

Sharp, Richard Hey, see Architects.

Sharwood, Isabella 1795, William . Isabella 1834, headstone, (9) 25a.

Shaw
-, John, proctor of the Court of York, house built by, (344) 189a.
-, Richard, mayor, inscription recording name of, (36) 80a.
-, William 1681, brass, (13) 41b.

Sheffield
-, Arms of, (10) 29b.
-, Lady Elizabeth 1633, monument, (10) 29b.
-, " " and Sir William, busts of, (10) 29b, Pl. 41.

Shell-hood, 17th-century, (165) 132b.

Sheriffs' Seats, 18th-century, (37) 87a.

Shillito, Daniel, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers.

Ship's Figurehead, carved, (476) 228a.

Shipton
-, Mrs. Elizabeth 1757, floor-slab, (6) 19b.
-, Mary 1800, floor-slab, (6) 19b.
-, Thomas, churchwarden, (6) 19b.

Shop Fronts
-, Mediaeval, lx.
-, 18th-century, (491) 234b.
-, c. 1800, (483) 231b.
-, 19th-century: (76) 110a (121) 120b (remains of), (181) 135a (192) 136b (245) 151a (271) 160b (272) 161a (273) 161b (274) 161b (292) 172a (325) 182a (337) 186b (338) 187a (352) 193a (356) 194a (fascia of), (359) 194b (371) 199a (414) 211b (462) 222b (464) 223a (466) 223b (467) 224a, Pl. 157 (471) 226a (474) 227a (476) 228a (479) 229a (488) 234a (490) 234b, Pl. 157 (492) 234b (528) 240a (535) 240b.

Shops
-, 17th-century, building designed as, (528) 240a.
-, 18th-century, premises built as, lxxvii.
-, 19th-century, designs for, xciii.

Shoulder of Mutton, house formerly known as, (418) 213a.

Siddall, William, woollen draper and merchant tailor, property of, (137) 125a.

Signs of the Zodiac, representations of (stone), (9) 24a, Pls. 26, 28.

Silburn, Thomas 1780, Ann Theresa 1771, Margaret 1814, headstone, (9) 25a.

Silcock, William, smith, (45) 100a.

Silver, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Silversmiths, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths.

Silver Street, 219b.

Simpson
-, Ann 1836, Elizabeth 1836: brass, (5) 14a monument, (5) 14b.
-, James, of Leeds, see Architects.
-, " and family 1724, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, Thomas 1791, Ann 1783, and family, headstone, (13) 43a.
-, William, alms-dish given by, (14) 46b.

Sinclair, Robert, property acquired by, (137) 125a.

Skelton
-, Matthew, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.
-, Robert de, glass possibly given by, (6) 18b.

Skirlaw
-, Arms of, (22) 51b.
-, Bishop, bequest by, (22) 50b.

Slack
-, John 1744, Ann 1756, floor-slab, (2) 9b.
-, Mary 1826, headstone, (2) 9a.

Slate, use of, xcvi.

Slater, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

Slaughterhouse, 14th-century, (438) 218b.

Smith
-, Abraham, bell-founder and brazier, xliii.
-, Edward 1799, monument, (15) 48b.
-, George, 19th-century floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, James, bellhouse bequeathed to, xliii.
-, " carpenter, (2) 8a.
-, John, verger: house leased to, (340) 187a house occupied by, (280) 165a.
-, Joseph 1827, Christiana 1824, monument, (2) 9a.
-, Leonard, mason, (45) 100a.
-, Margaret 1762, floor-slab, (2) 9b.
-, Martha 1787, headstone, (11) 35a.
-, Mary 1762, floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Samuel, junior and senior, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Bellfounders.
-, Thomas 1830. his wife 1787, floor-slab, (11) 35a.

Snare, Quintin, bricklayer and plasterer, (45) 100a.

Society of Friends: (27) 52b site of first burial ground of, 134b.

Somerset, Protector, house granted to, (35) 69a.

Sotheran, Henry, bookseller, house occupied by, (130) 122a.

Sounding-boards
-, 17th-century, (1) 4b, Pl. 36.
-, 18th-century, (11) 35b.

South Newbald, prebend of, site belonging to, (292) 172a.

Sowray, Richard 1708, monument, (11) 35a.

Soza, Martin and Ellen, inscription to (glass), (12) 38a.

Speculation Street, former terrace houses known as, 167a.

Speed, John, see Artists and Surveyors.

Speight, Richard, churchwarden, (10) 28a.

Spen Lane, 219b220a.

Spires, church, xl, xli.
-, 15th-century, (11) 32b, 33a.

Spitalcroft, tile works at, xcvi.

Splat Balusters, see Balusters and Staircases.

Spooner
-, Ann 1834, monument, (4) 12a.
-, Thomas, master of hospital, (38) 91a.
-, " 1794, Ann 1809, and children, monument, (4) 11b.

Spoons, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Spurmakers, street inhabited by, 220a.

Spurriergate, 220a, b.

Squire
-, Arms of, (12) 39b.
-, Jane, property inherited by, (35) 70a.
-, Robert, house sold to, (35) 70a.
-, Sir Robert 1707, Priscilla 1711, monument, (12) 39b, Pl. 44.

Stables, see Outbuildings.

Staffs, civic, 18th-century, (44) 99a.

Stainton, Eli(zabeth?) 1737, floor-slab, (5) 14b.

Staircases, lxxxvii, Fig. 11, pp. xc, xci xcvii.
-, 16th-century (probably), (newel), (34) 65a.
-, 17th-century: (70) 108b (162) 132b (174) 134a (195) 140a (212) 142b (312) 178a, Pl. 189 (317) 179b, Pl. 189 (332) 184b (343) 189a (345) 191a, Pl. 189 (354) 193b (368) 197a (400) 207b (427) 215b (470) 225b (483) 231b (487) 232b (528) 240a. With splat balusters: (34) 65b, Fig. 11a (243) 150a (436) 217b, Fig. 11c (459) 222b, Fig. 11b.
-, c. 1700: (47) 103a (219) 143b (284) 167a (335) 185b (478) 228b (488) 234a (489) 234a (525) 239b, Fig. 11l.
-, 18th-century: (12) 38a (34) 65a (35) 74a, 75a, b, 76b, Fig. 11q, Pl. 86 (44) 98a, Fig. 11r, Pl. 94 (47) 103a (61) 106a, Pl. 200 (70) 108b, Fig. 11s (72) 109a (73) 109b (74) 109b (75) 109b (76) 110a (77) 111a, Fig. 11u, Pl. 193 (78) 111b (85) 114a (88) 114a (89) 115a, Pl. 110 (91) 116b (92) 116b (108) 118a, Fig. 11j (110) 118a (114) 118b (117) 119b, Fig. 71 (118) 120b (122) 121a (124) 121b (131) 123a (133) 123b, Pl. 190 (137) 125b (138) 125b (147) 127a, b, Pl. 193 (155) 130a (156) 131b (157) 131b (158) 132a (164) 132b, Fig. 11p (223) 145b (225) 146b (233) 148a, Fig. 11k, n (234) 148b, Fig. 11i (249) 152a, Pls. 190, 191 (250) 152b, Pl. 115 (254) 156a, Pl. 191 (264) 157b (265) 157b (270) 160a, Fig. 11m (274) 162a (275) 162b (277) 163b, Pl. 192 (278) 164b (280) 165b, Pl. 193 (281) 166a (282) 166b (287) 168b, Pl. 192 (with earlier balusters, reset), (288) 170a, Pl. 190 (292) 172a (295) 172b (296) 172b, Pl. 193 (319) 180b (321) 181b (324) 182a (327) 183a (329) 183b (334) 185b, Pl. 196 (336) 186b (339) 187a (340) 187a (341) 187b (344) 189b, Pls. 196, 200 (353) 193b (366) 196b (371) 199a (374) 199a (375) 199b (376) 200a (377) 201a, Fig. 11h, Pl. 200 (378) 201a (380) 201b (398) 207a (399) 207a (407) 208b, Pl. 191 (409) 209b (410) 210a (411) 210b (416) 211b (417) 212b, Fig. 11t, Pl. 112 (428) 216a (429) 216a (431) 217a (458) 222a (462) 222b (464) 223a (465) 223a (466) 223b (467) 224a (474) 227a (475) 227b (476) 228a (480) 230b, Pl. 192 (492) 234b (493) 235a (496) 235b (503) 237a (516) 238a, Pl. 191 (521) 239a (524) 239b. With cast or wrought-iron balusters: (82) 113a, Pl. 108 (89) 115a, Pl. 110 (369) 197b (383) 202a (397) 206b. With Chinese fret balusters: (77) 111a (223) 145b (224) 146a, Fig. 88 (306) 174b (308) 175b (419) 213a (423) 214b. With splat balusters: (133) 123b, Fig. 11e, f (144) 126b (156) 131b, Fig. 11d, o (254) 156a, Fig. 11g (337) 186b (375) 199b, Pl. 190 (472) 226b.
-, 19th-century: (26) 52b, Fig. 11x (27) 54a (83) 113b (90) 115b (91) 116b (112) 118b, Fig. 11w (119) 120b (121) 120b (143) 126b (154) 129b, Pl. 194 (170) 133a, Fig. 11v (242) 150a (256) 156b (327) 183a (328) 183b (335) 185b (337) 186b (352) 193a (427) 215b (430) 216b (457) 222a. With cast or wrought-iron balusters: (48) 104a (81) 111b (87) 114a (215) 143a (279) 165a, Pl. 195 (301) 174a (388) 203a (391) 203b (394) 205a (395) 206a, Pls. 194, 195 (461) 222b (480) 230b, Pl. 194.

