USS Conyngham (DD-58), Boston, 11 February 1919

USS Conyngham (DD-58), Boston, 11 February 1919

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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.

USS Conyngham (DD-58), Boston, 11 February 1919 - History

This page provides links to the Picture Data sheets for every panoramic photograph posted on the Online Library. These photographs were quite popular during the first several decades of the Twentieth Century. Usually made with a camera that mechanically scanned a wide-angle scene, panoramic photos were commonly taken of ships, groups of people, banquets and other subjects that were much wider than they were tall.

The resulting "long and skinny" prints often show considerable distortion of the image, but this can be brought into proper perspective by curving the full-size print horizontally within the observer's field of vision.

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the Online Library's digital images, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Panoramic Photographs (listed in approximate chronological order), with Photo #s and Brief Descriptions of Images:

Views taken Prior to 1918:

  • NH 75110 . Shipways and outfitting area of the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, California, 1900.
  • NH 75293 . Waterfront of the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, California, circa 1901.
  • NH 46798 . Officers and Crew of USS Maine , 10 February 1903.
  • NH 95872 . Landing party from USS Baltimore at Shanghai, China, December 1905.

Views taken in 1918, or circa 1918:

  • NH 104943 . World War I era recruit training company at Naval Training Camp, San Diego, California.
  • NH 105057 . Company D, U.S. Naval Reserve Force, at Second Naval District Receiving Barracks, Newport, Rhode Island, 1918. Photographed by F.H. Farley, Providence, R.I.
  • NH 45767 . Officers & crew of USS Mount Vernon , 1918.
  • NH 99395 . USS West Shore in port, circa 1918.
  • NH 105537 . Sailor trainees on the drill field at Puget Sound Navy Yard, summer 1918.
  • NH 105538 . Same subject.
  • NH 82378 . Band of the Receiving Ship, Washington Navy Yard, D.C., 10 August 1918.
  • NH 105369 . Personnel of the Fleet Supply Base, 3rd Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, Fall 1918. Photographed by Charles F. Allen, New York City.
  • NH 105395 . USS Agamemnon underway, circa late 1918. Photographed by E. Muller, Jr..
  • NH 73170 . Engineering Force of USS Pueblo at Norfolk, Virginia, 3 December 1918.
  • NH 103460 . USS Powhatan , circa late 1918 or early 1919. This is a halftone reproduction .

Undated views taken during 1919 (ship-related images are listed alphabetically, followed by other subjects):

  • NH 93214 . USS Aylwin in port, circa 1919.
  • NH 104595 . Enlisted crew members of USS Bali pose on her foredeck, circa Winter-Spring 1919. Photographed by the Taylor Studio, Norfolk, Virginia.
  • NH 99392 . Officers and Crew of USS Black Arrow on board their ship, 1919. Photographed by the Taylor Studio, Norfolk, Virginia.
  • NH 98155 . USS Broome in 1919-1920, probably at the Philadelphia Navy Yard.
  • NH 106364 . Officers and Crew of USS Edward Luckenbach on board their ship, 1919. Photographed by H. Lindsey, New York City.
  • NH 102921 . Officers and crew of USS Evansville , photographed by Hughes and Estabrook, New York City, 1919
  • NH 106363 . Officers and Crew of USS Floridian on board their ship, 1919. Photographed by H. Lindsey, New York City.
  • NH 104731 . USS Huron arriving off Newport News, Virginia, bringing troops home from Europe, 1919. Photographed by Holladay, Newport News.

Dated views taken in January-February 1919:

  • NH 99264 . USS Thatcher at the Boston Navy Yard, Mass., 14 January 1919. Photographed by J.C. Crosby
  • NH 105367 . Personnel of the Bureau of Navigation pose in front of the Pan-American Union Building, Washington, D.C., 15 January 1919. Photographed by Schutz.
  • NH 105368 . Same subject, date and photograper as Photo # NH 105367, but a different pose.
  • NH 50022 . USS Little at Boston, Massachusetts, 18 January 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby
  • NH 50016 . USS Buchanan at Boston, 24 January 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.
  • NH 99229 . USS Crosby at Boston, 25 January 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.

