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Kaupang Timeline

Kaupang Timeline


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Kaupang, Norway

Kaupang, Norway’s first town, was founded around the year 800 and extended in a 500m-wide belt along the west side of the Kaupang inlet.

There were probably around 500 inhabitants in the town, which was deserted sometime in the 900s. There are several burial mounds from Viking times, at North and South Kaupang.

The town’s location was significant in its role as a hub for trade and production.

At Kaupang today a Viking house has been recreated in the style of how it is thought it would have looked in Viking times. You can also see a model of the town and find out how the town was situated.

Many people have dug and researched Kaupang from the 1800s until now, although most of the city is still not excavated. But the finds tell us of a permanent, vital society that was in contact with much of Northern Europe.

In the exhibition, "What Kaupang Earth Hid", you can get an insight into how the archaeologists worked, what they did and what we know about Kaupang’s history today.


Contents

Early developments Edit

The Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. [5] The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year when the city was first mentioned. [4] Novgorod is traditionally considered to be a cradle of Russian statehood.

The oldest archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, however, have found cultural layers dating back to the late 10th century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was allegedly founded. [16] Archaeological dating is fairly easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, and most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating.

The Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard (Holmgarðr or Holmgarðir) is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. [17] Originally, Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km (1.2 miles) to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische (named in comparatively modern times after the Varangian chieftain Rurik, who supposedly made it his "capital" around 860). Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the Knyaz (prince), dates from the mid-9th century, [18] whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century hence the name Novgorod, "new city", from Old Church Slavonic Новъ and Городъ (Nov and Gorod), although German and Scandinavian historiography suggests the Old Norse term Nýgarðr, or the Old High German term Naugard. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod (and that of other cities within the territory of the then Kievan Rus') occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII.

Slightly predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik (which dates the first Norse arrival in the region around 858–860), an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the Annales Bertiniani (written up until 882) where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein , where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as chacanus (the Latin form of Khagan, a title they had likely borrowed from contact with the Avars). [19] [20]

Princely state within Kievan Rus' Edit

In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin, and Ostromir.

Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws (later incorporated into Russkaya Pravda) among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they often referred to in later centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes. His son, Vladimir, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.

Early foreign ties Edit

In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. [21] Many Viking kings and yarls came to Novgorod seeking refuge or employment, including Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald Hardrada. [22] No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod.

The Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof). [23] Later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany also established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. [24] At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure. [25]

Novgorod Republic Edit

In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich. The year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said. [26] The city state controlled most of Europe's northeast, from lands east of today's Estonia to the Ural Mountains, making it one of the largest states in medieval Europe, although much of the territory north and east of Lakes Ladoga and Onega was sparsely populated and never organized politically.


Sprat: a new adventure

The late 1890s brought about big changes for Norway’s fishermen, with the introduction of canning factories. Sprat (a smaller member of the herring family) became the backbone of this new and exciting industry. Later on, small herring and mackerel joined the sprat as important products in the canning industry. In fact, canned mackerel with tomato sauce is still a popular sandwich spread in Norway today.

Stavanger rose to become Norway’s most prominent canning city, establishing around 70 factories in the 1920s – there’s even a museum dedicated to the canning industry in Stavanger today!


Kaupang Timeline - History

Following are digital resources for Vikings in world history. The resources are divided into an Overview which includes general resources for Viking history and culture. That overview is followed by the following sections: Lessons (Overview), Gender, University syllabi, Varangian Rus, the Appropriation of Viking History by White Supremacists to promote their agenda, Videos, The Norse/Vikings, Norse/Viking Lessons, Podcasts, Videos for Norse/Vikings, Book and Film Reviews, and Websites.

https://whc.unesco.org
L'Anse aux Meadows. World Heritage and Canadian National Historic Site at the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, where the remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement has been found.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/03/vikings-ships-realm-raiders-scandinavian/
"The Realm of the Vikings," National Geographic, March 2017. See interactive showing Viking ship construction and varieties of Viking ships along with interactive map showing routes of seafaring Vikings, Norse, and Rus.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vikings/
"The Vikings," NOVA, PBS companion website to "The Vikings," a two-hour NOVA program originally broadcast May 9, 2000. See transcript for this program below:

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2708vikings.html
"The Vikings," PBS, NOVA, May 2000. Transcript for two-hour documentary.

https://www.historyonthenet.com/vikings-history-overview-culture-history-viking-age
"Vikings History: An Overview of the Culture and History of the Viking Age," History on the net, ed., Dr. Scott Michael Rank, seen September 13, 2019.

https://www.historytoday.com/miscellanies/vikings-warriors-no-nation
Eleanor Barraclough, "Vikings: Warriors of No Nation," History Today, April 10, 2019. "Racially pure" Viking stereotype is a myth argued Eleanor Barraclough.

https://www.ancient.eu/Vikings/
Joshua J. Mark, "Vikings," Ancient History Encyclopedia, January 29, 2018.

http://www.sourcinginnovation.com/archaeology/Arch07.htm
Michael G. Lamoureux, "The influence of Vikings on European culture," Sourcing Innovation, March/April 2009. Slim summary.

https://news.yale.edu/2013/03/08/vikings-yale-historian-looks-myths-vs-history
Dorie Baker, "The Vikings: Yale historian looks at the myths vs. the history," Yale News, March 8, 2013. As a lead-up to the History Channel series, "Vikings," Tom Ashbrook, host of NPR's "On Point" talked with Yale's Anders Winroth, foremost authority on the subject, to de-mystify the legendary raiders of the North.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/evidence_01.shtml
Gareth Williams, "How do we know about the Vikings?" BBC, History, last update February 17, 2011.

https://www.history.com/shows/vikings/pages/vikings-historians-view
Vikings Historian's View, History.com. See numerous Viking articles covering 800 CE to the 11th century.

https://www.academia.edu/4106961/All_in_one_Boat._The_Vikings_as_European_and_Global_Heritage
Soren Sindbaek, "(PDF) All in one Boat. The Vikings as European and Global Heritage," Chapter 8, pages 81-88, in Heritage Reinvents Europe, EAC Occasional Paper, No. 7, Proceedings of the Internationale Conference, Ename, Belgium, March 17-19, 2011, edited by Dirk Callebaut, etc. al. Uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek. Paper/Chapter presented a survey of contexts and places where Vikings are currently highlighted as a European cultural heritage.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/ztyr9j6
Vikings-KS2 History, BBC Bitesize learning modules. Annotated animated resources most likely aimed at elementary and middle school students.

https://www.history.org.uk/primary/categories/765/module/3694/romans-anglo-saxons-and-vikings/3701/the-thing-and-viking-migration
"The Thing and Viking migration," Historical Association, UK. A simulation to help students understand why the Vikings would leave home and settle abroad.

vga/?page_id=7402
Lesson module, Session 2, "Middle Ages: Viking Invasions," Radford University, Virginia Geographic Alliance. Note Session 1
Lessons, Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1000 CE: https://php.radford.edu/

http://www.myfreshplans.com/2011/11/viking-lesson-plans/
"Viking Lesson Plans," Fresh Plans, November 2011. See embedded links for resources and lesson ideas.

https://mrcaseyhistory.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/vikings-terror-of-europe.pdf
"The Vikings: Terror of Europe," Mr. Casey, AP World History website, January 2015. Guided Document Based Essay question with seven documents. See more lessons from February 1, 2019 updated APWH Modern website, Mr. Casey, Maspeth High School, Elmhurst, NY: https://mrcaseyhistory.com/2019/02/01/viking-raiders-and-traders/.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1251/women-in-the-viking-age/
Emma Groeneveld, "Women in the Viking Age," Ancient History Encyclopedia, July 11, 2018.