Stalls, see Seating.

Stamford, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Standish, Ann 1783, headstone, (9) 25a.

Stanhope
-, Arms of, impaled by Acklam, (8) 22b.
-, Sir Edward, of Grimston, house of, (330) 184a.
-, " Michael, college buildings granted to, (34) 62b.

Stanley, arms of, impaled by Egerton, (4) 11b.

Star and Garter Inn, house formerly known as, (241) 150a.

Starkthwaite Lane, former, 206a.

Statues, see Carving.

Statute of Acton Burnell, seal provided under, (44) 99a.

Staveley
-, John, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers and Gilders.
-, Martha 1804, floor-slab, (11) 35a.
-, William, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers and Gilders.
-, " 1814, Ann 1812, monument, (12) 39b.

Stead, William, junior and senior, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Stencilled Decoration, 16th-century, (37) 86a.

Stephen, King: church built by, (40) 93b hospital said to have been founded by, (9) 23a.

Stephenson
-, Francis 1783, Richard 1781(?), floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Mary. floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Mill, brassess recorded by: (5) 14a (6) 17a.
-, William 1752, Frances 1727, Alice 1685, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Sterne, Dr. Jaques, Precentor: property sold to, (35) 70b room built for, (35) 76b.

Stockdale, Alderman John, houses built by, (343) 189a.

Stokwyth, John, bequest by, (22) 50b.

Stone (fragments), worked, mediaeval, (480) 231a see also Building Materials Houses and Public Buildings, Stone and Stonework.

Stonebow, The: 220b streets affected by formation of: 147a 148b.

Stonegate, xxxiii, 220b235a, Pl. 125.

" Landing, 122a.

Stonemasons, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Masons.

Stonework
-, Mediaeval: (35) 76a (49) 104a (339) 187a.
-, 12th-century, (35) 74a, 76b.
-, 13th-century, (40) 95a.
-, 15th-century, (39) 92a.
-, 16th-century, (70) 108b.

Storry, William, house acquired by, (355) 194a.

Stoups: (5) 14b (11) 36a (14) 46b.

Stow, John 1775, Catherine Ellen 1775, and sons, monument, (8) 22a.

Strensall, prebendal house of: (277) 163b house formerly part of, (278) 164b.

Stuart, arms of, see Royal Arms.

Stucco, see Building Materials.

Styles, of architecture or decoration, see Adam, Gothic, Italianate, Palladian, Perpendicular and Tudor.

Summerhouse, 18th-century, (499) 235b.

Summers, Elizabeth 1778, monument, (8) 22a.

Surveyors, see Artists and Surveyors.

Sutcliffe, Richard 1802, Mary 1820, and family, monument, (13) 43a.

Swale, Richard, bricklayer, (82) 112a.

Swan
-, Francis, carpenter, lease shared by, (440) 218b.
-, George Cornelius 1788. n his wife 1793, gravestone, (15) 49a.

Swanland, Nicholas de, rector, licence obtained by, (5) 12b.

Swinburne, Henry, ecclesiastical lawyer, house of, (330) 184a.

Swineard
-, Benjamin 1796, floor-slab, (2) 9b.
-, Margaret 1819, floor-slab, (2) 9b.

Swinegate: 235a, b street formerly known as, 156a.

Swine Landing, original opening of common lane at, (52) 105a.

Swords, civic, (44) 98a, b, Pl. 64.

Sykes, John, carpenter, (12) 36b.

Sympcock, James, mason, (12) 36b.

TB 1831, floor-slab, (2) 9b.

TL, of London, silversmith, (32) 56b.

Tables, see Communion Tables and Furniture.

" recording repairs, (37) 84b see also Benefactors' Tables Creed, Lord's Prayer and Decalogue and Lord Mayors' Tables.

Tadcaster area, stone from: xcv (36) 77a (37) 82a.

Tailers' Hall, (38) 88b.

Taillour Hall, reference to, (38) 88b.

Talbot, family, site of house occupied by, (345) 191a.

" Inn: 180b houses on site of: (344) 189b (345) 191a.

Talkan, Robert de, lane granted to, 122a.

Tankards, see Plate, Church and Civic.

Tannery, former, 19th-century, (69) 107b.

Tasker, Lancelot 1807, monument, (15) 48b.

Tate, E. Ridsdale, roof bosses drawn by, (36) 79b.

Taylor
-, Andrew, plates given by, (32) 56b.
-, Frances 1836, monument, (9) 24b.
-, Francis, house probably rebuilt by, (137) 125a.
-, Joshua 1765, floor-slab, (32) 56b.
-, Michael, see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.
-, Mr., head mason of Minster, house built under supervision of, (323) 181b.

Taylors' Guild, royal charter obtained by, (38) 88b.

Teasdale, Judith 1799, Henry 1806, floor-slab, (8) 22b.

Tea Urn, silver, 18th-century, (44) 99b.

Telephone Exchange, finds from site of, (22) 51b.

Terraces, see under Houses and Public Buildings.

Terry, John, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carpenters and Joiners.

Thackray, William: house leased to, (323) 181b butcher, property occupied by, (430) 216b.

Thackray's Brewery: house formerly part of, (212) 142b offices possibly of, (298) 173a.

Theakston, John, whitesmith, lease granted to, (287) 168a.

Theatre Royal: (47) 103a pre-Conquest stones found near, (40) 95a remains of vaulted undercroft at, (40) 94b.

Theophilus, scenes from story of (glass), (6) 18b.

Thirsk, Henry, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Masons.

Thomas
-, Mrs. Elizabeth, salver given by, (1) 4a.
-, William, house bought by, (284) 167a.

Thomas's Hotel, (284) 167a.

Thomlinson. 1709, Jane 1711, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Thompson
-, Arms of, (11) 35b.
-, Family, goldsmiths, property acquired from, (137) 125a.
-, Grace, lowering of entry fine of, (336) 186b.
-, Sir Henry, addition built by, (317) 179a.
-, " " 1692, Ann 1696, and sons, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, John, house probably built by, (256) 156b.
-, " silversmith, (5) 14b.
-, " 1759, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, Leonard, house leased by, (336) 186b.
-, Mary and Isabella, flagon given in memory of, (12) 40a.
-, William, glazier, lii.

Thornhill
-, Mrs., gift by, (2) 7b.
-, " M., initials possibly for, (327) 183a.

Thornton
-, Anne Mary 1753, monument, (12) 39b.
-, Charlotte 1850, monument, (14) 46a.
-, Col., public baths established by, (282) 166b.
-, John, glass-painter and glazier, style associated with school of, 1.
-, Robert, town house of, (334) 185a.

Thorpe
-, John and Rebecca 1778, Susanna 1782, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, Rebecca and Susannah, 18th-century monument, (13) 43a.
-, William H., of Leeds, architect, (27) 53b.

Thorpe Underwood, timber from: xcvii (37) 82a.

Three Cranes, (401) 207b.

" " Lane, 206a.

" " Passage, (401) 207b.

" Cups, house formerly known as, (518) 238a.

" Tuns, (149) 127b.

Through-passages, in timber-framed houses, lix.

Thrusgate, street formerly known as, 128b.

Thrush Lane, street formerly known as, 128b.

Thursday Market: xxxiv 206a inadequacy of, 173b.

Thursgail, street formerly known as, 128b.

Tickhill, friary founded by friars from, (21) 50a.

Tiles, floor, see Floor-tiles.

Tile Works: xcvi (33) 57a.

Tilney, J., see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Timber Buildings, 11th-century, discovery of, 127b see also Building Materials.

" Framing, see Building Materials and Houses and Public Buildings, Timber-framed.

Time and Justice, representation of (stone), (4) 12a, Pl. 41.

Tiplin, George, rector, paten given by, (6) 19b.

Tirill, Claudius, mace by, (44) 98b.

Tobin, Maurice, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Smiths.

Tod, William, bequest by, (14) 44a.

Todd
-, John, library and bookshop of, 220b.
-, " 1811, Sarah 1813, and children, monument, (12) 39a.
-, Joseph 1795, Thomas 1796, headstone, (15) 49a.
-, Thomas, tallow-chandler, property let to, (502) 237a.