Dated views taken in March-April 1919:

  • NH 99072 . Officers of USS Henry R. Mallory at New York City, March 1919. Photographed by H. Lindsey.
  • NH 50019 . USS Cowell at Boston, 19 March 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.
  • NH 84083 . USS Housatonic at Boston, 28 March 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.

Dated views taken in May-June 1919:

  • NH 103126 . " The 'Giants' of the Sea" : USS Imperator and USS Leviathan at Hoboken, N.J., circa May 1919. Photographed by Picot.
  • NH 107071 . USS Madawaska at St. Nazaire, France, May 1919.
  • NH 103411 . USS Wilhelmina at Boston, 13 May 1919. Photographed by J.C. Crosby.
  • NH 103399 . USS Martha Washington at Newport News, Virginia, 19 May 1919. Photographed by Clements.
  • NH 105660 . USS Rhode Island at Boston, Massachusetts, 19 May 1919. Photographed by Pyle Photo Company, Waltham, Mass.
  • NH 50023 . USS Rhode Island at Boston, 21 May 1919. Photographed by J.C. Crosby.
  • NH 105195 . USS Pittsburgh at the Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, 27 May 1919. Photographed by Crosby.
  • NH 103250 . Officers and crew of USS Mercy on board the ship, 31 May 1919. Photographed by H. Tarr, New York City
  • NH 106016 . Troops of the 350th Infantry at Newport News, Virginia, after disembarking from USS Aeolus , 31 May 1919. Photographed by Clements.

Dated views taken in July-August 1919:

  • NH 74703 . USS Zeppelin , arriving at New York City, July 1919.
  • NH 104444 . USS Edward Luckenbach arrives at Newport News, Virginia, while returning troops from Europe, 3 July 1919. Photographed by Clements.
  • NH 76405 . USS Virginia arrives at Boston, Massachusetts, returning troops from Europe, 5 July 1919.
  • NH 106378 . A.E.F. troops disembarking from USS Mercury at Newport News, Virginia, 5 July 1919.
  • NH 106362 . USS Canonicus arriving off Newport News, Virginia, with homeward bound troops from France, 10 July 1919. Photographed by Holladay.
  • NH 106366 . USS Huron disembarking troops at Newport News, Virginia, 11 July 1919. Photographed by Moore.
  • NH 106228 . Officers and crew of USS Eagle 24 , 12 July 1919. Photographed by Spencer & Wyckoff, Detroit, Michigan.
  • NH 104684 . Officers and crew of USS Leviathan , photographed by Hughes and Estabrook, New York City, 14 July 1919.
  • NH 106244 . A.E.F. troops at Newport News, Virginia, after disembarking on 16 July 1919, probably from USS Matsonia . Photographed by Holladay.
  • NH 73977 . USS Nebraska at Boston, Massachusetts, 19 July 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.
  • NH 42256 . Officers and crew of USS Von Steuben , photographed by Hughes and Estabrook, New York City, 31 July 1919.

Dated views taken in September-December 1919:

  • NH 105396 . USS Von Steuben arriving at New York, 1 September 1919. Photographed by Head-Mayberry, New York City.
  • NH 105327 . USS Welles at Boston, Massachusetts, 2 September 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.
  • NH 105865 . USS Santa Teresa arriving at New York, 4 September 1919. Photographed by Head-Mayberry, New York City.
  • NH 98465 . USS Meade at Boston, Massachusetts, 10 September 1919. Photographed by J. Crosby.

