Fujiwara no Kamatari

Fujiwara no Kamatari

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The Fujiwara Clan, Rise of Japan’s Most Powerful Clan

The Fujiwara clan is one of the oldest and most powerful families in all of Japanese history. From the Nara through the Heian Period, this one family had an unshakable amount of power. Member of the Fujiwara clan created laws, often married in to the imperial family and literally wrote Japanese history. They can even be credited with the creation of Nara’s iconic Daibutsu, the largest bronze Buddha statue in the world today. Apart from the imperial family themselves, no other single clan wielded as much power in ancient Japan.

Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原鎌足)

FUJIWARA no Kamatari (614 - November 17, 669) was a statesman who lived in the Asuka period and the earliest ancestor of the Fujiwara clan. He worked as a devoted assistant of Naka-no-Oe-no-Oji, later Emperor Tenchi, since the Taika Reforms and laid the foundation for the prosperity of the Fujiwara clan. He is recorded as a 'great person, very distinguished in appearance' in "Toshi Kaden" (Biographies of the Fujiwara clan). He had the nickname Tsugio.

Originally he was a member of the Nakatomi clan and took the name NAKATOMI no Kamako (NAKATOMI no Kamako who took part in the abolishment of Buddhism with MONONOBE no Okoshi in Emperor Kinmei's era was the other person.). Later he changed his name to NAKATOMI no Kamatari. Then in his deathbed, he was granted the family name of Fujiwara along with the court rank of the Grand Crown.
In other words, 'NAKATOMI no Kamatari' is used to refer to Kamatari when he was alive, but 'FUJIWARA no Kamatari' is used to refer to him as the 'founder of the Fujiwara clan.'


His place of birth is recorded as Fujiwara, Takaichi County, Yamato Province (present-day Kashihara City) according "Toshi Kaden", but there is also a theory holding that it was Ohara (present-day Asuka-mura) or Kashima, Hitachi Province (according to "Okagami").

He showed interest in Chinese history books from childhood and memorized an ancient Chinese strategy book "Rikuto". When MINABUCHI no Shoan, who had studied in China (Sui and Tang dynasties) started a school, Kamatari learned Confucianism there, and he was regarded as being brilliant as well as SOGA no Iruka. According to "Nihonshoki", in 644 he was sought to take on the post of an official who arranges festivals and rites, which was the family business of Nakatomi clan, but he refused flatly and retired to his second residence in Mishima, Settsu Province.

He secretly strengthened his intention to bring down the Soga clan's powers and searched for an imperial prince to enthrone for this purpose. First he became close to Prince Karu (Emperor Kotoku), and then approached Naka no Oe no Oji. Furthermore, he took advantage of antagonism within the Soga clan and won SOGANOKURA-YAMADA no Ishikawamaro over to his side.

In 645, he conspired with Naka no Oe no Oji and Ishikawamaro and assassinated SOGA no Iruka, who was in power at that time, at Asuka no Itabuki no Miya Palace Iruka's father, SOGA no Emishi, was driven to commit suicide (Isshi Incident). As a result of this achievement, he was appointed a political adviser to the crown prince and gained control of military affairs. However, the position of political adviser was a court favorite or an adviser and not a formal job..

Later, Kamatari worked as the close advisor of Naka no Oe no Oji, who was promoting the Taika Reforms, and conflicted with conservative ABE no Uchimaro, Minister of the Left, and SOGA (KURAYAMADA) no Ishikawamaro, Minister of the Right. He was awarded Daikinkan rank in 647 under the new system of indicating court ranks by headgear colors. After ABE no Kurahashi no Maro and Ishikawamaro died and fell from power in 649, Kamatari extended power and was promoted to Daishikan rank around 654. In 669, when Emperor Tenchi visited Kamatari just before Kamatari's death, Kamatari said: 'I could not carry out my duty in the military while I was alive.'.
That means he lamented over 'not having contributed in strategic skills.'
He was granted the rank of Daishokkan, the Grand Crown, by Emperor Tenchi, was appointed Minister of the Interior, and was given the hereditary title of 'Fujiwara.'