Toft Green: bell-house on, xliii friary on, xli.

Tomb-chests, see under Monuments, funeral.

" Recesses, see under Monuments, funeral, and Recesses.

Tomlinson, . wife of Thomas, 1784, floor-slab, (8) 22b.

Tomlinson's Hotel, public house formerly known as, (368) 196b.

Tooling, 12th-century: (34) 64a (35) 74a (70) 108b (469) 225a.

Topham, Francis, part of house sold to, (35) 70b.

Torch Extinguisher, iron, 18th-century, (334) 185a, Pl. 160.

Torre, James, antiquary: (2) 8a (33) 58b.

Towell, Samuel, of Cawood, bricklayer, house sold by, (319) 180b.

Tower Cinema, chapel used as, (30) 54b.

" Place, 235b236a.

Towers, church, xl.
-, c. 1400, (1) 2a, b, Pl. 12.
-, 15th-century: (2) 7a (5) 13b (10) 26b (11) 32b, Pl. 14 (13) 41a (14) 45a (15) 48a, Pl. 12.
-, 17th-century, (9) 24a.
-, 19th-century, (6) 17a.

Tower Street, 236a.

Towne
-, Charles, landscape by, (35) 75a.
-, Richard, staff given by, (44) 99a.

Trades and Industries, xxxiv, xxxv.
-, Hornworking, 180b.
-, Iron and brass works, 141a.
-, Lead manufactory, 152a.
-, Linen manufactory: 167a 236b.
-, Mineral-water factory, (33) 57b.
-, Spurmakers, 220a.
-, Tannery, (69) 107b.
-, See also Bell-founding, Glass-painting and Tile Works.

Treasurer's House, (35) 69a, Figs. 4245, Pls. 8187.

Tree of Jesse, representations of (glass): (6) 17b (13) 42b, Pl. 52.

Trew, Marie and Margerie 1600, brass, (1) 2b.

Trinity, The, representations of (glass): (1) 3b (2) 8b, Pl. 58 (10) 29a (13) 42a.

" Court, chantry priest's house known as, (222) 144b.

" Hall, building formerly known as, (37) 82b.

" Hospital, lvii.

" Lane, fireplace surround from house in, (61) 106a.

Triumph of Chastity, see Chastity, Triumph of.

Tudor Style: xciv (41) 96b, Pl. 152 (47) 103a (49) 104a, Pl. 150 (154) 129b, Pls. 152, 163, 194.

Tunnoc, Richard, bell-founder, windows given by, xlix.

Tureens, silver, 18th-century, (44) 99b.

Turner
-, Arms of, (44) 99b.
-, Charles, cup regilt by, (44) 99b.
-, John, cup given by, (44) 99b.
-, William, of Stainsby, house sold to, (330) 184a.

Turpin, Dick, highwayman, burial place of, (19) 49b.

Turrets, octagonal, 19th-century, (279) 165a.

Tweedie, Walter, of London, silversmith, (44) 99b.

Tweedy
-, Arms of, (11) 35a.
-, John 1842, brass, (11) 34b.
-, " 1842, Elizabeth 1811: floor-slab, (11) 35b monument, (11) 35a.

Undercrofts
-, 12th-century: (remains of), (40) 94b theatre built over, (47) 103a.
-, 13th-century, (40) 94b, Pl. 90.
-, 14th-century, (37) 83a, Pl. 73.

Unitarian Chapel, (32) 55b, Fig. 33, Pl. 66.

Vane, Catherine 1738, brass, (4) 11b.

Vaughan, Mrs. Douglas, paten given by, (12) 40a.

Vault, of brick, 19th-century, (18) 49b.

Vavasour
-, Arms of, (12) 39a.
-, Henry, of Copmanthorpe, profits received by, (34) 62b.
-, Infant 1728, monument, (12) 39a, Pl. 42.
-, Walter, of Hazelwood, house occupied by, (82) 112a.

Vedeau, Ayme, silversmith, (10) 29b.

Ventilators, 19th-century, (27) 54a see also under Heating.

Venus, representation of (glass), (8) 22a.

Verdenel
-, Mariot, priest admitted to chantry on presentation of, (15) 46b.
-, Robert, 13th-century coffin lid of, (15) 48b.

Vescy
-, Sir John de, monumental effigy possibly of, (22) 51a.
-, William de, site granted to friars by, (22) 50b.

Vicars Choral, of Minster: buildings granted to, 146b church appropriated to, (14) 44a college of, (33) 57a, (common hall of) 60a confirmation of statutes of, (33) 58a houses built by, xxxv records of, (33) 57a site acquired by, (471) 225b tile works of, xcvi, (33) 57a.

Vicars' Lane, street formerly known as, 117b.

Victoria
-, Princess of Wales, room occupied by, (35) 75a.
-, Queen, arms of, see Royal Arms.

Victoria and Albert Museum, glass panels in: (6) 19a (36) 79b, Pl. 187.

" Iron Foundry, 236b.

Virgin Mary, see St. Mary the Virgin.

Virtues, representations of: (monument), (6) 19a (glass), (35) 76b.

Voussoirs, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous.

WB, of London, silversmith, (14) 46a.

WH, goldsmith, (44) 98b merchant's mark of, (36) 79b.

WI, silversmith, (10) 29b.

Wailes, William, glass-painter, (10) 26a.

Wainde, William, houses acquired from, (89) 114b.

Waite, Henry 1780, monument, (4) 12a, Pl. 43.

Wake
-, Baldwin, physician: house occupied by, (156) 130b monument 1842, (12) 39a.
-, Charlotte 1832, floor-slab, (12) 40a and Isabella Frances 1836, monument, (12) 39a.

Wakefield, William, architect, design requested from, (45) 100a.

" Cathedral, stained-glass fragments from, (10) 29b.

Walbegate, street first recorded as, 236a.

Walker
-, Ann 1687, monument, (12) 39a.
-, Arms of, (2) 8a, Pl. 45.
-, John, churchwarden, (6) 19a.
-, " see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Ironfounders.
-, Rev. John, window replaced and reglazed by, (2) 5b, 8a.
-, " " 1813, Ann 1811, monument, (6) 19a.
-, Joshua 1805, brass, (10) 28a.
-, Of Nottingham, monumental mason, (13) 43a.
-, William, ironfounder, (48) 104a.

Wall Bracing, lxiii, Fig. 3.

Waller
-, Aldcroft 1808, floor-slab, (11) 35b.
-, Elizabeth, salvers given in memory of, (14) 46b.
-, John, salvers given by, (14) 46b.
-, Robert, property leased to, (343) 189a.

Wall-paintings, lvi.
-, 16th-century: (34) 68a, Pl. 79 (modern imitation of), (35) 75b.

Wall-tiles, xcvi.

Walmgate, 236a242a.

Walsh and Dunbar, of Leeds, monumental masons, (11) 35a.

Walter, son of Faganulf the priest, grant by, (9) 22b.

Wanless
-, Mary 171., floor-slab, (12) 40a.
-, Thomas 1711/12, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Wanton, arms of, (5) 14a.

Warburton, Mrs. Catherine 1817, monument, (8) 22a.

Ward
-, Dr., house of, (275) 162b.
-, Margaret 1846, monument, (4) 12a.
-, Matthew, plasterer, (82) 112a.
-, Robert, 1405, floor-slab, (6) 19b.
-, " 1773, memorial stone, (17) 49b.

Warde, Thomas, of London, profits received by, (34) 62b.

Warehouse, 19th-century, (517) 238a.

Wartre, Richard, bequests by: (15) 46b (36) 77b.

Water, supply of, xciv.

" Closets, see under Closets.

" -gates: xli (21) 50a (23) 51b 152b.

Waterhouse
-, Arms of, (12) 39b.
-, Mary 1786, monument, (12) 39b.

Water Lane, location of old, 134b.

Waterloo Place, 122a.

Waters, John 1815, headstone, (9) 25a.

Water-spouts, carved, 15th-century, (5) 13b.

Waterworks, building formerly housing pumping engine of, (283) 166b.

Watkinson
-, Henry, 166(6), floor-slab, (5) 14b.
-, " (1712?), and William, floor-slab, (5) 14b.

Watson
-, Bernard 1793, headstone, (2) 9a.
-, Charles, see Architects.
-, Mr., of London, chandeliers bought from, (45) 100a.
-, William, churchwarden, (14) 46b.
-, " see Architects.

Watson, Pritchett and Watson, see Architects.

Watter
-, Arms of, (4) 11b, 12a.
-, Sir Robert: civic chain given by, (44) 99a repairs to hall paid for by, (36) 78a.
-, Sir Robert 1612, Margaret 1608, monument, (4) 11b, Pl. 41.

Wattle Fences, discovery of, xxxiv.

