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What is the earliest known reference to the phrase 'water of life'?

What is the earliest known reference to the phrase 'water of life'?


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In many languages, the general term for distilled spirits (whisky, brandy etc) translates in modern English to 'Water of Life'.

  • Latin - Aqua Vitae
  • French - Eau de Vie
  • Gaelic - Uisce Betha

As a hobbyist in fine alcohol I'm curious of both the earliest known reference to this phrase, as well as it's likely origins, but the best I can come up with is 'likely much earlier than the Medieval period' from Wikipedia.


I believe there's two questions here: what is the earliest use of "aqua vitae" and when did it become synonymous with "distilled spirits". I'm going to answer the latter, when did "aqua vitae" become synonymous with "distilled spirits".


The French "eau de vie", Gaelic "uisce betha", Scandinavian "akvavit", and so on, all have their roots in the Latin "aqua vitae". The OED has the first recorded use in English as 1471.

1471 G. Ripley Compound of Alchymy in Ashm. 1652, 115 "With Aquavite ofttimes, both wash and drie."

My main source is The Quest For Aqua Vitae: The History and Chemistry of Alcohol From Antiquity to the Middle Ages by Seth Rasmussen.

While fermentation has been known since probably 6000 BCE, distillation of alcohol is much trickier. Low quality glass cannot stand the heat, and methods cooling the distillate vapor were inadequate. 13th century Italian improvements in glass making made distillation a much easier process, and higher and higher concentrations of alcohol were possible.

Earlier publications referred to "aqua ardens" (burning water) or "aqua flamens" (flaming water) referencing this thing which looked like water but which burned with a cold flame and gave a giddy sensation upon being drunk. Some thought this was Aristotle's "quintessence" or "aether", the 5th element that made up the heavens. This is also where we get "spirits", alcohol is the pure "spirit" of the wine. We're edging towards "water of life".

The earliest reference I can find to using "aqua vitae" to mean "very strong distilled alcohol" is in the late 13th century by several authors.

Taddeo Alderotti of Florence published De virtutibus aquae vitae as part of Consilia Medicinalia describing the distillation of wine in an alembic and aqua vitae as "of inestimable glory, the mother and mistress of all medicine" and that a little every morning "makes one happy, jocund, and glad". English physician Gilbertus Anglicus was recommending aqua vitae for travelers. And Arnaldus de Villa Nova who said of the name:

This name is remarkably suitable, since it is really a water of immortality. It prolongs life, clears away ill-humours, revives the heart, and maintains youth.

(European chemists have this tendency to gush about drugs.)

So there you have it. To the best of my knowledge, sometime around the late 13th century as the process of distillation became more refined and purer spirits were possible, the term "aqua vitae" became popular among European chemists.

The unrelated term "alcohol" did not come into use until the 16th century. This comes from the Greek "kohl" referring to a finely powdered form of antimony trisulphide used as eye makeup in antiquity. Arabic added their "al" prefix for "al-kohl". It then became a term for very fine powder. Then a fine part of anything. Then anything you pulverized or distilled.

In the mid-1500s, Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim to his pals) is used "alkohol vini" or "the subtle part of wine" to refer to spirits distilled from wine. The "vini" (wine) part was dropped, and we have the modern "alkohol". Etymologically unrelated to "aqua vitae".


The meaning and origin of the expression: Spitting image

One of the very first questions that was asked at the Phrasefinder bulletin board was about 'spitting image'. There have been numerous such queries there since and some ask if the term was originally 'splitting image', that is, deriving from the two matching parts of a split plank of wood. That's a plausible idea. The mirror image matching of the grain of split wood has long been used in furniture and musical instruments for decorative effect. The technique is known as book-matching and the resulting pattern is called fiddleback - for obvious reasons. The theory has its adherents and dates back to at least 1939, when Dorothy Hartley included it in her book Made in England:

"Evenness and symmetry are got by pairing the two split halves of the same tree, or branch. (Hence the country saying: he's the ‘splitting image’ - an exact likeness.)"

As so often though, plausibility isn't the end of the story. The numerous forms of the term 'spitting image' - spit and image, spitten image, the dead spit of etc., appear not to derive from 'split' but from 'spit'.