https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=his
Kendall M. Holcomb, "Pulling the Strings: The Influential Power of Women in Viking Age Iceland," Digital Commons at Western Oregon University, 2015.

https://vikingagepodcast.com/the-threshold
Podcast series beginning with Mother of Kings I-The Threshold, Viking Age Podcasts, January 15, 2019. Series of podcasts which explored the life and legend of Gunnhild Konungamooir, "Mother of Kings," and other powerful women in Old Norse Literature.

http://www.heroicage.org/issues/19/sheble.php
Margaret Sheble, Purdue University, "'Her temper was still the same': Women Resisting Colonialism in Modern Viking Narratives," Heroic Age, A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 19, October 4, 2019. Descriptions of how Viking women are depicted in articles, poetry, simulation games, history, including white nationalist venues.

http://wgst.athabascau.ca/awards/broberts/forms/Jessica.pdf
Jessica Adam, "The Lives of Women in the Viking Age: The Role of Critical Feminist and Historical Assessment," Essay, for History 383 course, Athabasca University, Canada, November 3, 2014, 12 page pdf. A brief look at the literature, resources for gender and women in the Viking Age.

https://lithub.com/to-live-like-the-women-of-viking-literature/
Linnea Hartsuyker, "To Live Like the Women of Viking Literature," Literary Hub, August 10, 2017. Women's appearances in Viking literature go beyond the home and children.

https://www.academia.edu/271171/Gender_Material_Culture_and_identity_in_the_Viking_Diaspora._In_Viking_and_Medieval_Scandinavia_5_2009_253-269
Marie Louise Stig Sorensen, "(PDF) Gender, Material Culture and identity in the Viking Diaspora. In Viking and Medieval Scandinavia 5 (2009), 253-269,&rdquo Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, 5, 2009, 253-269, uploaded to Academia by Marie Louise Stig Sorensen. As a theoretical support for the aims of theorizing the Viking Age as a diaspora, this paper reflected on the impact of diaspora on identity, esp. gender.

https://en.natmus.dk/historical-knowledge/denmark/prehistoric-period-until-1050-ad/the-viking-age/the-people/women/
"Women in the Viking Age, National Museum of Denmark. Slim review of gender and women in Viking culture to 1050 CE.

https://www.hellulandnews.com/science/2017/9/16/no-viking-women-warriors
Christopher Bjornsen, "No Viking Women Warriors," HUV, Hellu Land News, September 16, 2017. Note posts on this site as to critique of archaeologist Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, "A female Viking Warrior confirmed by genomics," published in American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Uppsala University.

https://theweek.com/articles/865878/myth-viking-woman-warrior
Erika Harlitz, "The Myth of the Viking Woman Warrior," The Week, October 9, 2019. Until more solid evidence comes to light, the Viking woman warrior remains a fantasy.

https://soundcloud.com/historyhit/viking-warrior-women-stephen
> 26:40 Podcast. "Viking Warrior Women with Stephen Harrison," Dan Snow's History Hit Podcast, 2018. Stephen Harrison is a lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Glasgow with research interest on the archaeology of Early Viking Age Ireland and Britain.

https://soundcloud.com/historyissexy/episode-27-the-lives-of-viking-and-mongolian-women
47:54 Podcast. "The Lives of Viking and Mongolian Women," History is Sexy Podcast, Episode 27, 2019. A comparative of gender in two martial cultures.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngEWPL01yjs
15:22 Video. Ragnar Dracaena, "Women in Viking Age Scandinavia," part of series, The Modern Viking, published on You Tube June 4, 2018.

https://www.academia.edu/2601720/Bureychak_Tetyana._2012._In_Search_of_Heroes_Vikings_and_Cossacks_in_Present_Sweden_and_Ukraine._NORMA.
_Nordic_Journal_for_Masculinities_Studies._Vol._07_Issue_2_139_159
Tetyana Bureychak, "In Search of Heroes: Vikings and Cossacks in Present Sweden and Ukraine," NORMA, Nordic Journal for Masculinities Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2012, 139-159. Uploaded to Academia by Tetyana Bureychak, Linkoping University, Sweden. Comparative analysis of symbolic mechanisms that legitimize hegomonic masculinity in Sweden and Ukraine society.

https://norse-mythology.org/viking-gender-roles/
Daniel McCoy, "Viking Gender Roles," Norse Mythology for Smart People, website.

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/hist3200/Syll3200.html
Dr. Oren Falk, The Viking Age, syllabus, Spring 2012, Cornell University.

https://www.academia.edu/28285446/ANTH.000_The_Vikings_Raiders_Traders_Farmers_UAB_sample_syllabus_course_pending_Sept._6_2016
Gregory Mumford, ANTH.000, The Viking Raiders, Traders, Farmers, (UAB sample syllabus course pending, Sept. 6, 2016), University of Alabama, Birmingham. Uploaded to Academia by Gregory Mumford.

https://www.academia.edu/6094623/Syllabus_The_Viking_World_Story_History_and_Archaeology
Austin Mason, Macalester College, Minnesota, and Cameron Bradley, Carleton College, Minnesota, "Syllabus: The Viking World--Story, History and Archaeology," University of Minnesota, nd. Uploaded to Academia by Austin Mason.

http://libraryguides.missouri.edu/c.php?g=28051&p=172980
Lois L. Huneycutt, "The Age of the Vikings, c. 800-c. 1200," Syllabus, History 4550, University of Missouri, last updated August 16, 2019. Note Viking Women and gender histories in Books to review at bottom of this syllabus.

http://faculty.washington.edu/leiren/vikings.html
Dr. Terje Leiren, "The Vikings: A History," Syllabus, University of Washington, Fall Quarter 2019. See Lecture Overheads, Websites and Links, and links to Havamal-The Words of Odin the High One (which does not open), Rigsthula: The Lay of Rig, and The Account Given by Ohthere.
Note Havamal resources in Viking/Norse section below and see Havamal here: http://www.pitt.edu/

https://disabroad.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2015/07/sp17-eh-sto-the-vikings-1.pdf
Madeline Hurd, "Final Syllabus-The Vikings," DIS-Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Stockholm Sweden, Spring 2017.

https://canvas.disabroad.org/courses/3900/assignments/syllabus
Kim Bergqvist, Course Syllabus, "World of the Vikings," DISabroad, Stockholm, Sweden, Fall 2020.

https://english.hi.is/viking_and_medieval_norse_studies
"Viking and Medieval Norse Studies," Course description, Readings, Universities of Iceland, Oslo, Norway, Copenhagen, Denmark. Two year Nordic Master's Programme, February 1, 2020.

https://www.academia.edu/39724176/The_First_Christian_Rus_Generation_Contextualizing_the_Black_Sea_Events_of_1016_1024_and_1043
Alex M. Feldman, "(PDF) The First Christian Rus' Generation: Contextualizing the Black Sea Events of 1016, 1024, and 1043," Rossica Antiqua, No. 16, 2018, uploaded to Academia by Alex M. Feldman.

https://www.history.com/news/globetrotting-vikings-the-quest-for-constantinople
Christopher Klein, "Globetrotting Vikings: The Quest for Constantinople," History.com, last updated October 19, 2018. Rus attempt to conquer Constantinople failed. Varangian Guard employed by the Byzantines.