Views taken circa 1919-1921:

Views taken in 1920:

  • NH 99614 . "The Atlantic Fleet at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 1920". Photographed by Schutz, Washington, D.C.
  • NH 105370 . USS Toucey at the Boston Navy Yard, January 1920. Photographed by Crosby.
  • NH 102784 . 22nd Destroyer Division officers and crews on board their ships, at San Diego, California, 10 January 1920. Photographed by O.A. Tunnell.
  • NH 98010 . USS Flusser at the Boston Navy Yard, March 1920. Photographed by J. Crosby.
  • NH 103180 . USAT George Washington at the New York Navy Yard, May 1920. Panoramic image made up of three separate photographs.
  • NH 106144 . 17th Destroyer Division officers and crews on board their ships, at San Diego, California, 14 August 1920. Photographed by O.A. Tunnell.
  • NH 106144-A . Ships of Destroyer Division Seventeen at San Diego, California, circa 14 August 1920. Photographed by O.A. Tunnell.
  • NH 106144-B . Same subject as NH 106144-A.
  • NH 95180 . Officers and Crew of USS Beaver at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 23 October 1920. Photographed by Tour's Photo Service.
  • NH 103195 . USS Hannibal at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, circa late 1920. Photographed by E.E. Hilderbrandt.
  • NH 105313 . U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Manning at Norfolk, Virginia, 30 December 1920. Photographed by Crosby.

Views taken in 1921:

  • NH 98658 . Officers and crew of USS Caesar on board their ship, at the Norfolk Navy Yard, 1921.
  • NH 93143 . Officers and Crew of USS Gulfport at the Norfolk Navy Yard, 13 January 1921. Photographed by Crosby & Falck(?).
  • NH 86082-A through NH 86082-C . "Combined Atlantic and Pacific Fleets in Panama Bay, Jan. 21st 1921". Photographed by M.C. Mayberry, of Mayberry and Smith, Shreveport, Louisiana. This reproduction is divided into three overlapping sections .
  • NH 106294 . USS Camden at the Norfolk Navy Yard, 29 January 1921. Photographed by Crosby.
  • NH 105312 . USS Noa at the Norfolk Navy Yard, 11 February 1921. Photographed by Crosby.

Views taken in 1922-1929:

  • NH 105060 . Officers and Crew of USS Cleveland , 11 September 1922, probably at Boston, Massachusetts. Photographed by J.C. Crosby.
  • NH 95655 . USS Pittsburgh in a Mediterranean port, circa 1923-1926.
  • NH 99780 . USS Orion at Boston Navy Yard, 8 April 1923, with her officers and crew posed beside her. Photographed by H.J. Darley.
  • NH 92615 . Airship Shenandoah leaves the hangar at Naval Air Station Lakehurst, New Jersey, probably on 4 September 1923. Photographed by Clements.
  • NH 105065 . Recruit training Platoon 38, U.S. Naval Training Station, Hampton Roads, Virginia, 23 November 1923.

Views taken in 1930-1939:

  • NH 90040 . USS Black Hawk with several destroyers alongside, at Chefoo, China, during the 1930s.
  • NH 90041 . Same subject.
  • NH 95960 . Same subject.
  • NH 94179 . Panoramic view of Hong Kong Harbor, circa 1931-1933.
  • NH 105078 . Sixth Battalion, U.S. Naval Reserve, at Chicago, Illinois, 8 August 1931. Photographed by Kaufmann & Fabry.
  • NH 81985 through NH 81988 . Warships and merchant steamers off Shanghai, China, circa May-June 1939. This image is divided into four overlapping sections.