Some commentators have suggested that 'spit' may be a corruption of 'spirit', but that appears to be fanciful and isn't backed up by any early examples of 'spirit and image'. The allusion is more likely to be to someone who is so similar to another as to appear to have been spat out of his mouth. That idea, if not the exact phrase, was in circulation by the end of the 17th century, when George Farquhar used it in his comic play Love and a bottle, 1689:

"Poor child! he's as like his own dadda as if he were spit out of his mouth."

No version of the phrase is especially old. The earliest reference is in Andrew Knapp and W. Baldwin's The Newgate Calendar, 1824–26:

"A daughter, . the very spit of the old captain."

This pre-dates any 'splitting image' citation by a good hundred years, which tends to rule out the latter as the source. 'Spit' or 'dead spit', with the meaning of likeness, appears in print several times in the 19th century. Here 'dead' means precise or exact, as in dead ringer.

Other languages have their own versions of this phrase for example, French - "C'est le portrait craché de son père" ("He's the spitting portrait of his father") and Norwegian - "som snytt ut av nesen paa" ("as blown out of the nose of"). These are difficult to date and may pre-date the English version or may derive from it.

Toward the end of the 19th century we find 'spit and image'. In 1895, an author called E. Castle published Lt. of Searthey, containing the line:

"She's like the poor lady that's dead and gone, the spit an' image she is."

Finally, we get to the first known use of 'spitting image' - in A. H. Rice's Mrs. Wiggs, 1901:

"He's jes' like his pa - the very spittin' image of him!"


Why Is Egypt Called the Gift of the Nile?

Egypt is called the gift of the Nile because the Nile River annually flooded its banks in ancient times, creating fertile farm fields for people to plant their crops. The term "gift of the Nile" was coined by the renowned philosopher and historian Herodotus.

During Herodotus&rsquo time in the 5th century B.C., Egypt enjoyed an advanced civilization and culture. Herodotus admired the very deep connection that Egyptians had with the river and stated that Egypt was, "A land won by the Egyptians and given them by the Nile."

The Nile River flows through Egypt and empties into the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt sits in the fertile river valley on the edge of the Saharan desert. Before the construction of the Aswan

High Dam in 1970, the flooding of the Nile River into the valley occurred every year after the snow melted in the East African mountain range. When the flood water receded, it left a layer of silt. Rich in nutrients, this layer of topsoil allowed the farmers to grow their crops, and gave rise to ancient Egyptian civilization. Because of its location, the people who lived on the banks of the Nile River were largely isolated. This gave rise to a common language, religion and culture. With the construction of the Aswan High Dam, Egyptians have access to water throughout the year. Without the Nile River, Egypt would not have been able to develop or advance the way it has, and that is why it is described as the 'gift of the Nile'.


Internet of Things (IoT) History

Considering how much we use the Internet of Things term we thought it would be helpful to look at the origin of the term and who were some of the important people and projects that helped move it from its first glimpses into today’s trending topic.

IoT Term Origin

According to Kevin Ashton the then executive director of the Auto-ID Center he coined the term "Internet of Things" in 1999 while working on a presentation for Procter & Gamble in the context of RFID supply chains. - Full article

If you are looking for a longer more comprehensive look at the technologies and ideas that gave rise to the IoT continue reading.

1832: An electromagnetic telegraph was created by Baron Schilling in Russia, and in 1833 Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber invented their own code to communicate over a distance of 1200 m within Göttingen, Germany.

1844: Samuel Morse sends the first morse code public telegraph message "What hath God wrought?" from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore.

1926: Nikola Tesla in an interview with Colliers magazine:

"When wireless* is perfectly applied the whole earth will be converted into a huge brain, which in fact it is, all things being particles of a real and rhythmic whole. and the instruments through which we shall be able to do this will be amazingly simple compared with our present telephone. A man will be able to carry one in his vest pocket."

1950: Alan Turing in his article Computing Machinery and Intelligence in the Oxford Mind Journal (Via @Kevin_Ashton)

". It can also be maintained that it is best to provide the machine with the best sense organs that money can buy, and then teach it to understand and speak English. This process could follow the normal teaching of a child."