Waud, Ann 1810, and son, headstone, (14) 46a.

Waudby, (John), see Sculptors and Monumental Masons.

Wealden Type, house of, (194) 138a.

Weatherill, Thomas, house built by, (241) 149b.

Weatherley, Ralph, builder, (7) 20a.

Weather-vanes: (5) 15a (11) 36a.

Weatley, William 1806, headstone, (13) 43a.

Welburn, monument from, (32) 56b.

Wellbeloved
-, Ann 1823, Anne 1846, monument, (32) 56b.
-, Rev. Charles 1858, monument, (32) 56b and Ann 1823, Anne 1846, headstone, (32) 56b.

Welles, John, prebendary of Salton, lease of house confirmed by, (34) 62a.

Wellington, The, shop formerly known as, (214) 142b.

Wells, surviving close of Vicars Choral at, (33) 57b.

": brick-lined, of c. 1600, (134) 124a timber-lined, xxxiv.

Welsh, Ann 1797, headstone, (14) 46a.

Wenham, P. L., excavation by, 180b.

Wentworth, Peregrine, house occupied by, (82) 112a.

Wesley, John: meeting room used by, (289) 170b pulpit used by, lvi, (11) 35b.

Wesleyan Chapel, former: (25) 52a manse for, (416) 211b.

" Methodists, chapel built for, (30) 54b.

West, Lewis 1718, Dorcas 1732, monument, (11) 35a.

Westminster Press Office, London, shop front from, (414) 211b.

Wharves, Roman, 236a.

Whip-ma-whop-ma-gate, 242b.

White
-, John 1716/7, monument, (12) 39a.
-, T., painting by, (315) 178b.
-, Dr. William, plan by, (80) 111b.

White Dog, The, house forming part of, (491) 234b.

Whitefriar Lane, street on site of lane formerly known as, 220b.

White Hart Inn, house formerly known as, (491) 234b.

" Horse Inn, house on site of, (396) 206b.

" Rose Cafe, (240) 149a, Pl. 117.

Whitesmiths, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen.

White Swan Hotel, (374) 199a.

Whithill, John, repairs to hall by, (38) 89a.

Whitney Whatneygate, Whitnourwhatnourgate, street formerly known as, 242b.

Whitton, Peter, chemist, site of house of, (80) 111b.

Whytehead, William 1741, Margaret 1711, floor-slab, (13) 43b.

Widdrington, Sir Thomas, Recorder, house occupied by, (252) 155a.

Wiggins, Katherine 1770, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Wightman, (?)Ann 1738, Charles 1758, Mary 1789, and daughter Mary 1804, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Wilkinson
-, Mary 1832, floor-slab, (14) 46a.
-, Sarah 1724, brass, (11) 34b.
-, Solomon, butcher, property occupied by, (430) 216b.
-, Tate, theatre manager, (47) 103a.
-, " 1803, Jane 1826, monument, (1) 4a.
-, Thomas 1810, Jane 1811, monument, (15) 48b.
-, " 1826, George 1831, Charlotte, 1840, monument, (15) 48b.
-, William 1751, floor-slab, (1) 4a.
-, " 1812, floor-slab, (15) 49a and Mary 1813, monument, (15) 48b.

Wilks, Elizabeth 1837, and others, floor-slab, (1) 4a.

Willans, Thomas 1809, brass, (4) 11b.

William I: archbishop appointed by, (35) 69a possession of church confirmed by, (1) 1a.

" II: gift of church confirmed by, (15) 46b hospital established by, lvii, (40) 93b.

" and Mary, arms of, see Royal Arms.

Williams, Thomas, house possibly of, (178) 134b.

Williamson, Thomas, joiner, (12) 36b.

Willis, Thomas 1815, monument, (12) 39a.

Willoughby
-, George, house built for, (395) 205b.
-, Henry, of Birdsall, property bought by, (35) 70b.

Willow Street, 236b.

Wills Office, house designed as, (279) 165a.

Wilmer. wife of Randall, 18th-century floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Wilson
-, Ann Sybille 1811, monument, (5) 14b.
-, Dorothy: hospital established under will of, (42) 96b monument 1717, (6) 19a.
-, Thomas 1780, Dorothy 1786: floor-slab, (9) 25a monument, (9) 24b.
-, " 1832, Dorothy 1833, monument, (9) 24b.
-, William 1517, brass, (13) 41b, Pl. 40.
-, " 1844, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Wilson, Tweedy & Co., banking house of, (234) 148a.

Winchester, ancient churches at, xxxiii.

Window Guards, cast-iron, (411) 210b.

" Head, fragment, pre-Conquest, see Architectural Details, miscellaneous.

Windows, lxxiv, lxxix, xcv, Fig. 8, p. lxxx early or notable.
-, 12th-century: (35) 76a, Pl. 183 (469) 225a, Fig. 142, Pl. 183.
-, 13th-century: (possibly), (33) 59a, Pl. 183 (40) 94b, Pl. 183.
-, 14th-century: (2) 7a, Pl. 24 (6) 16a, b, Pl. 24 (9) 23b (11) 31b, Pl. 25 (33) 60a, Fig. 36 (37) 83b, Pl. 183 (289) 170b, Fig. 106 (436) 217b (530) 240a.
-, 15th-century: (6) 16a, b, Pls. 24, 25 (10) 26b, Pl. 25 (11) 32b, Pl. 24 (oriels), (34) 64b, Pls. 77, 78 (36) 79a, b (39) 92b (345) 191a (346) 192a (434) 217a.
-, 16th-century: (12) 37a, Pl. 25 (34) 65a (307) 174b (421) 213b (oriel), (478) 228b.
-, 17th-century: (bull's-eye), (32) 56a (34) 63b, (bull's-eye), 65a (35) 74a, Pl. 185 (37) 88a (38) 89b (207) 141b (bay) (216) 143b, Pl. 184 (223) 145b (297) 173a, Pl. 185 (312) 178a, Pl. 185 (317) 179b (381) 201b (427) 216a (453) 221a (oriel), (478) 228b (480) 230a, Pl. 184 (484) 232a, Pl. 185 (485) 232a, Pl. 184 (527) 239b, Fig. 8a, Pl. 185 (528) 240a, Fig. 8b, Pl. 185.
-, c. 1700: (296) 172b (489) 234a.
-, 18th-century: (35) 71b (38) 89b (44) 97a (76) 110a, Fig. 9l, m (82) 112a (117) 119a, b, Fig. 8e, f (234) 148b (236) 148b (249) 151b (270) 158b, 160a (274) 161b (275) 162b, Fig. 8c, d (277) 163b (287) 168a (375) 199b (418) 213a. Bow: (76) 110a (458) 222a. Bull's-eye, (39) 93b. Canted bays: (87) 114a (89) 115a (329) 183b (491) 234b. Canted oriels: (130) 122b (282) 166b. Enriched architraves: (82) 113a (254) 156a (287) 168b (410) 210a (474) 227a (483) 231b. Oriel, (34) 63b. Staircase: (44) 98a (61) 106a (82) 113a, Pl. 108 (89) 115a (164) 132b (250) 152b, Pl. 114 (330) 184a (340) 187a (341) 187b (411) 210b (417) 212b (516) 238a. Thermae, (76) 110a.
-, c. 1800: Bow, (361) 195a. Canted bay: (141) 126a (315) 178b (343) 189a (471) 226a.
-, 19th-century: (49) 104a (273) 161b (285) 167b (293) 172a, Fig. 8g, h (298) 173a (300) 174a (313) 178a (405) 208a. Bay: (39) 93a (155) 130a (193) 137a (218) 143b (278) 164b (475) 227b (488) 234a. Bow: (73) 109b (327) 183a (369) 197b (490) 234b (498) 235b. Bull's-eye: (27) 53b (446) 219b. Canted bay: (87) 114a (91) 116a (378) 201a, Pl. 148. Canted oriel, (91) 116a. Enriched architraves: (386) 202b (391) 203b. Oriel: (154) 129b (281) 166a.

Window Seats, 18th-century, (499) 236a.

Winsor, William 1769, headstone, (6) 19b.

Winterscale's Hospital, (43) 96b.

Wintringham, Dr. Clifton, house built by, (250) 152b.

Wistow (?), arms of, (14) 45b.

Withers, Thomas 1809, Elizabeth 1802, monument, (15) 48b and Dorothy Catherine 1789, floor-slab, (15) 49a.

Wolstenholme
-, Family, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers and Gilders.
-, John, bookseller, premises occupied by, (271) 160b.
-, " see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers and Gilders.
-, Thomas, see Craftsmen and Tradesmen, Carvers and Gilders.

Wood
-, Ann 1832, floor-slab, (15) 49a.
-, Arms of, (13) 43a.
-, John 1704, Anne 1679, Charles 1684, monument, (13) 43a.
-, Richard 1701, floor-slab, (13) 43b.
-, W. H., architect, (5) 12b.