https://www.academia.edu/3628861/Varangian_Norse_Influences_Within_the_Elite_Guard_of_Byzantium
Travis W. Shores, (PDF) "Varangian: Norse Influences Within the Elite Guard of Byzantium," Paper, Spring 2013, uploaded to Academia by Travis Shores.

https://www.academia.edu/26862338/What_does_material_evidence_tell_us_about_contacts_between_Byzantium_and_the_Viking_world_c._800_1000?
email_work_card=title
Fedir Androshchuk, "What does material evidence tell us about contacts between Byzantium and the Viking world c. 800-1000?" Chapter in Byzantine in the Viking World, Uppsala Universitie, 91-116, uploaded to Academia by Fedir Androshchuk.

https://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/199906/among.the.norse.tribes-the.remarkable.account.of.ibn.fadlan.htm
Judith Gabriel, "Among the Norse Tribes-The Remarkable Account of Ibn Fadlan," Aramco World, November/December 1999. Ibn Fadlan's 921-922 CE encounter with the Viking Rus as he traveled up the Volga representing the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad on a mission to the king of the Volga Bulgars, recounted in his journal titled, "Risala."

https://www.academia.edu/4094697/Rus_in_Arabic_Sources_Cultural_Contacts_and_Identity_PhD_dissertation_
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "Rus in Arabic Sources: Cultural Contacts and Identity, PhD dissertation," Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen, February 2013. PhD dissertation. Uploaded to Academia by Thorir Jonsson Hraundal.

https://www.academia.edu/26549730/New_Perspectives_on_Eastern_Vikings_Rus_in_Arabic_Sources
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "New Perspectives on Eastern Vikings/Rus in Arabic Sources," Viking and Medieval Scandinavia Journal, 2014, 65-98. Follow-up to Hraundal's PhD dissertation linked above.

http://www.etd.ceu.edu/2018/katona_csete.pdf
Csete Katona, "Co-operation between the Viking Rus' and the Turkic nomads of the steppe in the ninth-eleventh centuries, MA Thesis in Medieval Studies, May 2018, Central European University, Budapest, 144- page pdf.

https://www.academia.edu/36442346/Gotland_the_Pearl_of_the_Baltic_Sea_home_of_the_Varangians_pages_1-166?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: the Pearl of the Baltic Sea, home of the Varangians, pages 1-166," B4Press, 2013, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm.

https://www.academia.edu/33629707/Gotland_the_Pearl_of_the_Baltic_Sea_Center_of_commerce_and_culture_in_the_Baltic_Sea_region_for_over_2000_years
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea," 2013, 1-10, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See other chapters and pages from this book on right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/22415086/The_Gotlandic_Merchant_Republic_and_its_trade_on_the_Russian_rivers_in_the_700s-900s?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "The Gotlandic Merchant Republic and its trade on the Russian rivers in the 700's-900's," excerpt from Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea, Center of commerce and culture in the Baltic Sea region for over 2000 years, 2013, 139-157. Uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See more chapters from this book, articles, papers on Gotland and Varangian/Rus on right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/5473208/Gotlandic_merchants_Rus_on_the_Russian_rivers?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "Gotlandic merchants (Rus') on the Russian rivers," excerpt from Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea, 2013, 136-160, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm.

https://www.academia.edu/36392982/_The_history_of_the_Varangians_and_their_world-unique_Medieval_Churches_1-148.pdf
Tore Gannholm, (PDF) "The history of the Varangians and world-unique Medieval Churches," 2015, 1-148 pdf, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See other Gotland Varangian resources to the right of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/32564170/Gotland_the_home_of_the_Varangians
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland the home of the Varangians," 2017, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. Gannholm differentiated between Vikings and the Varangian Gotland Merchant Republic.

https://independent.academia.edu/ToreGannholm
Tore Gannholm, Independent Academia. See all of Tore Gannholm papers, articles and monographs on Gotlandic and Varangian Rus Swedish history.

psteeves/classes/pritsak.html
Omeljan Pritsak, "The Origin of Rus'," The Russia Review, July 1977, 249-273. The Normanist versus Anti-Normanist controversy as to Norsemen founding Kievan Rus.' Historiography.

https://www.academia.edu/6751637/From_Sweden_to_Russia_Staraya_Ladoga_and_the_role_of_Vikings_in_establishment_of_the_Russian_State
Malena M. Vanpil, "(PDF) From Sweden to Russia: Staraya Ladoga and the role of Vikings in establishment of the Russian State," Uppsal Universitie, April 11, 2013, uploaded to Academia by Malena Vanpil. See other Rhos/Rus, Varangian, Gotland, Swedish Vikings in Russia articles, papers to the right of this page.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/nestor.asp
"Medieval Sourcebook: The Chronicle of Nestor," Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. Excerpt from The Chronicle of Nestor as to Varangians ruling Rus. Also referred to as The Russian Primary Chronicle.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c758/061116fe62211617a0b735f56ed192fe48e9.pdf
The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text, trans. and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross (1930) and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1953), Mediaeval Academy of America. History of the Eastern Slavs and Varangian Rus role in ruling early Kiev.

See more on The Russian Primary Chronicle below:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_Chronicle
"Primary Chronicle," Wikipedia. The Tale of Bygone Years (Old East Slavic), known in English-language historiography as the Primary Chronicle or Rus' Primary Chronicle or, after the author it has traditionally been ascribed to, Nestor's Chronicle or The Chronicle of Nestor, is a history of the Kyivan Rus' from about 850-1100 CE.

http://diasporiana.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/books/8713/file.pdf
Serhii Plokhy, "The Origins of the Slavic Nations--Premodern Identities in Rus, Ukraine, and Belarus," Cambridge, 2006.
Was Kievan Rus' the product of activities of Vikings/Norsemen/Varangians or was it a state, not only populated by Eastern Slavs, but also created and ruled by them? Historiography and history as nationalist populism.

https://www.academia.edu/17005018/VIKINGS_INVOLVEMENT_IN_THE_CIVIL_WAR_1046_IN_GEORGIA
Jaba Samushia, "Vikings Involvement in the Civil War 1046 in Georgia," Pro Georgia, 2013, 55-63, uploaded to Academia by Jaba Samushia.

https://www.academia.edu/1429916/Rus_Varangians_and_Birka_Warriors?email_work_card=title
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, "Rus, Varangians and Birka Warriors," in The Martial Society. Aspects of warriors, fortifications and social change in Scandinavia, eds., L. Holmquist Olausson & M. Olausson, 2009, 160-178. Uploaded to Academia by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson. See, The Martial Society book with theses and papers below:

https://www.academia.edu/21764390/The_Martial_Society._Aspects_of_warriors_fortifications_and_social_change_in_Scandinavia
Lena Holmquist, Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Fedir Andoshchuk, Anna Kjellstrom, and Michael Olausson, etc., eds., The Martial Society. Aspects of warriors, fortifications and social change in Scandinavia, Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm, University, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, etc. See tabs beneath title, The Martial Society for more resources, papers, articles, monographs on Viking Age Architecture, Viking Age Scandinavia, Fortifications, Material Culture of the Viking Age, Varangians, + 2 more.

https://hubpages.com/education/VIKING-40-Rurik-And-The-Rus
Alan R. Lancaster, "Viking-40: Rurik and the Rus-Russia, a Norseman Founds a Dynasty and a Super State, Hub Pages, last updated May 1, 2019. Look to right of this page to see other Viking articles.