Views taken in 1940 and Later:

  • NH 68481 . USS Holland with eleven submarines alongside, at San Diego, California, 1940.
  • NH 105077 . Recruit Company 780, Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, Illinois, July 1942 (or July 1943).
  • NH 105063 . Combined crews of Naval Air Station Santa Ana, California, and squadrons ZP-31 and VJ-8, with an Air Station airship hangar and aircraft in the background, circa 1945. Photographed by Thompson, Los Angeles.
  • NH 106247 . Officers and crew of USS Hammondsport (AKV-2), 1945. Photographed by Thompson, Los Angeles.
  • NH 104962 . Intelligence photomosaic of Hagushi Beaches, Okinawa, where U.S. forces landed during the April 1945 invasion. Prepared by a U.S. Army photo interpretation team in November 1944 from individual images taken during the 10 October 1944 carrier air raids on Okinawa.
  • NH 95256 . USS Vincennes in a U.S. West Coast port, circa Autumn 1945.
  • NH 107496 . Officers and Crew of USS Mertz , probably at San Diego, California, circa early 1946. Photographer not identified.

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the Online Library's digital images, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Page made 30 September 2001
New panoramic photos added 16 February 2011

USS Conyngham (DD-58), Boston, 11 February 1919 - History

Wright (AV 1) (seaplane tender & general auxiliary)
Jason (AV 2) (aviation support ship)
Langley (AV 3) (seaplane tender)
Patoka (AV 6) (oiler)

Mississippi battleship/seaplane tender
Displacement: 14,049 tons full load
Dimensions: 382 x 77 x 25 feet/116.4 x 23.5 x 7.6 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 8 250 psi boilers, 1 shaft, 10,000 hp, 17 knots
Crew: 744 as battleship
Armor: KC, Harvey: 7-9 inch belt, 3 inch decks, 6-10 inch barbettes, 8-12 inch turrets, 9 inch CT, 3.75-7 inch secondary guns
Armament: 2 dual 12/45, 8 8/45, 8 7/45, 12 3/50, 6 3 pound, 2 1 pound, 2 21 inch TT (sub) (as battleship)
Aircraft: seaplanes, number unknown

Concept/Program: Obsolete, marginally seaworthy predreadnought battleship outfitted to act as a seaplane tender at Pensacola, FL, and to assist in the establishment of a permanent seaplane base at that location.

Class: First of two Mississippi class battleships.

Design: Designed as an attempt at a smaller, cheaper battleship, but rolled badly and was considered totally unsatisfactory.

Conversion: Extent of conversion/modification for seaplane duties is not known, but is not believed to have been extensive.

Classification: Retained classification "Battleship 23" throughout her service.

Operational: Served as aviation station ship at Pensacola 1/1913 to 4/1913 supported seaplanes during the Vera Cruz operation.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Sold to Greece as a coast defense ship in 1914.

DANFS History

Built by Cramp. Laid down 12 May 1904, launched 30 Sept 1905, commissioned 1 Feb 1908.

Refitted and modernized 1911. To reserve (in commission) 1 Aug 1912, restored to full commission 30 Dec 1913 for service as aviation station ship at Pensacola and modified to support seaplanes served at Pensacola 1/1914 to 4/1914 and briefly 6/1914. Deployed to Vera Cruz, Mexico 4/1914 to 6/1914 as a seaplane support ship.

Decommissioned, stricken for transfer and transferred to Greece as Kilkis 21 July 1914. Served as coastal defense vessel. Discarded 1932 and hulked as a schoolship, disarmed as accommodation ship 1937. Sunk by German aircraft 23 April 1941 at Salamis. Hulk salvaged 1951 and scrapped.

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Tennessee class armored cruisers/seaplane carriers/tenders
Displacement: 15,870 tons full load
Dimensions: 504.5 x 73 x 25 feet/153.7 x 223.3 x 7.6 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 16 265 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 23,000 hp, 22 knots
Crew: 914
Armor: 3-5 inch belt, 1-3.5 inch deck, 2.5-9 inch turrets, 4-7 inch barbettes, 2-9 inch CT
Armament: 1 dual 10/40, 16 6/50, 22 3/50, 12 3 lb, 4 1 lb, 4 .30 cal, 4 21" TT (secondary battery probably reduced as seaplane tender)
Aircraft: approx. 4 seaplanes

Concept/Program: Obsolete armored cruisers outfitted to carry, launch and support seaplanes.