". by means of electric media, we set up a dynamic by which all previous technologies -- including cities -- will be translated into information systems"

1966: Karl Steinbuch a German computer science pioneer said "In a few decades time, computers will be interwoven into almost every industrial product"

1969:
Arpanet

1974
: Beginnings of TCP/IP

1984
: Domain Name System is introduced

1989
: Tim Berners-Lee proposes the World Wide Web

1990: Considered the first IoT device, John Romkey created a toaster that could be turned on and off over the Internet for the October '89 INTEROP conference. Dan Lynch, President of Interop promised Romkey that, if Romkey was able to "bring up his toaster on the Net," the appliance would be given star placement in the floor-wide exhibitors at the conference. The toaster was connected to a computer with TCP/IP networking. It then used an information base (SNMP MIB) to turn the power on. (See also: Xerox PARC networked coke machine)

1991: The first web page was created by Tim Berners-Lee

1991: Mark Weiser's Scientific American article on ubiquitous computing called ‘The Computer for the 21st Century’ is written.

The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it”.

1993: Created by Quentin Stafford-Fraser and Paul Jardetzky the Trojan Room Coffee Pot was located in the 'Trojan Room' within the Computer Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and was used to monitor the pot levels with an image being updated about 3x a minute and sent to the buildings server. It was later put online for viewing once browsers could display images. (via @snim2)

1994: Steve Mann creates WearCam.

1995: The Internet goes commercial with Amazon and Echobay (Ebay)

1997: Paul Saffo's prescient article "Sensors: The Next Wave of Infotech Innovation" (Via: Geoffrey Barrows)

1998: Google is incorporated

1998: inTouch a project at MIT was developed by Scott Brave, Andrew Dahley, and Professor Hiroshi Ishii (Via: @mrosenblatt)

". We then present inTouch, which applies Synchronized Distributed Physical Objects to create a "tangible telephone" for long distance haptic communication." - Original paper (PDF), Video

1998: A year before losing his battle to cancer Mark Weiser continues his explorations into the topic and constructed a water fountain outside his office whose flow and height mimicked the volume and price trends of the stock market.

"Ubiquitous computing is roughly the opposite of virtual reality," Weiser wrote "Where virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out here in the world with people."

1999 - A big year for the IoT and MIT

The Internet of Things term is coined by Kevin Ashton executive director of the Auto-ID Center:

"I could be wrong, but I'm fairly sure the phrase "Internet of Things" started life as the title of a presentation I made at Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999. Linking the new idea of RFID in P&G's supply chain to the then-red-hot topic of the Internet was more than just a good way to get executive attention. It summed up an important insight which is stil often misunderstood." - Full article

1999: Neil Gershenfeld was speaking about similar things from the MIT Media Lab in his book When Things Start to Think and when establishing the Center for Bits and Atoms in 2001

in retrospect it looks like the rapid growth of the World Wide Web may have been just the trigger charge that is now setting off the real explosion, as things start to use the Net.

1999: Auto-ID Labs opens which is the research-oriented successor to the MIT Auto-ID Center, originally founded by Kevin Ashton, David Brock and Sanjay Sarma. They helped develop the Electronic Product Code or EPC, a global RFID-based item identification system intended to replace the UPC bar code.

1999 - Neil Gross in Business Week

"In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations, our bodies--even our dreams." - Full Article

2000: Starting off what is now becoming a meme, LG announces it's first Internet refrigerator plans.

2002: The Ambient Orb created by David Rose and others in a spin-off from the MIT Media Lab is released into the wild (and is still on the market) with NY Times Magazine naming it as one of the Ideas of the Year. The Orb monitors the Dow Jones, personal portfolios, weather and other data sources and changes its color based on the dynamic parameters.

2003-2004: The term is mentioned in main-stream publications like The Guardian, Scientific American and the Boston Globe.

- Projects like Cooltown, Internet0, and the Disappearing Computer initiative seek to implement some of the ideas, and the Internet of Things term starts to appear in book titles for the first time.

- RFID is deployed on a massive scale by the US Department of Defense in their Savi program and Walmart in the commercial world.

2005: The IoT hit another level when the UN's International Telecommunications Union ITU published its first report on the topic.

"A new dimension has been added to the world of information and communication technologies (ICTs): from anytime, any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything. Connections will multiply and create an entirely new dynamic network of networks – an Internet of Things"

2005: Ahead of its time, the Nabaztag (Now a part of Aldebaran Robotics) was originally manufactured by the company Violet and created by Rafi Haladjian and Olivier Mével. The little WiFi enbabled rabbit was able to alert and speak to you about stock market reports, news headlines, alarm clock, RSS-Feeds, etc as well as connect to each other (see: Nabaztag opera). The statement was "if you can even connect rabbits, then you can connect anything" (via @inakivazquez)

2006-2008: Recognition by the EU, and the First European IOT conference is held

2008: A group of companies launched the IPSO Alliance to promote the use of Internet Protocol (IP) in networks of "smart objects" and to enable the Internet of Things. The IPSO alliance now boasts over 50 member companies, including Bosch, Cisco, Ericsson, Intel, SAP, Sun, Google and Fujitsu.