Kamatari's accomplishments are not clear. He might have been ordered to compile the Omi Administrative Code according to the Toshi Kaden, but many researchers find this questionable.

Grave and shrine

After his death, he was enshrined in Tanzanjinja Shrine in Tonomine, Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture.

According to a description in the illustrated scrolls "Tonomine Engi Emaki", when Kamatari was born, a white fox with a sickle in its mouth appeared from somewhere and left the sickle at the foot of the newborn baby, thus the baby was named Kamako (kama meaning a sickle). Based on this anecdote, an amulet of a white fox with a sickle in its mouth is sold in Tanzanjinja Shrine.

Although his graveyard is not known exactly, according to the section on the second year of the Tenan era (858) in "Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku", there is mention that 'Tonomine's grave shall be made the grave of FUJIWARA no Kamatari, as one of Four Graves of Ten Imperial Mausoleums,' and according to "Tonomine Ryakuki" (Brief Records of Tonomine), there is a theory that he was buried in Ai, Settsu Province (present-day Ibaraki City, Osaka Prefecture) at first, but reburied later in Tonomine, Yamato Province.

There is also a hypothesis that the buried bones, discovered during the excavation of Abuyama Tumulus in Oaza Ai, Ibaraki City, Osaka Prefecture in 1934 are those of FUJIWARA no Kamatari himself. On the contrary, there is another hypothesis that Kamatari's grave exists somewhere in Yamashina Ward, Kyoto City based on that mentioned in "Toshi Kaden".

Waka (A Traditional Japanese Poem of Thirty-One Syllables)

His two poems are included in "Manyoshu". One poem is included in A Formulary for Verse Based on the Canons of Poetry, "Kakyo Hyoshiki". One of the poems in the Manyoshu was intended for the lawful wife, Kagami no Okimi, and the other poem expressed his joy of winning the affections of Yasumiko, who was a maid-in-waiting at the court.

Warehamoya Yasumiko Etari Minahitono Ekatenisutofu Yasumiko Etari
(I won the affections of Yasumiko--the same Yasumiko whom anyone said was unreachable.)

Umene referred to beautiful women who were presented to the emperor by local ruling families of various provinces. Although there was a large number of umene, since umene were also qualified to be an emperor's wife, fancying an umene was considered taboo at that time. In the case of Kamatari, he received an umene as a special case probably because he had won Emperor Tenchi's favor.

The above poem is characteristic of Manyo poems in that Kamatari's twofold happiness is expressed in a straightforward manner. That means he had the joy of succeeding in love and the honor of having been granted exceptional permission by the emperor.

Who Is Fujiwara No Yoshitaka?

Written in Japanese as &ldquo藤原 義孝&rdquo, Fujiwara no Yoshitaka was born in the year 954. He was known for writing &ldquowaka&rdquo poetry, as this was popular in the middle of the Heian period, whose entire length on from year 794 until 1185. A word to describe him, based on his poetry, would be melancholic. You may find a poem of his in the publication &ldquoOgura Hyakunin Isshu&rdquo, and in Yoshitaka-shu, which is his personal series of waka poems, or &ldquokashu&rdquo (家集).

His father, Fujiwara no Koretada, was also a waka poet, aside from being a politician, statesman, and courtier and later in his life, head of the Hokke branch. Fujiwara no Yoshitaka took after his father&rsquos liking to writing, as his father was deemed conservator of Japanese poetry by Emperor Murakami during the year 951. Koretada produced different literary pieces that would be featured in publications like Ichijo Sessho Gyoshu and Hyakunin Isshu.

Fujiwara no Kamatari

Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原 鎌足, 614 – 14. novembar 669) bio je japanski velikostojnik, političar i državnik iz Asuka perioda, [1] poznat i kao osnivač znamenitog klana Fujiwara.