Conversion: A large, fixed catapult was built on the quarterdeck, and a system of rails for moving and storing seaplanes was built in the former boat storage area. The catapult was built over the aft 10" turret, rendering that turret useless.

Classification: Retained armored cruiser classification s throughout service as a seaplane tenders. Operational: Operated as an aviation station ships at Pensacola, Although nominally capable of operating seaplanes while underway, most of their seaplane service was as a station ships.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Catapult and aviation facilities removed 1917.

ex- Washington
ACR-11 - CA 11 - IX 39
Photos: [As seaplane tender],

DANFS History

Built by New York Shipbuilding. Laid down 23 Sept 1903, launched 18 March 1905, commissioned 7 Aug 1906. Renamed 9 Nov 1916.

Fitted as a seaplane tender 1915. Served as experimental aviation ship and aviation station ship at Pensacola. Seaplane equipment removed 1917.

Redesignated CA 11 17 July 1920. Postwar was used as a flagship/headquarters ship, then as a receiving ship 1927-1946. Proposed reconstruction in 1929 cancelled. Redesignated IX 39 17 February 1941. Decommissioned 28 June 1946, stricken for disposal 19 July 1946. Sold 3 Dec 1946 and subsequently scrapped.

DANFS History

Built by Newport News. Laid down 21 March 1905, launched 6 Oct 1906, commissioned 7 May 1908.

Fitted as a seaplane tender 1915. Served as experimental aviation ship and aviation station ship at Pensacola. Seaplane equipment removed 1917.

Renamed Charlotte 7 June 1920. Redesignated CA 12 17 July 1921. Decommissioned to reserve 18 Feb 1921. Stricken for disposal 15 July 1930. Sold 29 Sept 1930 and subsequently scrapped.

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Huntington ( Pennsylvania class) armored cruiser/seaplane & balloon carrier/tender
Displacement: approx. 15,000 tons full load
Dimensions: 504 x 69.5 x 26.5 feet/153.6 x 21.2 x 8 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 30 250 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 23,000 hp, 22 knots
Crew: 822
Armor: 5-6 inch belt, 1.4-4 inch deck, 1.5-6 inch turrets, 6 inch barbettes, 2-9 inch CT
Armament: 1 dual 8/45, 14 6/50, 18 3/50, 12 3 lb, 8 1 lb, 4 MG, 2 18 inch TT (secondary guns probably reduced as seaplane tender)
Aircraft: 4 seaplanes, kite balloons

Concept/Program: Obsolete armored cruiser modified to carry, launch and support seaplanes and kite balloons.

Conversion: A large, fixed catapult was built on the quarterdeck, and a system of rails for moving and storing seaplanes was built in the former boat storage area. The catapult was built over the aft 8" turret, rendering that turret useless. Balloon maintenance and support facilities were also fitted.

Classification: Retained armored cruiser classification ACR 5 throughout her service as a seaplane tender.

Operational: Operated as an aviation station ship at Pensacola, then made one WWI convoy run as a balloon support ship before resuming armored cruiser duties. Although nominally capable of operating seaplanes while underway, most of her seaplane service was as a station ship.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Catapult and aviation facilities removed 1917.

ex- West Virginia
ACR-5 - CA 5
Photos: [Outfitted as a seaplane tender].

DANFS History

Built by Newport News. Laid down 16 Sept 1901, launched 18 April 1903, commissioned 23 Feb 1905. Renamed 11 Nov 1916.

Outfitted as a seaplane tender 1917 placed in commission in this role 5 April 1917. Served as aviation station ship at Pensacola, then made one convoy run during WWI. Seaplane equipment removed 10/1917. Remainder of WWI service was as a convoy escort.

Redesignated ACR 5 17 July 1920. Decommissioned to reserve 1 September 1920. Stricken for disposal 12 March 1930. Sold 30 August 1930 and subsequently scrapped.