http://www.wou.edu/history/files/2015/08/Katie-Lane.pdf
Katie Lane, "Vikings in the East: Scandinavian Influence in Kievan Rus," WOU, Western Oregon University Homepage, posted August 2015. The Vikings, referred to as Varangians in East Europe, research paper, Spring 2005, 49 page pdf.

https://www.academia.edu/36999059/Bosselmann-Ruickbie_Heavy_Metal_Meets_Byzantium_Contact_Between_Scandinavia_and_Byzantium_in_the_
Albums_The_Varangian_Way_2007_and_Stand_Up_and_Fight_2011_by_the_Finnish_Band_Turisas._In_Daim_et_al._Wege_der_Kommunikation_
zwischen_Byzanz_und_dem_Westen_2_BOO_9.2_Mainz_2018_391-419?email_work_card=title
Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, "Bosselman-Ruickbie: Heavy Metal Meets Byzantium! Contact Between Scandinavian and Byzantium in the Albums 'The Varangian Way' (2007) and 'Stand Up and Fight (2011) by Finnish Band Turisas. In: Daim et al., Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen, 2, BOO, 9.2, Mainz, 2018, 391-419. Uploaded to Academia by Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, Justus-Lieberg-University, Giessen, Germany .

Note other Varangian, Byzantine history specific articles, monographs to the right of this page.

https://www.metalmusicarchives.com/subgenre/viking-metal
Viking metal, metal music archives. Norse legends are themes of Viking Metal music.

https://archive.org/details/TheRussianPrimaryChronicle
The Russian Primary Chronicle. History of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in 1113, Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge, Mass., 1953.

White Supremacists and Vikings

http://theconversation.com/vikings-were-never-the-pure-bred-master-race-white-supremacists-like-to-portray-84455
Clare Downham, "Vikings were never the pure-bred master race white supremacists like to portray," The Conversation, September 28, 2017. The word 'Viking' entered the Modern English language in 1807, at a time of growing nationalism and empire building. The following decades produced "Viking" stereotypes that supported nationalism and white superiority.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/05/31/white-supremacists-love-vikings-but-theyve-got-history-all-wrong/
David Perry, "White Supremacists Love Vikings. But they've got history all wrong," Washington Post, May 31, 2017. Note 2017 date for some articles which is context for Charlottesville white supremacist march and violence.

https://www.norwegianamerican.com/featured/viking-symbols-stolen-racists/
Judith Gabriel Vinje, "Viking Symbols 'Stolen' by Racists," Norwegian Americans, Los Angeles, November 2, 2017, updated October 31, 2017.

https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/why-odin-new-god-choice-white-supremacists-008604
Riley Winters, "Why Odin is the new God Choice for White Supremacists," Ancient Origins, August 15, 2017.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/17/world/europe/vikings-sweden-paganism-neonazis.html
Richard Martyn-Hemphill and Henrik Pryser Libell, "Who Owns the Vikings? Pagans, Neo-Nazis, and Advertisers Tussle Over Symbols," NY Times, March 17, 2018.

https://time.com/5569399/viking-history-white-nationalists/
Dorothy Kim, "White Supremacists Have Weaponized an Imaginary Viking Past. It's Time to Reclaim the Real History," Time, last updated April 15, 2019, Real Viking society was multicultural and multiracial. So, where does the white supremacist vision of their genealogy come from?

https://www.thedailybeast.com/what-the-alt-right-gets-wrong-about-the-vikings
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "What the alt-right gets wrong about the Vikings," The Daily Beast, August 17, 2019. Viking age Scandinavians were immigrants who traded with the Muslim world and embraced gender fluidity--everything the alt-right despises.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-74nZZkAaY
10:10 Video, Dr. Jackson Crawford, "The Viking Funeral Ibn Fadlan Saw," published on You Tube, October 17, 2017. Ibn Fadlan's account of Viking/Rus funeral witnessed in 922 CE, from his journal, Risala.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nena_Y0w7eM
5:57 Video. "Abbasid & Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea)," published on You Tube December 14, 2018.

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=the+kievan+rus+in+world+history&view=detail&mid=61868B0ED575BA16EAB361868B0ED575BA16
EAB3&FORM=VIRE
38:13 Video. "Russia, the Kievan Rus, and the Mongols," by John Arnold. Published on You Tube August 24, 2017. History of the Varangian Rus and their encounter with the Mongols.

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=varangian+rus+in+russia&view=detail&mid=6F64D896CBA7D62668236F64D896CBA7D6266823&FORM=VIRE
18:32 Video. "Anglo-Saxon Varangian Rus in Russia, (Byzantine Empire), published on You Tube July 26, 2019. Tenth and Eleventh century 'video timeline' of Varangian Rus support of Byzantine Empire. Scroll down to see other Varangian Rus videos.

See 3 part series on Varangian Rus from Birka Viking:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4_r-IySNKM
13:56 Video. "The Varangian Rus 1/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

Generally speaking, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, settling in the Danelaw (northern/eastern England) and Normandy, and the Swedes to the south and east, founding the Kievan Rus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6T9zVFhxkE
7:26 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 2/3," BirkaViking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C06pP0rCvMs
10:44 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 3/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011. The Varangian Rus in Constantinople.

https://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Melleno_berkeley_0028E_14454.pdf
Daniel Melleno, "Before They Were Vikings: Scandinavia and the Franks up to the Death of Louis the Pius," PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2014. Patterns of interaction and relationship between Francia and Scandinavia from 700-840 CE. A narrative of commerce, diplomacy, and strife between the Frankish Empire and its northern neighbors which began long before the Viking Age.

https://www.academia.edu/1111867/The_small_world_of_the_Vikings_Networks_in_early_medieval_communication_and_exchange
Soren Michael Sindbaek, "(PDF) The Small World of the Vikings: Networks in early medieval communication and exchange," Norwegian Archaeological Review, Vol. 40, no. 1, 2007, 59-74, uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek. "Network theory" as to Viking voyaging in south Scandinavia and overseas.

https://www.academia.edu/35309417/The_Scandinavian_Trade_Network_in_the_Early_Viking_Age_Kaupang_and_Dublin_in_Context?email_work_card=title
Tenaya Jorgensen, "The Scandinavian Trade Network in the Early Viking Age: Kaupang and Dublin in Context," Paper, Trinity College, Dublin, nd., uploaded to Academia by Tenaya Joregensen. Compare and contrast of Danish Kaupang in southeast Norway's Skiringsaal and the West Norse Dublin which used central place and network theory of two nodal points linked together by the Scandinavian trade network.

https://www.academia.edu/10125680/Fibula_Fabula_Fact_-_The_Viking_Age_in_Finland_ed._Joonas_Ahola_and_Frog_with_Clive_Tolley_
Mr. Frog, Joonas Ahola, Clive Tolley, eds., "Fibula, Fabula, Fact--The Viking Age in Finland," uploaded to Academia by Joonas Ahola, Mr. Frog with Clive Tolley. Entire 516 pages of The Viking Age in Finland, Studio Fennica Historica, no. 18,
Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2014.

https://www.academia.edu/1499804/Viking_Ethnicities_A_historiographic_overview?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Viking Ethnicities: A historiographic overview," History Compass, Vol. 10, no. 1, October 2012, 1-12, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham focused on identity of the Vikings and how they saw themselves along with historiographic trends of Viking ethnicities. Downham also claimed to describing comparative analysis of human immigration in this article. See other articles, monographs, papers on Vikings and Ireland, Vikings in England, on the right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/1499799/Hiberno-Norwegians_and_Anglo-Danes_Anachronistic_Ethnicities_in_Viking_Age_England?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Hiberno-Norwegians and Anglo-Danes Anachronistic Ethnicities in Viking Age England," Medieval Scandinavia, 19, 2009, 136-169. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.

https://www.academia.edu/1514025/Viking_Camps_in_Ninth-century_Ireland_Sources_Locations_and_Interactions?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Viking Camps in Ninth-century Ireland: Sources, Locations, and Interactions," Paper presented at "Between the Islands" conference at the University of Cambridge, March 13, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.

https://www.academia.edu/13843949/Black_Pool_Hiberno-Norse_identity_in_Viking_Age_and_Early_Medieval_Ireland?email_work_card=title
Anton Amle, "Black Pool: Hiberno-Norse Identity in Viking Age and Early Medieval Ireland," Institute of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala Universitet, Master's Thesis Paper, Spring Semester 2014, uploaded to Academia by Anton Amle.