2008: The FCC voted 5-0 to approve opening the use of the 'white space' spectrum.

2008-2009: The Internet of Things was "Born"

According to Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG), the Internet of Things was born in between 2008 and 2009 at simply the point in time when more “things or objects” were connected to the Internet than people.

Citing the growth of smartphones, tablet PCs, etc the number of devices connected to the Internet was brought to 12.5 billion in 2010 (Related: see Kevin Kelly's One Machine), while the world’s human population increased to 6.8 billion, making the number of connected devices per person more than 1 (1.84 to be exact) for the first time in history.

2008: U.S. National Intelligence Council listed the Internet of Things as one of the 6 "Disruptive Civil Technologies" with potential impacts on US interests out to 2025.

19xx-Present: A whole range of IoT platforms (Pachube, Thingspeak, etc), standards (6LoWPAN, Dash7, etc) hardware and software (Contiki, TinyOS, etc) have developed but the timeline details of each is outside the scope of the article.

2010
: Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao calls the IOT a key industry for China and has plans to make major investments in it.

2011: IPV6 public launch - The new protocol allows for 2 128 (approximately 340 undecillion or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456) addresses or as Steven Leibson put it, “we could assign an IPV6 address to every atom on the surface of the earth, and still have enough addresses left to do another 100+ earths.”

- Cisco, IBM, Ericsson produce large educational and marketing initiatives on the topic.

- Arduino and other hardware platforms mature and make the IoT accessible to DIY'ers taking interest in the topic.

- Acquisitions and VC investment in the space including the IoT platform Pachube being aquired, IoT security company Mocano raising a round of funding and other VC's taking notice of the industry.

+ The term was added to the 2011 annual Gartner Hype Cycle that tracks technology life-cycles from "technology trigger" to "plateau of productivity" and has hit the Hype Cycle's "Peak of Inflated Expectations" in 2014

Gartner releases their 2012 Top 10 Strategic Technologies list at their 2011 Symposium.

They define a strategic technology as one with the potential for significant impact on the enterprise in the next three years. Factors that denote significant impact include a high potential for disruption to IT or the business, the need for a major dollar investment, or the risk of being late to adopt.

The Internet of Things comes in as #4 on the list and they reference:

“The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that describes how the Internet will expand as sensors and intelligence are added to physical items such as consumer devices or physical assets and these objects are connected to the Internet. The vision and concept have existed for years, however, there has been an acceleration in the number and types of things that are being connected and in the technologies for identifying, sensing and communicating. These technologies are reaching critical mass and an economic tipping point over the next few years. Key elements of the IoT include:


Bakers and breadcrumbs

Q's posts tended to be either vague or totally incomprehensible, but QAnon believers have been more than happy to try and decipher them. At one point in 2019, for example, Q posted a photo of an unnamed island chain. Eager to divine the reasoning behind the post, QAnon adherents tried to "prove" that the photo must have been taken on Air Force One and thus that Q was traveling with the president.

The Q posts are known to the faithful as "breadcrumbs." The people who then try to figure out what they mean are called "bakers." According to The Daily Beast's Will Sommer, QAnon believers also spend a lot of time trying to figure out who in the government is a "white hat" Trump supporter and who is a "black hat" in league with the deep state. Their rallying cry is "where we go one, we go all," a line from the 1996 Jeff Bridges sailing adventure "White Squall" that they misattribute to President Kennedy.

The phrase is frequently abbreviated to "WWG1WGA," which Roseanne Barr &mdash one of several celebrity QAnon supporters &mdash tweeted in June 2018. Former Red Sox pitcher and current right-wing radio host Curt Schilling has also promoted QAnon online.

we r the army of truth-wwg1wga

&mdash Roseanne Barr (@therealroseanne) June 20, 2018

Ice cream truck song

One of the iconic tunes that ice cream trucks play nationwide to alert neighborhood children of their arrival is a sign of summer for many. But few may have considered the song's origins. Actor Harry C. Browne released the song in March 1916 with Columbia Records under the name “N----- Love A Watermelon, Ha! Ha! Ha!” The song borrows heavy inspiration from the early 19th-century song “Turkey in the Straw.” It hinges on offensive stereotypes, namely that Black people all like watermelon.