Woodell, William, cordwainer, house built by, (220) 143b.

Woodhead, Samuel 1834, monument, (1) 4a.

Woodhouse
-, Mrs. Elizabeth, house built by, (77) 110a.
-, James, churchwarden, (14) 46a.
-, " house sold by, (158) 131b.
-, Robert, house built by, (157) 131b.
-, Thomas, property bought by: (157, 158) 131b.

Woodyeare
-, Arms of, impaled by Drake, (12) 39b.
-, Mary 1728, monument, (12) 39b, Pl. 42.

Woollons, Ellen 1850, monument, (9) 24b.

Woolrych, arms of, impaled by Hewley, (41) 96b, Pl. 182.

Workhouse, hall used as, (39) 91b.

Workshops, see Outbuildings.

Wormald, Samuel 1814, floor-slab, (9) 25a and Ann 1812, Samuel 1788, monument, (9) 24b.

Wrather, John 1768, Dorothy 1788, headstone, (9) 25a.

Wray, Ann 1805, floor-slab, (11) 35b.

Wrightman, William 1724, floor-slab, (11) 35a.

Wrought Iron
-, Balconies, (330) 184a.
-, See also under Staircases.

Wycliffe, Elizabeth 1777, monument, (12) 39a.

Wygan, Adam, rector, bequest by, (15) 46b.

Wyman, Henry 1411, Agnes 1416, brass, (4) 11b.

Wynn, William, bricklayer, (308) 175b.

Wyntringham, Simon de, priest, tombstone (fragments) of, (22) 51a.

Wyvill, Ursula 1790, Hale 1792, monument, (1) 4a.

Yarburgh, John 1653/4, floor-slab, (12) 40a.

Ye Olde Starre Inne: (465) 223a sign of, 221a.

York
-, Ancient churches at, xxxiii.
-, Arms of City of: (1) 3b (2) 9a (4) 11b (5) 14a, b (12) 38b, 39a (13) 42b (36) 79b, 80a (44) 97a, 98a, b, 99a, b, Pl. 197 (156) 130b, Pl. 182 (335) 185b.
-, Central area of, xxxiii, Pl. 1, Maps 18.
-,-, Growth and development of: from 10661200, xxxiii from 1200 1540, xxxiv in 19th century, xcii.
-,-, Markets in, xxxiii, xxxiv.
-,-, Streets: system of, xxxiii widening and construction of, xciii.
-, Decline of, xxxv.
-, Fires at: xxxiii (40) 93b 147a (233) 147b (234) 148a (235) 148b.
-, Irish population in: (33) 57b, 58a 236b.
-, Lord Mayor of, house built as residence of, (44) 96b.
-, Petitions to establish a university in, (33) 57b.
-, Population of, xxxv.
-, Royal administration at, xxxiv.
-, See of: arms of: (12) 38b (34) 64b symbol for, (12) 37a.
-, Siege of: (6) 15b (9) 23a (14) 44b (33) 57b (36) 78b.
-, Street widening in: xciii 117a 127b 128b 129a, b (224) 146a 146b 156b 158a 166a 167b 199a 207b 220a.
-, Trade in, xxxiv, xxxv.

York Archaeological Trust, excavations by: xxxviii (14) 44a (33) 60b (309) 176a.

" Arms, (324) 181b.

" Central Conservative Club, house bought by, (394) 204b.

" City and County Bank, premises built for, (301) 174a.

" Civic Trust, houses restored by: (61) 106a (417) 212b.

" College for Girls, houses used by: (344) 189a (345) 191a.

York Corporation: church sold by, 171b church leased to, (15) 47a fire engines and plant made over to, (388) 203a fire establishment transferred by, (388) 202b hall built on land belonging to, (36) 77a houses restored by, (437) 217b property bought by: (20) 49b (45) 100b 204a site belonging to, (156) 130a terrace built on leases from, (395) 205a terrace used as offices by, (395) 205b.

" County Savings Bank, (392) 203b, Pl. 153.

" Courant, office built for, (141) 126a.

" Gas Light Company, founding of, xciv.

" Glaziers' Trust, glass removed to workshop of, (6) 17b.

" Medical Society, house used as headquarters of, (480) 229b.

" New Waterworks Company, conversion of engine house into offices for, (283) 166b.

" School of Art, school known as, (49) 104a.

" Union Gas Company, setting up of, xciv.

" Waterworks Company, building owned by, (282) 166b.

Yorkshire Agricultural and Commercial Bank, premises built for, (285) 167b.

" Bank, part of inn on site of, (136) 124a.

" Club, house used by, (395) 205a.

" Fire and Life Insurance Company, fire station of, (388) 202b.

" Herald Works, river wall at rear of, (52) 104b.

" Hussars, officers of, suitable accommodation required for annual mess of, (48) 103a.

Yorkshire Insurance Company: former engine house of, (288) 170a offices of, (391) 203b.

Yorkshireman: offices built for, (304) 174a public house, former, (148) 127b.

Yorkshire Museum: items now in: architectural fragments: (1) 5a (4) 12a (6) 17a (10) 26b (21) 50b carved woodwork: (4) 12a (34) 64b, Pl. 198 (40) 95b (142) 126a fittings: (1) 5a, Fig. 13 (6) 19b, Pl. 38 miscellaneous objects, (11) 36a monumental remains: xlvii (6) 19b (8) 21a (22) 51a, b 117b pre-Conquest stones: (6) 17a (fragment), (11) 33b, 34a (40) 95b, Pl. 21. Street named after, 166a.

Youle or Yhole, John, draper of Northallerton: inscription on coffin lid to, (2) 7b merchant's mark of, (2) 7b.

Young
-, Archbishop, properties passing to, (35) 69b.
-, George, mansion built by, (35) 69b.
-, Thomas, reconstruction by, (35) 69b.

Young's Hotel, (335) 185b, Fig. 116.

Yoward, Ralph, attorney, house built for, (117) 119a.

Zacharias, representation of (glass), (13) 42a.

Zodiac, Signs of the, see Signs of the Zodiac.

Zouche, Archbishop, indulgence issued by, (33) 58a.


Access options

1 Curtin , Philip C. , The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census ( Madison, Wisc. , 1969 ), pp. 276 –77.Google Scholar

2 Klein , Herbert S. , The Middle Passage: Comparative Studies in the Atlantic Slave Trade ( Princeton , 1969 ), p. 174 .Google Scholar

3 Stein , Robert L. , The French Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century: An Old Regime Business ( Madison, Wisc. , 1979 ), p. 99 .Google Scholar Eltis , David , “The Direction and Fluctuation of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1821–1843: A Revision of the 1845 Parliamentary Paper,” in Gemery , H. A. and Hogendorn , J. S. , eds., The Uncommon Market ( New York , 1979 ), pp. 294 –95.Google Scholar Rawley , James A. , The Transatlantic Slave Trade ( New York , 1981 ), p. 288 .Google Scholar

4 Riley , James C. , “ Mortality on Long-Distance Voyages in the Eighteenth Century ,” this JOURNAL , 41 ( 09 1981 ), p. 653 .Google ScholarPubMed

5 Postma , Johannes , “Mortality in the Dutch Slave Trade, 1675–1795” in The Uncommon Market, p. 253.Google Scholar


Review: Volume 41 - 18th Century History - History

General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution For the Independent Journal

To the People of the State of New York:

THE Constitution proposed by the convention may be considered under two general points of view. The FIRST relates to the sum or quantity of power which it vests in the government, including the restraints imposed on the States. The SECOND, to the particular structure of the government, and the distribution of this power among its several branches. Under the FIRST view of the subject, two important questions arise:

1. Whether any part of the powers transferred to the general government be unnecessary or improper?

2. Whether the entire mass of them be dangerous to the portion of jurisdiction left in the several States? Is the aggregate power of the general government greater than ought to have been vested in it?

This is the FIRST question. It cannot have escaped those who have attended with candor to the arguments employed against the extensive powers of the government, that the authors of them have very little considered how far these powers were necessary means of attaining a necessary end. They have chosen rather to dwell on the inconveniences which must be unavoidably blended with all political advantages and on the possible abuses which must be incident to every power or trust, of which a beneficial use can be made.

This method of handling the subject cannot impose on the good sense of the people of America. It may display the subtlety of the writer it may open a boundless field for rhetoric and declamation it may inflame the passions of the unthinking, and may confirm the prejudices of the misthinking: but cool and candid people will at once reflect, that the purest of human blessings must have a portion of alloy in them that the choice must always be made, if not of the lesser evil, at least of the GREATER, not the PERFECT, good and that in every political institution, a power to advance the public happiness involves a discretion which may be misapplied and abused. They will see, therefore, that in all cases where power is to be conferred, the point first to be decided is, whether such a power be necessary to the public good as the next will be, in case of an affirmative decision, to guard as effectually as possible against a perversion of the power to the public detriment.