See many other monographs, papers on Norse Vikings and Ireland on right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/7502335/The_Viking_Legacy_in_Ireland_p._4-6_33-37_?email_work_card=title
"The Viking Legacy in Ireland," Tom Birkett and Christina Lee, eds., The Vikings in Munster, Languages, Myths and Finds, Vol. 3, Centre For the Study of the Viking Age, University of Nottingham, 2014. Chapters 1-4, Conclusion and Bibliography (pp. 4-6, 33-37). Uploaded to Academia by Mark Kirwan.

https://notendur.hi.is/thv/t_t.html
Thorsteinn Vilhjalmsson, "Time and Travel in Old Norse Society," presentation for Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1997 and also published in Disputatio, II: 89-114, 1997. Paper about daily life and technical knowledge and skills in Viking medieval Scandinavia.

https://www.academia.edu/13175035/The_Place_of_the_Evil_Infant_Abandonment_in_Old_Norse_Society
Sean B. Lawing, "The Place of the Evil: Infant Abandonment in Old Norse Society," Scandinavian Studies, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Sean Lawing. Status of deformed and disfigured in medieval Norse society.

https://www.academia.edu/34576015/What_caused_the_Viking_Age
James H. Barrett, University of Cambridge, Medieval and Environmental Archaeology, "(PDF) What Caused the Viking Age?" Antiquity, 82, 2008, 671-685. Uploaded to Academia by James H. Barrett. Prime movers for the Viking episode and expansion in early medieval world history.

http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/657
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Project Gutenberg EBook, posted August 3, 2008. First compiled by Anglo-Saxon authorities as directed by King Alfred in 890 CE which recorded early Viking raids on the British Isles. This version translated by J. Ingram (1823) and J.A. Giles (1847).

https://www.academia.edu/3800136/Annals_armies_and_artistry_The_Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle_865_96?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Annals, Armies, and Artistry: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 865-896 CE," uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Chronicles' focus on Viking campaigns.

http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/people/valtonen/MAthesis.pdf
Irmeli Valtonen, "An Interpretation of the Description of Northernmost Europe in the Old English Orosius," Graduate Thesis Paper, 172 pages, University of Oulu, Finland, August 1988. Early Viking travel narratives written in 9th century Anglo Saxon Orosius, The Voyage of Ohthere and The Voyage of Wulfstan, are important because these are some of the very few accounts of 9th century Viking northernmost Europe, the rest being archaeological evidence.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11457-018-9221-3
Irene Baug, etc.al, "The Beginning of the Viking Age in the West," Journal of Maritime Archaeology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, April 2019, 43-80 seen in Springer link, first online December 7, 2018.

https://bookriot.com/2016/02/03/10-things-know-lindisfarne-gospels/
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "10 Things You Should Know about the Lindisfarne Gospels," Book Riot, February 3, 2016. A 793 CE Viking raid on the Lindisfarne Priory in northeast England has been cited as the beginning of the Viking Age in the West.

https://www.academia.edu/1514031/Vikings_in_England
Clare Downham, "Vikings in England to A.D. 1016," in S. Brink and N. Price, eds., "The Viking World," London, 2008. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Slim chapter on Vikings in England.

https://stornowayhistory.wordpress.com/2010/01/12/shakespeares-macleod-the-stornoway-play/
"Shakespeare's 'MacLeod'-"The Stornoway Play," " The (Made Up) History of Stornoway Weblog, January 12, 2010. As a youth, William Shakespeare spent many happy years in Stornoway before finding fame as a writer. His first play, 1586, "MacLeod," based on a hermit's sighting of Viking arrival/raids in Stornoway.

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/saxos-legend-of-amleth-in-the-gesta-danorum
"Saxo's legend of Amleth in the Gesta Danorum," The British Library, Collections, nd. Norse tale of Amleth, a literary ancestor of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Scandinavian legend recorded around 1200 by Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus and first printed in Paris, 1514. Gesta Danorum was partly mythical history of the Danes.

http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sources/hamletsources.html
Amanda Mabillard, "Shakespeare's Sources for Hamlet: Ur-Hamlet, Revenge tragedy, and the Danish Tragedy," Shakespeare Online, August 20, 2000.

https://www.academia.edu/8954733/The_Chronology_of_the_Last_Scandinavian_Kings_of_York?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "The Chronology of the Last Scandinavian Kings of York," Northern History, 40: 1, March 2003, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham reviewed two historian's arguments as to struggle for control of York, in northern England, in early 10th century between rival Scandinavian Kings and the English. She also defends the chronology in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle(s) as to this history.

https://www.wittenberg.edu/sites/default/files/media/history/Witt-HistoryJournal_2018.pdf
"New Perspective on Memory, Religion, Trade, and the Viking Presence," Wittenberg History Journal, Vol. XLVII, Spring 2018. See articles on "Viking Fur Trade beyond Western Europe," "Christianization and Conversion in Danelaw," and "Vikings in al-Andalus."

https://www.academia.edu/12444392/Peace_and_Non-Peace_in_the_Viking_Age_--_Ottar_in_Biarmaland_the_Rus_in_Byzantium_and_
Danes_and_Norwegians_in_England
Niels Lund, "Peace and Non-Peace in the Viking Age--Ottar in Biarmaland, the Rus in Byzantium, and Danes and Norwegians in England," chapter in James E. Knirk, ed., Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985, uploaded to Academia by Niels Lund.

https://www.academia.edu/32054511/Hamlet_with_the_Princes_of_Denmark_An_exploration_of_the_case_of_H%C3%A1lfdan_king_of_the_Danes
Stephen M. Lewis, "Hamlet with the Princes of Denmark: An exploration of the case of Halfdan, 'king of the Danes,'" https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01943605, 2017, uploaded to Academia by Stephen M. Lewis. Focus on Halfdan, King of the Danes to understand "the Viking Age, not only in England but in Denmark and the Frankish realm as well."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/religion_01.shtml
Gareth Williams, "Ancient History in depth: Viking Religion," BBC, February 17, 2011. Explanation of Viking 'pagan' religion and conversion to Christianity.

https://www.history.org.uk/primary/resource/3867/the-vikings-in-britain-a-brief-history
"The Vikings in Britain: a brief history," Historical Association, UK, last updated September 27, 2019. See more resources at the end of this article.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/xanten1.asp
> "Medieval Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845-853," Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. Northmen raids into England and France.