After a brief intro, this call-and-response sequence ensues:

Browne: “You n------ quit throwin' them bones and come down and get your ice cream!”

Browne: “Yes, ice cream! Colored man's ice cream: WATERMELON!”

The song continues in appalling fashion until Browne's chorus:

“N----- love a watermelon ha ha, ha ha!/ N----- love a watermelon ha ha, ha ha!/ For here, they're made with a half a pound of co'l/ There's nothing like a watermelon for a hungry coon.”

Related

Food Why ice cream trucks could be changing their jingle

Browne was one of many to add new lyrics to “Turkey and the Straw.” Some variations have had silly nonsensical lyrics, while others have mentioned “Zip Coon,” a minstrel show character meant to mock a free Black man attempting to assimilate within high white society. During these shows, the character was played by a white actor in blackface and sought to prove Black people’s intellectual inferiority. The actor would dress in fancy garb and use big words, much to the audience's delight.


What is the origin of the anchor as a Christian symbol, and why do we no longer use it?

I have heard [the Christian musician] Michael Card say that the anchor was a primary Christian symbol until about 400 AD. Is this correct? And what is the origin of the symbol?

The anchor became a key Christian symbol during the period of Roman persecution. As Michael Card observes in his recent album, Soul Anchor : "The first century symbol wasn't the cross it was the anchor. If I'm a first century Christian and I'm hiding in the catacombs and three of my best friends have just been thrown to the lions or burned at the stake, or crucified and set ablaze as torches at one of [Emperor] Nero's garden parties, the symbol that most encourages me in my faith is the anchor. When I see it, I'm reminded that Jesus is my anchor."

Christian use of the anchor echoed Hebrews 6:19: "We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, firm and secure." (NIV) Epitaphs on believers' tombs dating as far back as the end of the first century frequently displayed anchors alongside messages of hope. Such expressions as pax tecum, pax tibi, in pace, or "peace be with you" speak to the hope Christians felt in their anticipation of heaven. Archaeologists found about 70 examples of these kinds of messages in one cemetery alone.

But where did Christians get the idea to use an anchor in the first place? The anchor appeared as the royal emblem of Seleucus the First, king of the Seleucid dynasty established after Alexander the Great's campaigns. Seleucus reputedly chose the symbol because he had a birthmark in the shape of an anchor. Jews living under the empire adopted the symbol on their coinage, though they phased it out under the Hasmonean ruler Alexander Jannaeus around 100 B.C.

An even stronger explanation .

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The meaning and origin of the expression: As happy as a clam

Why would clams be happy? It has been suggested that open clams give the appearance of smiling. The derivation is more likely to come from the fuller version of the phrase, now rarely heard - 'as happy as a clam at high water'. Hide tide is when clams are free from the attentions of predators surely the happiest of times in the bivalve mollusc world. The phrase originated in the north-eastern states of the USA in the early 19th century. The earliest citation that I can find is from a frontier memoir The Harpe's Head - A Legend of Kentucky, 1833:

"It never occurred to him to be discontented. He was as happy as a clam."

The first definitive record that I can find of the 'high water' version is from the US newspaper The Bangor Daily Whig And Courier, December 1841:

"Your correspondent has given an interesting, and, undoubtedly correct explanation of the expression: 'As happy as a clam at high water.'"

However, several biographies of General Robert E. Lee state that he used the expression 'as happy as a clam at high water' on more than one occasion. One such states that he included it in a letter that he wrote in 1833, which would pre-date the above by a few years. I can't find a record of the letter in question so the account is second-hand, but it is entirely plausible that Lee would have used the expression at that time.

The expression was well-enough known in the USA by the late 1840s for it to have been included in John Russell Bartlett's Dictionary Of Americanisms - A Glossary of Words And Phrases Usually Regarded As Peculiar To The United States, 1848:

"As happy as a clam at high water," is a very common expression in those parts of the coast of New England where clams are found.

Also in 1848, the Southern Literary Messenger from Richmond, Virginia expressed the opinion that the phrase "is familiar to everyone".