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Aroostook class minelayers/seaplane & balloon tenders
Displacement: approx. 3800 tons standard
Dimensions: 395 x 52 x 16 feet/120.4 x 15.8 x 4.8 meters ( Shawmut 386 feet/117.6 meters)
Propulsion: VTE engines, 8 boilers, 2 shafts, 7000 hp, 20 knots ( Shawmut reported as 14 or 17 knots)
Crew: variable, approx. 300-370
Armor: none
Armament: 1 5/51 SP, 2 3/50 AA, 2 MG, provision for 300 mines
Aircraft: several seaplanes
Concept/Program: Merchant ships acquired in 1917 for use as transports, but converted to minelayers. Temporarily assigned to duties as aviation tenders in 1919, but remained in the aviation role for an extended period due to lack of replacements.

Design/Conversion: Oringal superstructure was stripped off and replaced by a new superstructure, large internal mine deck added. As seaplane tenders the mine rails were removed, and aircraft hoisting booms, repair and servicing facilities, etc. were added. Shawmut had equipment for servicing and support of kite balloons. Both retained some minelaying equipment.

Variations: As merchant shipps these were near-sisters, not identical sisters, so there were some variations in details.

Classification: Both ships given minelayer designations (CM) 17 July 1920 upon the creation of the designation system, and retained these designations throughout their service as aviation ships.

Operational: Both saw service in supporting early trans-Atlantic seaplane flights, then as aviation station tenders at various locations.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Both left aviation service for other duties during the late 1920's and early 1930's.

DANFS History

Built by Cramp. Date laid down unknown, launched and completed as merchant ship 1907. Acquired by USN 12 November 1917, converted to minelayer at Boston Navy Yard, commissioned as minelayer 7 December 1917. Helped in laying the North Sea mine barrage.

Converted for seaplane support at Mare Island Navy Yard early 1920, served as Pacific fleet aviation tender. Designated CM 3 17 July 1920.

Decommissioned to reserve 10 March 1931. Redesignated as a cargo ship (AK 44) 20 May 1941. Transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal 5 February 1943. Sold postwar and converted to a casino ship at Long Beach. Scrapped in 1948.

DANFS History

Built by Cramp. Date laid down unknown, launched and completed as merchant ship 1907. Acquired by USN 12 November 1917, converted to minelayer at Boston Navy Yard, commissioned as minelayer 7 January 1918. Helped in laying the North Sea mine barrage.

Converted for seaplane support at Boston Navy Yard early 1919, served as Atlantic Fleet aviation tender. Renamed Oglala 1 January 1928 and became flagship of Mine Division 1, with her seaplane facilities removed. Considered for use as seaplane depot ship in 1931, but rejected as unsuitable.

Moored outboard of cruiser Helena at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 a torpedo hit the cruiser and sprang the seams of Oglala she capsized and sank. Salvaged 1942 and repaired at Mare Island Navy Yard redesignated ARG 1 and recommissioned 21 May 1943 as a repair ship for internal combustion engines. Armament after refit was 1 5", 4 3" AA, 4 40 mm AA and 8 20 mm AA.

Decommissioned (date uncertain), stricken for disposal 11 July 1946. Transferred to the Maritime Commission and served as a depot ship for the Suisun Bay reserve fleet. Sold and scrapped in 1965.

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Harding (Wickes class) destroyer/seaplane tender
Displacement: approx. 1,290 tons full load
Dimensions: 314.5 x 31 x 20.5 feet/95.8 x 9.5 x 6.25 meters
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 4 boilers, 27,000 shp, 35 knots
Crew: approx. 110
Armor: none
Armament: 4 4/50 SP, 4 triple 21 inch torpedo tubes
Aircraft: seaplane servicing facilities

Concept/Program: A "flush deck" destroyer modified as a seaplane tender following WWI had previously serveded as a guide ship for trans-Atlantic seaplane flights. She was one of the pioneer seaplane tenders, and her service was short. It is possible that additional destroyers were modified as seaplane tenders during this period, but details are unknown.