Rodio se kao pripadnik klana Nakatomi. Bio je sin Nakatomi no Mikekoa, a ime po rođenju mu je bilo Nakatomi no Kamatari (中臣 鎌足). Prezime Fujiwara mu je pred smrt dao car Tenji.

Nakatomi no Kamatari je, poput ostalih članova klana, bio sljedbenik tradicionalne šintoističke vjere, odnosno protivnik klana Soga koji je decenijama dominirao japanskim dvorom i nastojao u 6. vijeku uvedeni budizam učiniti državnom religijom. Zbog toga se sprijateljio i postao saveznik princa Naka no Oea koji se sa Sogama sukobio iz političkih razloga. Godine 645. mu je pomogao izvesti puč poznat kao Isshi incident u kome su vodeći članovi Soga likvidirani.

Tada je carica Kogyoku abdicirala na njegov prijedlog je novim carem postao Kotoku koji je Nakatomi no Kamatarija imenovao naidajinom (unutrašnjim ministrom). Tamo se Nakatomi no Kamatari istakao u nizu tzv. Taika reformi, a pripisuje mu se i izrada japanskog zakonika.

Kada je princ Naka no Oe 661. postao car, Nakatomi no Kamatari je dobio novo ime i titulu glavnog ministra. Njegov nećak Nakatomi no Omimaro je, pak, postao glavni svećenik Velikog svetišta u Iseu.

Njegov sin Fujiwara no Fubito je također bio važan carski velikodostojnik.

Fujiwara no Kamatari

Fujiwara no Kamatari (jap. 藤原鎌足 , 614 Yamaton provinssi – 14. marraskuuta 669 Yamaton provinssi) oli japanilainen Asuka-kauden poliitikko ja Fujiwara-klaanin perustaja. Klaani hallitsi Japanin politiikkaa vuosisatojen ajan. Hänen alkuperäinen nimensä oli Nakatomi no Kamatari (jap. 中臣鎌足 ). [1]

600-luvun alkupuolen Japanissa vaikutusvaltaiseen asemaan oli noussut buddhalaisuutta tukeva Soga-klaani. Klaani kuitenkin kukistui vuonna 645 keisari Jomein pojan prinssi Naka no Ōen johtamassa vallankaappauksessa, jota Nakatomi no Kamatari avusti. Kaappauksessa Soga no Iruka surmattiin, Soga no Emishi teki itsemurhan ja keisarinna Kōgyoku pakotettiin astumaan valtaistuimelta. Kamatari nimitettiin sisäministeriksi (naidaijin). Hän aloitti laajat Taika-uudistukset, jotka vahvistivat keskushallintoa. Niiden tarkoitus oli uudistaa Japanin politiikkaa ja taloutta Tang-dynastian Kiinan mallin mukaan: niihin kuului muun muassa yksityisen maanomistuksen lakkauttaminen, valtion jakaminen provinsseihin, uudet tiet ja postiasemat, lakien kirjaaminen ylös, uusi verojärjestelmä ja kaikkien kotitalouksien rekisteröinti. Uudistusten myötä keskushallinnon sata vuotta aiemmin aloittama kiinalaistamisprosessi saatiin päätökseen. [1] [2]

Keisari Tenjiksi noussut prinssi Naka no Ōe antoi vuonna 669 Kamatarille sukunimen ”Fujiwara”. Hänestä tuli siten vaikutusvaltaisen Fujiwara-klaanin perustaja. [1] [2] Hänen poikansa oli Fujiwara no Fuhito.