http://deremilitari.org/2013/06/disorder-and-warfare-according-to-the-annals-of-xanten-844-861/
"Disorder and Warfare According to the Annals of Xanten, 844-861," DE RE MILITARI, June 25, 2013. Northmen raids in northern Europe from series of annals written at Lorsch (832-852) and at Cologne until 1873.

http://deremilitari.org/2013/07/viking-raids-in-france-and-the-siege-of-paris-882-886/
"Viking Raids in France and the Siege of Paris, 882-886," DE RE MILITARI, July 4, 2013. Viking raids in France and siege of Paris from The Annals of St. Vaast.

https://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_2012_num_90_2_8333
Bjorn Poulsen, "A Classical Manor in Viking Age and Early Medieval Denmark," Revue beige de Philologie et d'Histoire, Vol. 90, no. 2, 2012, 451-466. History and archaeology seem to confirm a Viking Age system of manors, but also of a classical system of manors, which is then assumed to have continued into the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1323/the-impact-of-the-norman-conquest-of-england/
Mark Cartwright, "The Impact of the Norman Conquest of England," Ancient History Encyclopedia, January 23, 2019.

http://mcllibrary.org/Heimskringla/
"Heimskringla or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway," by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241), Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b. Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 CE by poet and historian Snorri Sturluson.

"Written sources for the Viking Age," Vikingeskibsmuseet, Denmark, Viking Museum. Much historiography of the Viking Age was/is based on foreign sources since Scandinavia did not have a literary tradition.

Kinsmen die,
You yourself die,
gods and gold die
an honourable name will never die,
one which was won
by your own work

https://www.vikingrune.com/2014/05/old-norse-proverbs-quotes-from-edda/
"Old Norse Proverbs: Quotes from the Havamal-Poetic Edda, Viking Rune. Old Norse proverbs from Havamal or Sayings of the High One, Odin.

dash/havamal.html
Havamal, ed., D. L. Ashliman, University of Pittsburg. Clean copy in English.

http://germanicmythology.com/
Germanic Mythology: Texts, Translations, Scholarship, Resources for Researchers, Germanic Mythology. Resources for Researchers into Germanic, Norse Mythology, and Northern European Folklore.

https://en.natmus.dk/historical-knowledge/denmark/prehistoric-period-until-1050-ad/the-viking-age/power-and-aristocracy/social-order-in-the-viking-age/
"Social order in the Viking Age," National Museum of Denmark. See esp. information on Eddic poem, Havamal and the poem, Rigsthula, which illustrated class divisions and values in Viking society. Note other Viking information on right side of this page.

dash/rig.html
Viking Poem Rigsthula from the Poetic Edda, edited by D.L. Ashliman, March 30, 2010. Poem explained Viking class divisions. See more on the Rigsthula: https://sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe14.htm

https://www.bing.com/search?q=viking+musical+instruments&form=EDGEAR&qs=PF&cvid=f49a76ffcd9644f38f8bc0fdf8b04ab9&cc=
US&setlang=en-US&plvar=0
"Viking Musical Instruments," Norse Mythology net, August 7, 2018. What kind of musical instruments did the Vikings have? See 23:26 video and images of Viking's musical instruments.

https://sonsofvikings.com/blogs/vikings-tv-series/viking-music
"Viking Music, Vikings Soundtrack, Nordic/Norse Theme Music," Sons of Vikings, April 20, 2018. History of Viking music and instruments and modern Viking music groups from the Vikings TV series.

https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Norse_mythology?page=2
Norse mythology Research Papers, Academia. See more papers, monographs below:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-viking-mystery-59648019/
David Keys, "A Viking Mystery," Smithsonian, October 2010. A mass grave found beneath Oxford University which archaeologists and historians have concluded held Viking warriors killed by Anglo-Saxons.

https://www.historyextra.com/period/viking/aethelflaed-the-woman-who-crushed-the-vikings/
Janina Ramirez, "AEthelflaed: The woman who crushed the Vikings," History Extra, May 17, 2018. Anglo-Saxon wife, mother, diplomat and, above all, Anglo-Saxon Warrior Queen. See audio podcast on Aethelfaed below:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/b01pzrhp
18:00 audio podcast, "Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians," Episode 20 of 30, BBC, Radio 3, The Essay, August 6, 2014.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309771/
Andrew J. Dugmore, et. al., "Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjectures on Norse Greenland," Critical Perspectives on Historical Collapse Special, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA, National Center for Biotechnology Information, March 6, 2012. Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper recognized the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland.

https://www.academia.edu/3324945/Norse_Greenland_Settlement_Reflections_on_Climate_Change_Trade_and_the_Contrasting_Fates_
of_Human_Settlements_in_the_North_Atlantic_Islands
Andrew J. Dugmore, Christian Keller, and Thomas H. McGovern, (PDF) Norse Greenland Settlement: Reflections on Climate Change, Trade, and the Contrasting Fates of Human Settlements in the North Atlantic Islands," Arctic Anthropology, 2007, uploaded to Academia by Thomas H. McGovern.

https://sciencenordic.com/denmark-history-society--culture/how-vikings-navigated-the-world/1377436
Irene Berg Petersen, "How Vikings navigated the world," Science Nordic, October 9, 2012. Article as to how Greenland Vikings navigated the north Atlantic seas using birds, whales, celestial bodies, chants and rhymes and human senses.

https://www.nabohome.org/meetings/glthec/materials/keller/KellerFursFishIvory.pdf
Christian Keller, "Furs, Fish and Ivory--Medieval Norseman at the Arctic Fringe," Journal of the Northern Atlantic, (JONA), 2005, updated November 27, 2008.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/03/160331-viking-discovery-north-america-canada-archaeology/
Mark Strauss, "Discovery Could Rewrite History of Vikings in New World," National Geographic, March 31, 2016. Canadian site could revise Viking history in the Americas.

hbenne/pdfs/greenland
"The Story of the Norse Vikings in Greenland and Why their Settlement Collapsed After 450 Years," Salem State University. Power point based on Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.


Filipino American History Month: Jose Garcia Villa

Jose Garcia Villa, a Filipino poet, critic, short story writer and painter, is an important person to recognize during Filipino American History Month.

Villa was born in 1907 in the Philippine Islands. His early path did not involve poetry. Instead he began a pre-medical course of study at the University of the Philippines, eventually switching to pre-law. After some time, Villa recognized that his true passion was in the creative arts, and his career as a writer began.

In 1929, he published a collection of erotic poems called Man Songs. This collection was met with some controversy. But that same year, he was selected for the Best Story of the Year from the Philippine Free Press magazine for his story called Mir-l-Nisa.

Villa moved from the university in the Philippines to attend the University of New Mexico where he went on to found Clay, a “mimeograph literary magazine.” After finishing his BA there, he moved to Columbia University for his post-graduate education.

Aside from publishing various collections of poetry, Villa also added to the world of poetic style, introducing a new rhyme scheme called “reversed consonance.” As Villa explained, “The last sounded consonants of the last syllable, or the last principal consonant of a word, are reversed for the corresponding rhyme. Thus, a rhyme for near would be run or rain, green, reign .”

Villa also wrote something he called “comma poems,” where a comma is included after each word in the poem. As he explained in the preface to his Volume Two, “The commas are an integral and essential part of the medium: regulating the poem’s verbal density and time movement: enabling each word to attain a fuller tonal value, and the line movement to become more measured.”

Here are some samples of his comma poetry, if you need to see then for yourself. [ http://aaww.org/four-poems-jose-garcia-villa/ ]

Villa has won numerous awards, including the 1973 National Artist of the Philippines for literature. His work in both poetry and challenging traditional poetic style continues to have an impact in modern poetry, both for members of the poetry community and other Asian American writers.