That we may form a correct judgment on this subject, it will be proper to review the several powers conferred on the government of the Union and that this may be the more conveniently done they may be reduced into different classes as they relate to the following different objects:

1. Security against foreign danger

2. Regulation of the intercourse with foreign nations

3. Maintenance of harmony and proper intercourse among the States

4. Certain miscellaneous objects of general utility

5. Restraint of the States from certain injurious acts

6. Provisions for giving due efficacy to all these powers. The powers falling within the FIRST class are those of declaring war and granting letters of marque of providing armies and fleets of regulating and calling forth the militia of levying and borrowing money. Security against foreign danger is one of the primitive objects of civil society. It is an avowed and essential object of the American Union. The powers requisite for attaining it must be effectually confided to the federal councils. Is the power of declaring war necessary?

No man will answer this question in the negative. It would be superfluous, therefore, to enter into a proof of the affirmative. The existing Confederation establishes this power in the most ample form. Is the power of raising armies and equipping fleets necessary? This is involved in the foregoing power. It is involved in the power of self-defense. But was it necessary to give an INDEFINITE POWER of raising TROOPS, as well as providing fleets and of maintaining both in PEACE, as well as in war? The answer to these questions has been too far anticipated in another place to admit an extensive discussion of them in this place. The answer indeed seems to be so obvious and conclusive as scarcely to justify such a discussion in any place. With what color of propriety could the force necessary for defense be limited by those who cannot limit the force of offense?

If a federal Constitution could chain the ambition or set bounds to the exertions of all other nations, then indeed might it prudently chain the discretion of its own government, and set bounds to the exertions for its own safety. How could a readiness for war in time of peace be safely prohibited, unless we could prohibit, in like manner, the preparations and establishments of every hostile nation? The means of security can only be regulated by the means and the danger of attack. They will, in fact, be ever determined by these rules, and by no others. It is in vain to oppose constitutional barriers to the impulse of self-preservation. It is worse than in vain because it plants in the Constitution itself necessary usurpations of power, every precedent of which is a germ of unnecessary and multiplied repetitions. If one nation maintains constantly a disciplined army, ready for the service of ambition or revenge, it obliges the most pacific nations who may be within the reach of its enterprises to take corresponding precautions. The fifteenth century was the unhappy epoch of military establishments in the time of peace.

They were introduced by Charles VII. of France. All Europe has followed, or been forced into, the example. Had the example not been followed by other nations, all Europe must long ago have worn the chains of a universal monarch. Were every nation except France now to disband its peace establishments, the same event might follow. The veteran legions of Rome were an overmatch for the undisciplined valor of all other nations and rendered her the mistress of the world. Not the less true is it, that the liberties of Rome proved the final victim to her military triumphs and that the liberties of Europe, as far as they ever existed, have, with few exceptions, been the price of her military establishments. A standing force, therefore, is a dangerous, at the same time that it may be a necessary, provision. On the smallest scale it has its inconveniences. On an extensive scale its consequences may be fatal. On any scale it is an object of laudable circumspection and precaution. A wise nation will combine all these considerations and, whilst it does not rashly preclude itself from any resource which may become essential to its safety, will exert all its prudence in diminishing both the necessity and the danger of resorting to one which may be inauspicious to its liberties. The clearest marks of this prudence are stamped on the proposed Constitution. The Union itself, which it cements and secures, destroys every pretext for a military establishment which could be dangerous. America united, with a handful of troops, or without a single soldier, exhibits a more forbidding posture to foreign ambition than America disunited, with a hundred thousand veterans ready for combat.

It was remarked, on a former occasion, that the want of this pretext had saved the liberties of one nation in Europe. Being rendered by her insular situation and her maritime resources impregnable to the armies of her neighbors, the rulers of Great Britain have never been able, by real or artificial dangers, to cheat the public into an extensive peace establishment. The distance of the United States from the powerful nations of the world gives them the same happy security. A dangerous establishment can never be necessary or plausible, so long as they continue a united people. But let it never, for a moment, be forgotten that they are indebted for this advantage to the Union alone. The moment of its dissolution will be the date of a new order of things. The fears of the weaker, or the ambition of the stronger States, or Confederacies, will set the same example in the New, as Charles VII. did in the Old World.

The example will be followed here from the same motives which produced universal imitation there. Instead of deriving from our situation the precious advantage which Great Britain has derived from hers, the face of America will be but a copy of that of the continent of Europe. It will present liberty everywhere crushed between standing armies and perpetual taxes. The fortunes of disunited America will be even more disastrous than those of Europe. The sources of evil in the latter are confined to her own limits. No superior powers of another quarter of the globe intrigue among her rival nations, inflame their mutual animosities, and render them the instruments of foreign ambition, jealousy, and revenge.

In America the miseries springing from her internal jealousies, contentions, and wars, would form a part only of her lot. A plentiful addition of evils would have their source in that relation in which Europe stands to this quarter of the earth, and which no other quarter of the earth bears to Europe. This picture of the consequences of disunion cannot be too highly colored, or too often exhibited. Every man who loves peace, every man who loves his country, every man who loves liberty, ought to have it ever before his eyes, that he may cherish in his heart a due attachment to the Union of America, and be able to set a due value on the means of preserving it. Next to the effectual establishment of the Union, the best possible precaution against danger from standing armies is a limitation of the term for which revenue may be appropriated to their support. This precaution the Constitution has prudently added. I will not repeat here the observations which I flatter myself have placed this subject in a just and satisfactory light.

But it may not be improper to take notice of an argument against this part of the Constitution, which has been drawn from the policy and practice of Great Britain. It is said that the continuance of an army in that kingdom requires an annual vote of the legislature whereas the American Constitution has lengthened this critical period to two years. This is the form in which the comparison is usually stated to the public: but is it a just form? Is it a fair comparison? Does the British Constitution restrain the parliamentary discretion to one year? Does the American impose on the Congress appropriations for two years? On the contrary, it cannot be unknown to the authors of the fallacy themselves, that the British Constitution fixes no limit whatever to the discretion of the legislature, and that the American ties down the legislature to two years, as the longest admissible term. Had the argument from the British example been truly stated, it would have stood thus: The term for which supplies may be appropriated to the army establishment, though unlimited by the British Constitution, has nevertheless, in practice, been limited by parliamentary discretion to a single year.

Now, if in Great Britain, where the House of Commons is elected for seven years where so great a proportion of the members are elected by so small a proportion of the people where the electors are so corrupted by the representatives, and the representatives so corrupted by the Crown, the representative body can possess a power to make appropriations to the army for an indefinite term, without desiring, or without daring, to extend the term beyond a single year, ought not suspicion herself to blush, in pretending that the representatives of the United States, elected FREELY by the WHOLE BODY of the people, every SECOND YEAR, cannot be safely intrusted with the discretion over such appropriations, expressly limited to the short period of TWO YEARS? A bad cause seldom fails to betray itself. Of this truth, the management of the opposition to the federal government is an unvaried exemplification.

But among all the blunders which have been committed, none is more striking than the attempt to enlist on that side the prudent jealousy entertained by the people, of standing armies. The attempt has awakened fully the public attention to that important subject and has led to investigations which must terminate in a thorough and universal conviction, not only that the constitution has provided the most effectual guards against danger from that quarter, but that nothing short of a Constitution fully adequate to the national defense and the preservation of the Union, can save America from as many standing armies as it may be split into States or Confederacies, and from such a progressive augmentation, of these establishments in each, as will render them as burdensome to the properties and ominous to the liberties of the people, as any establishment that can become necessary, under a united and efficient government, must be tolerable to the former and safe to the latter. The palpable necessity of the power to provide and maintain a navy has protected that part of the Constitution against a spirit of censure, which has spared few other parts. It must, indeed, be numbered among the greatest blessings of America, that as her Union will be the only source of her maritime strength, so this will be a principal source of her security against danger from abroad. In this respect our situation bears another likeness to the insular advantage of Great Britain.

The batteries most capable of repelling foreign enterprises on our safety, are happily such as can never be turned by a perfidious government against our liberties. The inhabitants of the Atlantic frontier are all of them deeply interested in this provision for naval protection, and if they have hitherto been suffered to sleep quietly in their beds if their property has remained safe against the predatory spirit of licentious adventurers if their maritime towns have not yet been compelled to ransom themselves from the terrors of a conflagration, by yielding to the exactions of daring and sudden invaders, these instances of good fortune are not to be ascribed to the capacity of the existing government for the protection of those from whom it claims allegiance, but to causes that are fugitive and fallacious. If we except perhaps Virginia and Maryland, which are peculiarly vulnerable on their eastern frontiers, no part of the Union ought to feel more anxiety on this subject than New York. Her seacoast is extensive. A very important district of the State is an island. The State itself is penetrated by a large navigable river for more than fifty leagues. The great emporium of its commerce, the great reservoir of its wealth, lies every moment at the mercy of events, and may almost be regarded as a hostage for ignominious compliances with the dictates of a foreign enemy, or even with the rapacious demands of pirates and barbarians.