Event Versions

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The Long Night of the Harvest Festival

Fujiwara no Kamatari

Fujiwara no Kamatari (japanski 藤原 鎌足, ふじわら の かまたり, 22. godina carice Suiko/614. – 16. dan 10. mjeseca 8. godine cara Tenjija/14. studenoga 669.) bio je japanski državnik, političar i dvorjanin na japanskom dvoru u razdoblju Asuci. [1]

Osnivač je japanskog klana Fujiware. Sam Kamatari je rodom iz klana Nakatomija. Sin je Nakatomija no Mikeka. Ime koje je Fujiwara no Kamatari dobio kad se rodio bilo je Nakatomi no Kamatari (japanski 中臣 鎌足). Malo prije nego je umro, primio je prezime Fujiwara koje mu je dodijelio car Tenji.

Kamatarijev sin bio je Fujiwara no Fuhito (Fubito), važni dostojanstvenik na dvoru. Kamatarijev nećak Nakatomi no Omimaro postao je glavnom osobom šintoističkog svetišta Isea (Ise Jingū, 伊勢神宮) posvećenog božici Amaterasu. Svetište se nalazi u istoimenom gradu.

Bio je prijatelj i podupiratelj carevića Nake no Ōea (Naka no Ōe) koji je poslije postao car Tenji. Kamatari je bio glavni Jingi no Haku odnosno ritualista šinta. Kao takav bio je glavnim protivnikom rastuće moći i raširenosti budizma na dvoru i u narodu. Ishod toga je taj da su 645. godine carević Naka no Ōe i Kamatari napravili državni udar na dvoru, poznat u povijesnoj znanosti kao izgred Isshi (乙巳の変, Isshi no Hen) ili izgred iz 645. godine. Carević je zaklao državnika Sogu no Iruku koji je mnogo utjecao na caricu Kōgyoku. Nakon toga se je ubio Irucin otac Soga no Emishi.

Caria Kōgyoku je bila prisiljena abdicirati u korist njena mlađeg brata koji je postao car Kōtoku. Kōtoku je potom postavio Kamatarija za naidaijina (ministra unutarnjih poslova).

Daftar isi

Kamatari lahir ke dalam klan Nakatomi, merupakan anak Nakatomi no Mikeko, dan diberi nama lahir Nakatomi no Kamatari (中臣 鎌足). [3] Ia merupakan teman dan pendukung Pangeran Naka no Ōe yang kemudian menjadi Kaisar Tenji. Kamatari merupakan pimpinan Jingi no Haku, kaum ritualis agama Shinto ia menjadi salah satu penentang terbesar masuknya agama Buddha ke dalam istana dan negara Jepang. Sebagai hasilnya, pada tahun 645, Pangeran Naka no Ōe dan Kamatari melaksanakan kudeta di istana. Mereka membunuh Soga no Iruka, yang memiliki pengaruh kuat pada Ratu Kōgyoku. Kemudian, ayah Iruka, Soga no Emishi, bunuh diri.

Ratu Kōgyoku terpaksa turun takhta agar adik lelakinya bisa naik takhta sebagai Kaisar Kōtoku. Kōtoku kemudian menganugerahkan jabatan naidaijin (内大臣, Menteri Dalam) kepada Kamatari.

Kamatari merupakan penggerak Reformasi Taika, satu seri reformasi yang berdasar pada model China dan bertujuan untuk memperkuat kekuatan Imperial. [3] Ia merupakan salah satu ketua penyunting dalam pengembangan kode legal Jepang yang dikenal sebagai Sandai-kyaku-shiki, kadang disebut sebagai Aturan dan Regulasi Tiga Generasi. [5]

Sepanjang hidupnya Kamatari terus mendukung Pangeran Naka no Ōe yang naik takhta sebagai Kaisar Tenji pada tahun 661. Tenji menganugerahkannya dengan jabatan Taishōkan (atau Daishokukan) (大織冠), dan menambahkan nama klan baru, Fujiwara (藤原). [3]

Watch the video: Fujiwara no KamatariNakatomi no Kamatari: AMVMADまんが日本史藤原鎌足中臣鎌足真実の詩No Sub (November 2022).

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