Contents

Earliest claimed life on Earth Edit

The earliest claimed lifeforms are fossilized microorganisms (or microfossils). They were found in iron and silica-rich rocks which were once hydrothermal vents in the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt of Quebec, Canada.

These rocks are as old as 4.28 billion years. The tubular forms they contain are shown in a report. [8] If this is the oldest record of life on Earth, it suggests "an almost instantaneous emergence of life" after oceans formed 4.4 billion years ago. [9] [10] [11] According to Stephen Blair Hedges, "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth… then it could be common in the universe". [12]

Previous earliest Edit

A scientific study from 2002 showed that geological formations of stromatolites 3.45 billion years old contain fossilized cyanobacteria. [13] [14] At the time it was widely agreed that stromatolites were the oldest known lifeforms on Earth which had left a record of its existence. Therefore, if life originated on Earth, this happened sometime between 4.4 billion years ago, when water vapor first liquefied, [15] and 3.5 billion years ago. This is the background to the latest discovery discussed above.

The earliest evidence of life comes from the Isua supercrustal belt in Western Greenland, and from similar formations in the nearby Akilia Islands. This is because a high level of the lighter isotope of carbon is found there. Living things take up lighter isotopes because this takes less energy. Carbon entering into rock formations has a concentration of elemental δ 13 C of about −5.5. of 12 C, biomass has a δ 13 C of between −20 and −30. These isotopic fingerprints are preserved in the rocks. With this evidence, Mojzis suggested that life existed on the planet already by 3.85 billion years ago. [16]

A few scientists think life might have been carried from planet to planet by the transport of spores. This idea, now known as panspermia, was first put forward by Arrhenius. [17]

Spontaneous generation Edit

Until the early 19th century many people believed in the regular spontaneous generation of life from non-living matter. This was called spontaneous generation, and was disproved by Louis Pasteur. He showed that without spores no bacteria or viruses grew on sterile material.

Darwin Edit

In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 11 February 1871, [18] Charles Darwin proposed a natural process for the origin of life.

He suggested that the original spark of life may have begun in a "warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, lights, heat, electricity, etc. A protein compound was then chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes". He went on to explain that "at the present day such matter would be instantly devoured or absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed". [19]

Haldane and Oparin Edit

No real progress was made until 1924 when Alexander Oparin reasoned that atmospheric oxygen prevented the synthesis of the organic molecules. Organic molecules are the necessary building blocks for the evolution of life. In his The Origin of Life, [20] [21] Oparin argued that a "primordial soup" of organic molecules could be created in an oxygen-less atmosphere through the action of sunlight. These would combine in ever-more complex fashions until they formed droplets. These droplets would "grow" by fusion with other droplets, and "reproduce" through fission into daughter droplets, and so have a primitive metabolism in which those factors which promote "cell integrity" survive, those that do not become extinct. Many modern theories of the origin of life still take Oparin's ideas as a starting point.

Around the same time J.B.S. Haldane also suggested that the Earth's pre-biotic oceans, which were very different from what oceans are now, would have formed a "hot dilute soup". In this soup, organic compounds, the building blocks of life, could have formed. This idea was called biopoiesis, the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but nonliving molecules. [22]

There is almost no geological record from before 3.8 billion years ago. The environment that existed in the Hadean era was hostile to life, but how much so is not known. There was a time, between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years ago, which is known as the Late Heavy Bombardment. It is so named because many lunar craters are thought to have formed then. The situation on other planets, such as Earth, Venus, Mercury and Mars must have been similar. These impacts would likely sterilize the Earth (kill all life), if it existed at that time. [23]

Several people have suggested that the chemicals in the cell give clues as to what the early seas must have been like. In 1926, Macallum noted that the inorganic composition of the cell cytosol dramatically differs from that of modern sea water: "the cell… has endowments transmitted from a past almost as remote as the origin of life on earth". [24] For example: "All cells contain much more potassium, phosphate, and transition metals than modern . oceans, lakes, or rivers". [25] "Under the anoxic, CO2-dominated primordial atmosphere, the chemistry of inland basins at geothermal fields would [be like the chemistry inside] modern cells". [25]

Temperature Edit

If life evolved in the deep ocean, near a hydrothermal vent, it could have originated as early as 4 to 4.2 billion years ago. If, on the other hand, life originated at the surface of the planet, a common opinion is it could only have done so between 3.5 and 4 billion years ago. [26]