Should a war be the result of the precarious situation of European affairs, and all the unruly passions attending it be let loose on the ocean, our escape from insults and depredations, not only on that element, but every part of the other bordering on it, will be truly miraculous. In the present condition of America, the States more immediately exposed to these calamities have nothing to hope from the phantom of a general government which now exists and if their single resources were equal to the task of fortifying themselves against the danger, the object to be protected would be almost consumed by the means of protecting them. The power of regulating and calling forth the militia has been already sufficiently vindicated and explained. The power of levying and borrowing money, being the sinew of that which is to be exerted in the national defense, is properly thrown into the same class with it. This power, also, has been examined already with much attention, and has, I trust, been clearly shown to be necessary, both in the extent and form given to it by the Constitution. I will address one additional reflection only to those who contend that the power ought to have been restrained to external taxation by which they mean, taxes on articles imported from other countries. It cannot be doubted that this will always be a valuable source of revenue that for a considerable time it must be a principal source that at this moment it is an essential one. But we may form very mistaken ideas on this subject, if we do not call to mind in our calculations, that the extent of revenue drawn from foreign commerce must vary with the variations, both in the extent and the kind of imports and that these variations do not correspond with the progress of population, which must be the general measure of the public wants.

As long as agriculture continues the sole field of labor, the importation of manufactures must increase as the consumers multiply. As soon as domestic manufactures are begun by the hands not called for by agriculture, the imported manufactures will decrease as the numbers of people increase. In a more remote stage, the imports may consist in a considerable part of raw materials, which will be wrought into articles for exportation, and will, therefore, require rather the encouragement of bounties, than to be loaded with discouraging duties. A system of government, meant for duration, ought to contemplate these revolutions, and be able to accommodate itself to them. Some, who have not denied the necessity of the power of taxation, have grounded a very fierce attack against the Constitution, on the language in which it is defined. It has been urged and echoed, that the power ``to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States,'' amounts to an unlimited commission to exercise every power which may be alleged to be necessary for the common defense or general welfare. No stronger proof could be given of the distress under which these writers labor for objections, than their stooping to such a misconstruction. Had no other enumeration or definition of the powers of the Congress been found in the Constitution, than the general expressions just cited, the authors of the objection might have had some color for it though it would have been difficult to find a reason for so awkward a form of describing an authority to legislate in all possible cases. A power to destroy the freedom of the press, the trial by jury, or even to regulate the course of descents, or the forms of conveyances, must be very singularly expressed by the terms ``to raise money for the general welfare.

''But what color can the objection have, when a specification of the objects alluded to by these general terms immediately follows, and is not even separated by a longer pause than a semicolon? If the different parts of the same instrument ought to be so expounded, as to give meaning to every part which will bear it, shall one part of the same sentence be excluded altogether from a share in the meaning and shall the more doubtful and indefinite terms be retained in their full extent, and the clear and precise expressions be denied any signification whatsoever? For what purpose could the enumeration of particular powers be inserted, if these and all others were meant to be included in the preceding general power? Nothing is more natural nor common than first to use a general phrase, and then to explain and qualify it by a recital of particulars.

But the idea of an enumeration of particulars which neither explain nor qualify the general meaning, and can have no other effect than to confound and mislead, is an absurdity, which, as we are reduced to the dilemma of charging either on the authors of the objection or on the authors of the Constitution, we must take the liberty of supposing, had not its origin with the latter. The objection here is the more extraordinary, as it appears that the language used by the convention is a copy from the articles of Confederation.

The objects of the Union among the States, as described in article third, are ``their common defense, security of their liberties, and mutual and general welfare. '' The terms of article eighth are still more identical: ``All charges of war and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury,'' etc. A similar language again occurs in article ninth. Construe either of these articles by the rules which would justify the construction put on the new Constitution, and they vest in the existing Congress a power to legislate in all cases whatsoever. But what would have been thought of that assembly, if, attaching themselves to these general expressions, and disregarding the specifications which ascertain and limit their import, they had exercised an unlimited power of providing for the common defense and general welfare? I appeal to the objectors themselves, whether they would in that case have employed the same reasoning in justification of Congress as they now make use of against the convention. How difficult it is for error to escape its own condemnation!


Change and Continuity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America

Recent studies in Latin American history have increasingly rejected the periodisation inherited in the traditional historiography. In other words, the notion that the Wars of Independence (c. 1810 - c. 1825) represented a clear break with the colonial past has become both questioned and contested. Over the last two decades, as a result, there has been a marked shift in the analysis of independent Latin America which has gone on to stress and emphasise the continuities that linked the late colonial period with the first national decades. For example, for historians such as Jaime E. Rodríguez O. this key interpretative shift led him to define the years 1750 - 1850 as an "age of democratic revolutions"(Mexico in the Age of Democratic Revolutions, 1750 - 1850, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1994). Brian Hamnett, similarly, merged the late colonial period with the first half of the nineteenth century, in his recent history of Mexico, viewing the years 1770 - 1867 as ones that shared the themes of "destabilisation and fragmentation" (A Concise History of Mexico, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). We have gone, therefore, from perceiving the triumph of independence as the beginning of a new political era to accepting that, instead, whilst it represented a watershed of sorts, it did not amount to an abrupt end of the political tensions, customs and traditions that characterised the late eighteenth century.

This relatively novel understanding of the nineteenth century can be appreciated when some of the main themes of the early national period are listed. For instance, Church-State tensions were as violent in the late colonial period as they were in independent Latin America. The assault on the Church that became a major pursuit of the Bourbons, in particular Carlos III (1759 - 88) and Carlos IV (1788 - 1808), was subsequently endorsed by the liberal factions of the nineteenth century. The federalist - centralist divide that was to account for the majority of revolts that surfaced with independence was one that was also explosive during the late colonial period. The system of intendants stemming from the Bourbon attempt to centralise power in the 1770s and the centralist tendencies of the 1812 Cadiz Constitution, provided the origins of much of the debate that would emerge subsequently in former Spanish America. The way regional elites clashed with each other over the extent to which power should be devolved to their provinces or retained in the capital thus replicated the ways in which their predecessors supported or opposed the intendencias. The economic divide that split factions between those who defended protectionist policies and those who supported free market economics, was also a major issue in the late colonial period. Although the 1808 constitutional crisis undoubtedly sped up the process by which the bid for independence became such a powerful force in the 1810s, the economic discontent of the Creole elites had reached breaking point as a result of the Spanish Crown's protectionist policies. The 1788 - 9 Minas Gerais revolt in Brazil erupted because of what was, albeit briefly, a parallel economic context. Likewise, the struggle between constitutionalists determined to curtail the power of the executive and caudillos or emperors in the case of Brazil (Pedro I, 1822-31 and Pedro II,1840-89) who preferred to adopt emergency powers, close down congress and rule by decree, was equally present in the late colonial period. The conflicts that arose between absolutists and those Masonic factions who endorsed the principles of the Enlightenment, the U.S. 1787 Constitution, the French Revolution and the Spanish 1812 Constitution were equally virulent in the late colonial period. In brief, the political, social and economic problems of the late colonial period did not end with independence, they developed, in a context wherein there was as much continuity as there was significant change. It is, of course, in the realm of justice and judicial institutions where issues of change and continuity can best be appreciated. Given that all changes were encapsulated in the laws that were passed and implemented following independence, a study of the individuals and institutions who were responsible for proposing and enforcing them is evidently all important.

Eduardo Zimmermann's collection of essays is a welcome contribution to the historiography. In many ways, it is surprising that, in comparative terms, so little has been written about the judicial institutions of nineteenth-century Latin America. Not only were lawyers fundamental because of their roles as interpreters and implementers of the legal system that came into being with independence, they became as well, as Zimmermann reminds us in the introduction, the main legislators and ministers of the independent governments. In other words, it is by studying the "interaction between the legal world and the wider political, economic, social and cultural processes" that we can truly begin to appreciate what the "transition from colonial status to independent nationhood" entailed (p. 1). This edition, which contains articles by some of the most outstanding specialists in the field, namely: Charles R. Cutter, Víctor M. Uribe, Linda Arnold, Thomas H. Holloway, Osvaldo Barreneche and Zimmerman himself, represents, therefore, a particularly compact and eye-opening revisionist volume, which places "particular emphasis on the continuities between" the colonial and the post-colonial phases.