You might have been.

. to one of the non-European countries (not Israel, with its high proportion of European Jews) of the eastern Mediterranean and seen straight-limbed people with blue or green eyes and fair hair.

There are two ways these people came to be here. One is that they are descendants of crusaders from Northern Europe and Scandinavia (Normans served King Roger of Sicily, Bohemond or Robert Guiscard Englishmen joined the Varangian Guard after 1069/71) fought and lived in the region, former holdings of the Byzantine Empire such as Antioch, Sicily, Palestine (Israel did not exist at the time).

The second way they came to be there was as descendants of Anglian, Saxon or Irish slaves sold by the Norse traders to Berber and other Arab chieftains or slave masters, even Byzantine slave owners who kept them for their households. With many their skin colouring and eye colour was prized. Not all English or Irish slaves were blond and blue-eyed, however. The mix that came with the Saxons and Angles also included other groups including dark Slavs from further east in the Baltic (Prussia was originally populated by a tribe known as Pruci, pron. Prutsi), sold.by their lighter-skinned Wendish neighbours.

© 2012 Alan R Lancaster


Contents

In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793, [4] when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne. Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church's wealth. The Viking devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe. "Never before has such an atrocity been seen," declared the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York. More than any other single event, the attack on Lindisfarne cast a shadow on the perception of the Vikings for the next 1100 years. In the 1890s scholars outside Scandinavia began to rethink the achievements, artistry, technological skills and seamanship of the Vikings. [5]

Until Victoria's reign in Britain, Vikings were portrayed as violent and bloodthirsty. The stories from medieval England had always portrayed them as 'wolves among sheep'. During the nineteenth century, public opinions changed. The first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Some scholarly works on the Viking Age became available to readers in Britain. Archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past. Linguists started to work on identifying Viking-Age origins for rural idioms and proverbs. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to study some of the Icelandic Sagas.

During the second half of the 18th century the Icelandic Sagas were still used as important historical sources, but the Viking Age was regarded as a barbaric and uncivilized period in the history of the Nordic countries. Until recently, what was known about the history of the Viking Age was based on the Icelandic Sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Russian Primary Chronicle and the War of the Irish with the Foreigners. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources historians nowadays rely more on archaeology and numismatics, which have helped people understand the period. [6]

The Norsemen were explorers, colonizers and traders as well as plunderers. The Vikings from Norway explored the North Atlantic and settled Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland and Orkney Islands, Caithness in Scotland, Greenland and (briefly) North America. The Vikings from Denmark raided ports and coastal towns along the coasts of Europe and Britain. The Vikings from Sweden pushed east, into areas that are now parts of Russia and Ukraine, establishing trade connections with the Middle East and beyond.

By the 9th century, a strong central authority was established in Jutland, and the Danes were looking beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder. Norway had been settled over many centuries by Germanic peoples from Denmark and Sweden who made farming and fishing communities around its coasts and lakes. The mountains and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. The communities remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By the year 800, there were 30 small kingdoms in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communicating between these Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. In the eighth century Scandinavians began to build war ships and send them on raids. The Viking longships were capable of travel on the open seas but also had a very shallow draft, meaning they could sail into shallower bays and farther up rivers than other ships of their time. This led to the term Viking, which came from the Old Norse word vīk (meaning inlet or bay). [7] A person who went on raids was said to go "viking".

It is unknown what triggered the Vikings' expansion and conquests. This era was at the same time as the Medieval Warm Period (800 – 1300) and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age (about 1250 – 1850). The lack of pack-ice during their time may have allowed the Norsemen to go "a-viking" or "raiding". It is believed that the heathen Norsemen suffered from unequal trade practices by Christian merchants who were given preference through a Christian network of traders. A two-tiered system of pricing existed among merchants who secretly traded with the Norse heathens. Viking raids occurred both separately and together with regular trading expeditions.

Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there were not enough crops to feed everyone. This led to a hunt for more land to feed the ever-growing Viking population. Internal conflicts, especially during the period of conquest and settlement that followed the early raids, caused the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands. This meant that lower classes who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings went in search of their own lands. Those who settled Iceland created Europe's first modern republic with a yearly assembly of elected officials called the Althing.

The earliest date given for a Viking raid is 787 AD when, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a group of men from Norway sailed to Portland, in Dorset. There, a royal official mistook them for merchants. They killed him when he tried to lead them to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as 793. It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne:

"AD. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island (Lindisfarne), by rapine and slaughter." -Anglo Saxon Chronicle

In 794, according to the Annals of Ulster, there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in 795 by raids on the northern coast of Ireland. From bases there, the Norsemen attacked Iona again in 802, causing great slaughter amongst the Céli Dé Brethren, and burning the abbey to the ground.

The end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked in England by three major events: the failed invasion by Haraldr Harðráði, who was defeated by Saxon King Harold Godwinson in 1066 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Ireland, the capture of Dublin by Strongbow and his Hiberno-Norman forces in 1171 and in Scotland by the defeat of King Hákon Hákonarson at the Battle of Largs in 1263. Harold Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by William, Duke of Normandy, who was another descendant of Vikings. Normandy had been acquired by Normans (Norsemen) in 911. Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries.

Most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists give a different definition. Instead, the Viking age is said to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the adoption of Christianity as the dominant religion. The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. The end of the Viking Age in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. They proclaimed Norway as a Christian nation, and Norwegians could no longer be called Vikings.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was especially hard-hit by Viking raiders, who could sail down the Seine without much difficulty. Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons, a string of Viking raids began, leading to a Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In 911, French King Charles the Simple made an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo, a chieftain of either Norwegian or Danish origin. [8] Charles gave Rollo the title of duke and granted him possession of Normandy. In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and swore to defend the northern region of France against raids by other Viking groups. Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers identified themselves as French and brought the French language and their variant of French culture to England in 1066. With the Norman Conquest, they became the ruling aristocracy of Anglo-Saxon England, leading to the change from Old English to Middle English language.

At the start of the Viking age, the Vikings believed in the Norse religion. They believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, as well as Valhalla, a heaven for warriors. The lower class of society would go to a place called "hel", similar to life on earth. According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship" that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea". They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his journey to Valhalla and adventure in the after-life. Poets composed sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive.

Freyr and his sister Freya were gods of "fertility", which means being able to grow. They made sure that people had many children and that the land produced plenty of crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest. Toward the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians were converted to Christianity, often by force. The introduction of Christianity did not immediately end Viking voyages, but it may have been a factor that helped the Viking Age to an end.

Some of the most important trading ports during the period include both existing and ancient cities such as Jelling (Denmark), Ribe (Denmark), Roskilde (Denmark), Hedeby (Denmark, now Germany), Aarhus (Denmark), Vineta (Pomerania), Truso (Poland), Kaupang (Norway), Birka (Sweden), Bordeaux (France), Jorvik (England), Dublin (Ireland) and Aldeigjuborg (Russia).

In the late 19th century (1800s), Richard Wagner and other artists in the Romantic period made operas and other artwork about ancient Germanic culture. They liked the Vikings because they were not Greeks or Romans. They came up with the idea of Vikings wearing fur clothes and helmets with wings or horns on them and drinking out of hollowed-out animal horns. Some ancient Germans wore helmets with horns on them, but real Vikings did not. Wagner and his partners deliberately dressed the actors in the opera Ring des Nibelungen so they would look like ancient Germans and so the audience would feel like modern Germans came from medieval Vikings. [9] [10]


Midgard Historical Centre, Borre, Norway

Midgard Historical Centre in Borre lies next to Northern Europe’s largest assembly of monumental grave mounds from the Iron Age and Viking Age.