Lazcano and Miller (1994) suggest that the pace of molecular evolution was dictated by the rate of recirculating water through mid-ocean submarine vents. Complete recirculation takes 10 million years, so any organic compounds produced by then would be altered or destroyed by temperatures exceeding 300 °C. They estimate that the development of a 100 kilobase genome of a DNA/protein primitive heterotroph into a 7000 gene filamentous cyanobacterium would have required only 7 million years. [27]

History of Earth's atmosphere Edit

Originally, the Earth's atmosphere had almost no free oxygen. It gradually changed to what it is today, over a very long time (see Great Oxygenation Event). The process began with cyanobacteria. They were the first organisms to make free oxygen by photosynthesis. Most organisms today need oxygen for their metabolism only a few can use other sources for respiration. [14] [28]

So it is expected that the first proto-organisms were chemoautotrophs, and did not use aerobic respiration. They were anaerobic.

There is no "standard model" on how life started. Most accepted models are built on molecular biology and cell biology:

  1. Because there are the right conditions, some basic small molecules are created. These are called monomers of life. Amino acids are one type of these molecules. This was proved by the Miller–Urey experiment by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey in 1953, and we now know these basic building blocks are common throughout space. Early Earth would have had them all. , which can form lipid bilayers, a main component of the cell membrane. which might join up into random RNA molecules. This might have resulted in self-replicating ribozymes (RNA world hypothesis).
  2. Competition for substrates would select mini-proteins into enzymes. The ribosome is critical to protein synthesis in present-day cells, but we have no idea as to how it evolved.
  3. Early on, ribonucleic acids would have been catalysts, but later, nucleic acids are specialised for genomic use.

The origin of the basic biomolecules, while not settled, is less controversial than the significance and order of steps 2 and 3. The basic chemicals from which life is thought to have formed are:

Molecular oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) were either rare or absent.

Three stages Edit

  • Stage 1: The origin of biological monomers
  • Stage 2: The origin of biological polymers
  • Stage 3: The evolution from molecules to cells

Bernal suggested that evolution may have commenced early, some time between Stage 1 and 2.

There are three sources of organic molecules on the early Earth:

  1. organic synthesis by energy sources (such as ultraviolet light or electrical discharges).
  2. delivery by extraterrestrial objects such as carbonaceous meteorites (chondrites)
  3. organic synthesis driven by impact shocks.

Estimates of these sources suggest that the heavy bombardment before 3.5 billion years ago made available quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources. [29]

Miller's experiment and the primordial soup Edit

In 1953 a graduate student, Stanley Miller, and his professor, Harold Urey, performed an experiment that showed how organic molecules could have formed on early Earth from inorganic precursors.

The now-famous Miller–Urey experiment used a highly reduced mixture of gases – methane, ammonia and hydrogen – to form basic organic monomers, such as amino acids. [30] We do know now that for more than the first half of the Earth's history its atmosphere had almost no oxygen.

Fox's experiments Edit

In the 1950s and 1960s, Sidney W. Fox studied the spontaneous formation of peptide structures under conditions that might have existed early in Earth's history. He demonstrated that amino acids could by itself form small peptides. These amino acids and small peptides could be encouraged to form closed spherical membranes, called microspheres. [31]

Some scientists have suggested special conditions which could make cell synthesis easier.

Clay world Edit

A clay model for the origin of life was suggested by A. Graham Cairns-Smith. Clay theory suggests complex organic molecules arose gradually on a pre-existing non-organic platform, namely, silicate crystals in solution. [32]

Deep-hot biosphere model Edit

In the 1970s, Thomas Gold proposed the theory that life first developed not on the surface of the Earth, but several kilometers below the surface. The discovery in the late 1990s of nanobes (filamental structures that are smaller than bacteria, but that may contain DNA in deep rocks) [33] might support Gold's theory.

It is now reasonably well established that microbial life is plentiful at shallow depths in the Earth (up to five kilometers below the surface) [33] in the form of extremophile archaea, rather than the better-known eubacteria (which live in more accessible conditions).

Gold asserted that a trickle of food from a deep, unreachable, source is needed for survival because life arising in a puddle of organic material is likely to consume all of its food and become extinct. Gold's theory was that the flow of food is due to out-gassing of primordial methane from the Earth's mantle.