The issue of continuity is therefore a recurrent theme throughout the book. In the opening chapter, Cutter's study of the legal culture of Spanish America on the eve of independence helps us appreciate the extent to which derecho indiano was "an intricate legal system that proved to be adaptable to the peculiar needs of the diverse regions of empire". In so doing, Cutter dispels the often-accepted myth that the colonial judicial administration was "ponderous, tyrannical, arbitrary and corrupt" (p. 11). The flexibility Cutter demonstrates characterised the Spanish colonial legal administration, even in more peripheral zones (such as northern New Spain), forces us to review the idea that the colonial magistrates were guilty of "malfeasance, capriciousness or ignorance". Instead, what becomes evident is that justice was imparted remarkably fairly. Notions of equidad, which stressed the importance of the common good over personal gain, proved more important than what may have been thought to be the case, as magistrates preferred to exercise their arbitrio judicial than abide by the inflexible tenets of any written doctrina. Evidently the corporatist spirit of the colonial legal system was to be increasingly challenged by the rampant individualism that was to characterise nineteenth-century liberal thought. Notwithstanding the fact that, because of this, many of the tensions of the nineteenth century would revolve precisely around achieving "congruence between new political paradigms and old social realities" (p. 24), Cutter's interpretation of Spanish legal culture confirms that independence did not represent the end of an anachronistic system. In fact, many of the so-called legal advances of the nineteenth century did not come about because they overthrew or replaced an unjust and antiquated order. In reality, they built upon a flexible system which was remarkably fair in its origins, and which, because of this, was deeply ingrained in the customs of, and widely accepted and uncontested in, nineteenth-century Latin American society.

Linda Arnold's study of the fuero militar in independent Mexico develops and complements Cutter's assessment of Latin America's corporatist colonial tradition. Again two issues emerge which must be noted. The first is the extent to which there was continuity, especially in the way that certain key institutions such as the army and the church retained their separate jurisdictions, acquired in the colonial period, for the better part of the nineteenth century. The second, and perhaps the most striking, is that these corporate jurisdictions, often depicted as privileges, were far fairer than has generally been acknowledged. Arnold, like Cutter, forces us to rethink our perception of those colonial judicial legacies that survived into the nineteenth century. As it becomes evident from her chapter, the army was not an irresponsible institution that used the fuero to avoid justice being meted out among its ranks, as it has been so often made out to be. In fact, "military, constitutional and ordinary jurisdiction case files reveal that judges applied jurisprudence not corporate biases when they decided guilt or innocence, determined liability, and issued definitive sentences" (p. 61). In the same way that Cutter demonstrates that the colonial legal culture was long-lasting because society at large found it was fair, Arnold proves that the fueros were not abolished until the late 1850s because "thousands of people [.] actively asserted agency [.] in corporate society. And some of those active participants in corporate society believed they would lose advantage were they cast adrift in the amorphous and violent public culture that the military tried so hard, yet failed, to contain throughout the early national era" (p. 61).

What emerges in all of the chapters is the apparent abyss that emerged between the utopian ideals of the enlightened liberal-minded Creole intellectuals (many of them lawyers) who took to the corridors of power with independence, and a social reality that could not change over night. Whilst Cutter and Arnold's essays point to a society in which corporatism was deeply rooted, so much, in fact, that any major changes in the legal system were generally resisted, Holloway and Barreneche's chapters highlight how pragmatical choices eventually triumphed over idealistic ones in Brazil and Argentina. In other words, in some cases continuity pervaded because the majority appeared to prefer corporatist practices, suffering from an acute and understandable misoneism (fear of what is new). In others, however, the actual problems that arose in attempting to implement certain legal reforms proved either too difficult to overcome or too dangerous, and were subsequently abandoned.

Holloway's chapter on the role of the Justice of the Peace in Rio de Janeiro (1824 - 41), provides a perfect example of how practical issues ultimately triumphed over matters of principle. Characteristic of the idealism of the liberal reformers who drafted the 1824 Constitution, locally elected lay judges (Justices of the Peace) were created in 1827, in a bid to break with the colonial practice whereby judicial authority emanated from the monarch. As was to become evident soon after, by having these "magistrates of police" popularly elected, the well-intentioned liberal reformers had inadvertently empowered the popular classes, in what was a particularly stratified and conflictive society, by allowing them to choose who imparted justice in their locality. Not surprisingly, the Justices of the Peace soon became popular leaders, playing a key role in the events that led to Pedro I's abdication. As a result, from 6 June 1831 to 3 December 1841, a series of measures were taken to restrict the power of the Justices of the Peace and to subject them to the authority of the appointed chiefs of police. By 1841, the 1827 law had been completely overturned and the local judicial system returned to what it had been in 1808, when the Portuguese Court moved to Brazil and established the General Intendant of Police.

Osvaldo Barreneche's chapter on the means by which the police force in Buenos Aires became more powerful than the judicial officials during the early national period offers a parallel account to that presented by Holloway for Rio de Janeiro. As is confirmed in both Uribe and Zimmermann's chapters, one of the most pressing problems faced by the independent nations was the marked lack of lawyers. There were simply not enough of them to actually implement the kind of far-reaching reforms many forward-thinking liberals had in mind. In the case of Buenos Aires, therefore, a pragmatical approach prevailed. The new governments avoided tackling this problem by training more lawyers (a policy that, as Zimmerman's last chapter points out, was only pursued once the Rosas era drew to a close in 1852). Instead the authorities preferred to increase the power of the police. Therefore, despite the attempts of judicial officials "to maintain and to expand their colonial spaces of power in the decades after Independence" (p. 91), it was the police and the military who became the main "givers" of justice. Police budgets were increased whilst judicial requests for assistance were neglected. By 1833, in fact, as one discontented judge noted, the police officers had become "truly judges usurping [legal] jurisdiction that used to belong to the magistrates" (p. 94). As Barreneche informs us, "in the long run, the judiciary was kept inside the courtroom, limiting its contact with civil society, while the police became the visible face of the penal system" (p. 95). As a result, at least until the late nineteenth century, what were originally meant to be transitional and pragmatic measures (i.e., empowering law enforcement agents with the responsibility of meting out justice whilst more lawyers were trained) became "a permanent feature of the system" (p. 103).

As becomes evident in Uribe and Zimmermann's chapters, however, there was more to this marginalisation of the judiciary than a pragmatical approach to the violent context of early nationhood. Lawyers were mistrusted by the emergent political forces of the day for clear political reasons. As Uribe's study demonstrates, there was nothing new about this. In the last decades of the colonial period the complaint that there were far too many lawyers was not actually based on fact. As Uribe shows, in comparative terms, the number of lawyers in Latin America was indeed far from excessive when seen alongside the number of lawyers existing in France, England and the United States at the same time. In other words, the complaint that there were too many lawyers was used by the Crown in order to justify its consequent marginalisation of the legal profession. The revolutionary tendencies of many lawyers were at the heart of the Crown's stand against them. As Uribe confirms, "alleged 'revolutionary' activities on the part of lawyers and other intellectuals, and their active role at abetting what today we may call an embryonic 'public sphere of civil society', were probably among the real reasons for containing the growth of this profession and moving to regulate training more closely" (p. 35). The major role played by lawyers in the Wars of Independence more than confirmed that Crown's fears. The death toll the Wars represented, moreover, further decreased their numbers. And, as is illustrated in Barreneche's study on Buenos Aires, little was done to increase their numbers given that the new rulers of Latin America feared them as much as the Crown did at the end of the colonial era.

Zimmermann's final chapter on the education of lawyers and judges in late nineteenth-century Argentina shows that this distrust of the legal profession, for practical and political reasons, only started to be overcome after 1863. As a closer look at some of Juan Bautista Alberdi's writings shows, lawyers were not only viewed with suspicion because of their political tendencies, but because they did not contribute in a practical sense (like engineers, for example) to the much-desired modernisation of the new country. It was therefore only gradually, following the end of the Rosas era (1829 - 52) and the eventual triumph of a liberal project, that by 1872, a new generation of lawyers started to emerge, trained in constitutional as well as civil law.

Viewing Zimmermann's volume as a whole, it becomes evident that independence did not entail a clear break with Latin America's colonial past. The judicial institutions of Bourbon Spanish America and Portuguese Brazil were not replaced by entirely new ones. They developed and progressed. Many key aspects of the colonial legal order remained in place. So did many of the problems that affected the colonial legal system. In some cases these continuities were due to the often-ignored merits of colonial justice. The corporatism of late colonial Latin America did not die the day independence was achieved. It lasted, deeply rooted in society, until liberalism became truly hegemonic at the very end of the nineteenth century. In other cases these continuities were inevitable given that nationhood did not change the size and nature of the terrain. Communications remained poor, mountains and jungles did not disappear, and the practical problems of governing these vast and remote lands remained the same. The new governing elite made pragmatical choices in the same way that their colonial predecessors did. In brief, it took over a century for the colonial legal system of the 1750s to become the modern one of the late nineteenth century. Albeit short and succinct, Zimmermman's volume is both groundbreaking and inspiring. It is to be hoped that, motivated by this excellent piece of scholarship, more research into the nineteenth-century judicial institutions of Latin America will be undertaken.


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