The centre opened in 2000 with the primary task of creating and spreading knowledge about the Viking Age in the Vestfold County.

The grave mounds in Borre constitute one of Norway’s most important national heritage sites, and it was a place of power and influence in Europe during the Viking Age. There were originally at least nine huge mounds in the area, as well as three cairns and at least 25 smaller cairns.

The Vikings were not only warriors, but skilful sailors and tradesmen. Their ships were built to withstand long journeys, and traces of Nordic settlements have been found as far away as Newfoundland in North America.

Many of the artefacts from Borre are of an eastern character and bear witness to a strong cultural influence from the countries around the Baltic Sea, Poland and Russia.

Finds from graves in Kaupang in the southern part of Vestfold show us that the Vikings were in close contact with today’s Central Europe, England, France, Ireland and the areas around the Mediterranean. Several coins found in Vestfold originate from Kufa in Iraq.

The Vikings were very fashion orientated they didn’t just bring anything back home, but they shopped for luxury items abroad and equipped themselves with the latest weaponry.

The museum has permanent exhibitions showing Viking finds from Borre and daily life in Viking times. Special exhibitions, seminars and lectures are organised regularly.

Outside, an archaeological playground fires children’s imagination and they can play Viking games, shoot with a bow and arrow and take part in “archaeological digs”.

A selection of books and souvenirs are available for sale in addition to a friendly café with excellent views of the park.


Homecoming and English: Past, Present, and Future

Homecoming & Family Weekend, October 15 th – 17 th , is an event for alumni, families, community members, and friends of CSU. It’s a time when we come together to celebrate the past, present, and future of Colorado State University. An integral part of that past, present, and future is the CSU English department. Recently there’s been lots of excitement with the hiring of new faculty, the arrival of the 2015 freshman class English majors, various engaging events, and our return to a refurbished Eddy Hall.

To celebrate that return, our homecoming along with CSU Homecoming, the English department will be hosting our inaugural Homecoming open house on Friday, October 16, 2015, 2:00-4:00 PM. We will be celebrating our return to the newly remodeled Eddy with music, food, fun, and, of course, words, beautiful words. Alumni and friends can make their way to the third floor and check in at Eddy 300, and we will have refreshments available in the Whitaker Conference Room. We will be offering tours of the building, with stops in the CSU Writing Center and a remodeled classroom. English Department Chair Louann Reid will offer some words of welcome and rededication at 3:00 PM, followed by a special presentation in honor of the occasion. We hope you can join us for this very special event.

And what about that past, present, and future? As we were packing up Eddy Hall to move out for the remodel, we discovered several copies of Words and Deeds, a newsletter edited by Jim Tanner and Jim Work in the 1970s, who described it this way:

Words and Deeds is a newsletter in which the energetic (if not divine) deeds of the Colorado State University Department of English become words for the world at large. Published two times a year in Fort Collins, Colorado distributed to our faculty, staff, students, friends, and competition.

Spring 2015 English Department Communications Intern Kara Nosal used these newsletters and other sources to put together a timeline that gives a sense of our history as a university and a department.

English Department Timeline

1879- Colorado State Agricultural College is born. It is comprised of twenty students and three professors in total.

1879- E.E. Edwards, president of the college, acts as the lone English teacher.

1886- Elizabeth G. Bell is the first English professor hired by the college.

1885- The library holds “1,000 bound volumes.”

1904- Virginia Corbett is named Professor of History and Literature.

1914- B.F. Coen heads the English and History Department while Corbett is reduced to an Assistant Professor. (Coen runs a tight ship! He requires each freshman to write a 150-page theme before moving on to upper-division classes)

1917- (From the Summer 1975 edition of Words and Deeds): During World War I, “All students who volunteered or were drafted to go to the front [lines] were to be given automatic passing grades and full credit in all classes.”

1920- Alfred Westfall and Ruth Wattles both become Associate Professors in the English and History Department.

1928- The first meeting of the “Scribbler’s Club”—an exclusive 12-member group for upperclassmen studying creative writing— is held

1929- There are twelve English faculty members

1935- Colorado Agricultural College changes its name to the Colorado State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts (Go! Fight! Win CSCAMA!)

1939-Willard O. Eddy is hired as an instructor in English, and History and English are separated into two distinct departments

1941-The large ballroom of Johnson Hall is used as a barracks to house some of the 1400 uniformed personnel on campus during the Second World War

1943- Alfred Westfall publishes, “What Speech Teachers May Do to Win the War” in the Quarterly Journal of Speech

1945- Colorado State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts changes its name to Colorado A & M (Interesting fact: Spring 2015 English Department Communication Intern Marina Miller’s great uncle was in the last class to graduate as Aggies)

1945- English faculty members number 13

1958-The Fine Arts Series is established after a fine-arts festival is held

In 1962, you could get your textbooks at the CSU bookstore and a carton of Salems.

1963- The original Eddy Hall is constructed

1965-1969- The Colorado State Review is established but due to funding cuts its initial run only lasts for four years

1975- The Intensive English Program (now INTO CSU) begins

1976- Colorado State Review is revived thanks to Wayne Ude and Bill Trembelay of the Creative Writing Program

1977- English faculty number 41 and 90 courses are offered

1979- Kate Keifer establishes the Writing Center in response to the national writing and literacy crisis, an educational drought in which many students arrived to college without adequate composition preparation

1981- Colorado State University is the first in the nation to create a computer-supported writing laboratory

1987 – Someone made a sandwich, (we haven’t uncovered much information about the 80s and early 90s in our research, but we’re pretty sure this is accurate)

1996- CSU professor, translator, and poet Mary Crow is named poet laureate for Colorado, (She would later be reappointed in 2000)

1997- The infamous Fort Collins floodwaters rip through Eddy Hall, destroying 500,000 books collected by professors

Photo of people riding their bikes past Eddy Hall during the CSU flood of 1997 on July 29, 1997. Photo courtesy of CSU Photography, Department of Creative Services.

1997- The Arts and Sciences Core Curriculum (ASCC) lays out the standard core classes for all students in the Liberal Arts and Natural Sciences

2003- Use of the just-established Online Writing Center begins. Students of the required Writing Arguments composition classes learn how to download important documents and upload papers to professors

Today- We have four hard-working staff members and 82 faculty members

Summer 2015 – The new-and-improved Eddy Hall finished!

October 16th, 2015- Inaugural Homecoming English Open House, 2:00-4:00 PM

Note from Kara: Of course, this is not a complete timeline of the English Department. As I scanned through pages and pages of newspaper articles, department meeting minutes, and newsletters, I began to gain a better understanding of CSU’s English program as a whole. I realized how many of my own past professors have been nationally-recognized authors, award-winners, and overall game-changers, helping the English program to flourish. From my research I gathered that the English department has a long history of passionate people who constantly push for more opportunities for their students. Know that there’s much more to these English professors than meets the eye they might even be willing to share some of their past lives with you if you ask!

If I were to begin to list the members of the faculty who have altered the English Department for the better, I’d have to list the whole faculty and the timeline would be a mile long! No one, past or present, is exempt from making our English program what it is today.


Watch the video: Frk Kaupang (July 2022).


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