Self-organization and replication Edit

Self-organization and self-replication are the hallmark of living systems. Non-living molecules sometimes show those features under proper conditions. For example, Martin and Russel showed that cell membranes separating contents from the environment and self-organization of self-contained redox reactions are the most conserved attributes of living things. They argue that inorganic matter like that would be life's most likely last common ancestor. [34]

RNA world hypothesis Edit

In this hypothesis, RNA is said to work both as an enzyme and as a container of genes. Later, DNA took over its genetic role.

The RNA world hypothesis proposes that life based on ribonucleic acid (RNA) pre-dates the current world of life based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), RNA and proteins. RNA is able both to store genetic information, like DNA, and to catalyze chemical reactions, like an enzyme. It may have supported pre-cellular life and been a major step towards cellular life.

There are some pieces of evidence which support this idea:

  1. There are some RNAs which work as enzymes.
  2. Some viruses use RNA for heredity.
  3. Many of the most fundamental parts of the cell (those that evolve the slowest) require RNA.

Metabolism and proteins Edit

This idea suggests that proteins worked as enzymes first, producing metabolism. After that DNA and RNA began to work as containers of genes.

This idea also has some evidences which supports this.

    as enzyme is essential for today's lives.
  1. Some amino acids are formed from more basic chemicals in the Miller-Urey experiment. Some deny this idea because Proteins cannot copy themselves.

Lipids Edit

In this scheme membranes made of lipid bilayers occur early on. Once organic chemicals are enclosed, more complex biochemistry is then possible. [35]

This is the idea suggested by Arrhenius, [36] [37] and developed by Fred Hoyle, [38] that life developed elsewhere in the universe and arrived on Earth in the form of spores. This is not a theory of how life began, but a theory of how it might have spread. It may have spread, for example, by meteorites. [39]

Some propose that early Mars was a better place to start life than was the early Earth. The molecules which combined to form genetic material are more complex than the "primordial soup" of organic (carbon-based) chemicals that existed on Earth four billion years ago. If RNA was the first genetic material, then minerals containing boron and molybdenum could assist in its formation. These minerals were much more common on Mars than on Earth. [40]

In Christianity, some people reject the idea of evolution. They believe that the Earth is only a few thousand years old. This is known as Young Earth Creationism. However, the Bible does not explicitly state the age of the Earth, only that 'In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.' (Genesis 1:1)

God is portrayed as the creator of all things, and the originator of life on Earth (Genesis 1 & 2).


Start Here

Servant leadership is a philosophy and set of practices that enriches the lives of individuals, builds better organizations and ultimately creates a more just and caring world.

The Natural Desire

“It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first”.

The Conscious Choice

“Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead…”

The Best Test

“The best test, and difficult to administer, is: do those served grow as persons…”

While servant leadership is a timeless concept, the phrase “servant leadership” was coined by Robert K. Greenleaf in The Servant as Leader, an essay that he first published in 1970. In that essay, Greenleaf said:

“The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions…The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature.

“The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant-first to make sure that other people’s highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least not be further deprived?“

A servant-leader focuses primarily on the growth and well-being of people and the communities to which they belong. While traditional leadership generally involves the accumulation and exercise of power by one at the “top of the pyramid,” servant leadership is different. The servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible.

The Institution as Servant

Robert Greenleaf recognized that organizations as well as individuals could be servant-leaders. Indeed, he had great faith that servant-leader organizations could change the world. In his second major essay, The Institution as Servant, Greenleaf articulated what is often called the “credo.” There he said:

“This is my thesis: caring for persons, the more able and the less able serving each other, is the rock upon which a good society is built. Whereas, until recently, caring was largely person to person, now most of it is mediated through institutions – often large, complex, powerful, impersonal not always competent sometimes corrupt. If a better society is to be built, one that is more just and more loving, one that provides greater creative opportunity for its people, then the most open course is to raise both the capacity to serve and the very performance as servant of existing major institutions by new regenerative forces operating within them.”

Thought Leaders in Servant Leadership

The servant leadership philosophy and practices have been expressed in many ways and applied in many contexts. Some of the most well-known advocates of servant leadership include Ken Blanchard, Stephen Covey, Peter Senge, M. Scott Peck, Margaret Wheatley, Ann McGee-Cooper & Duane Trammell, Larry Spears, and Kent Keith.


Watch the video: Το αιχμηρό σχόλιο της Έλενας Παπαρίζου για τις δηλώσεις της Σοφίας Μουτίδου (October 2022).

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