Class: Wickes class "Bethlehem" type variant of the basic design.

Design/Conversion: Detail unknown some torpedo tubes may have been removed.

Departure from Service/Disposal: She apparently left seaplane duties early in 1921, and was decommissioned in 1922.

DANFS History

Built by Bethlehem San Francisco. Laid down 12 February 1918, launched 4 July 1918, commissioned 24 January 1919. Converted to a seaplane tender at Charleston Navy Yard 13 December 1919 to 20 May 1920, then served at Pensacola and in the Caribbean.

Detached from seaplane duty 2/1921. Decommissioned to reserve 1 July 1922. Stricken for disposal 7 January 1936, sold 29 September 1936 and subsequently scrapped.

Class: Originally a "Hog Island" freighter.

Design/Conversion: Conversion from an airship tender included removing the "balloon well" and fitted additional aircraft hoisting booms. There were extensive shop facilities and evidently a considerable cargo capacity.

Classification: Reclassified as a seaplane tender when her balloon was removed, prior to full conversion.

Operational: From the start she was frequently used as a tender to flying boats and seaplanes, and also served as a general-purpose auxiliary in roles such as command, salvage, disaster relief and transport.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Starting October 1944 she was designated as a miscellaneous auxiliary and served as a headquarters ship for service squadrons.

ex merchant Wright
AZ 1 - AV 1 - AG 79
Photos: [ Wright as AZ 1], [ Wright as AV 1].

DANFS History

Built by American International Shipbuilding Corp. at Hog Island, PA. Laid down 1919, launched 28 April 1920. Transferred to the Navy and conversion started 6/1920 converted at Tietjen & Lang, Hoboken. Designated AZ 1 17 July 1920, commissioned 16 December 1921.

Operated as a combination balloon-seaplane tender until mid-1922, when the balloon was transferred ashore. Ship then operated as a seaplane tender and participated in many fleet exercises to examine possible naval roles for aircraft.

Redesignated as seaplane tender AV 1 11 November 1923. Fully converted to a seaplane tender 7/1926 to 12/1916 at Norfolk Navy Yard. Conversion included removal of balloon well and fitting of additional aircraft hoisting booms. During the 1920's she saw extensive service along the US east coast, including the salvage of the submarine S-4 , hurricane relief, troop transport, etc. Served in the Pacific during the 1930's and into WWII.

Shortly before WWII she assisted in the establishment of several advance bases in the Pacific. Early in the war she was used as a transport to supply and support various bases, especially those around Hawaii. From mid-1942 on she again served as a seaplane tender.

Reclassified as a miscellaneous auxiliary (AG 79) 1 October 1944 and served as a headquarters ship for Pacific service forces. Renamed San Clemente 3 February 1945. Immediately postwar served as an occupation headquarters ship.

Decommissioned 21 June 1946, stricken for disposal 1 July 1946. Transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal 21 September 1946. Sold 19 August 1948 and subsequently scrapped.

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Jason aviation support ship
Displacement: approx. 19,250 tons full load
Dimensions: 536 x 65 x 27.5 feet/163.4 x 19.8 x 8.4 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 14 knots
Crew: 82 as built
Armor: none
Armament: 4 4" SP as built
Aircraft: unknown

Concept/Program: Former collier employed as a support ship for US aviation operations in the Far East, and eventually reclassified as a seaplane tender. Little is known about this ship, but it is believed that she was not extensively converted to a seaplane role, and probably operated mainly as a transport and logistics ship in support of other aviation units.

Classification: Reclassified AV 2 many years after she assumed an aviation support role, probably to acknowledge that she was no longer employed as a collier.

Operational: Supported US aviation operations in the Far East from 1925 to decommissioning.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Decommissioned in 1932.

AC 12 - AV 2
Photos: [ Jason as completed].

DANFS History

Built by Maryland Steel. Laid down 26 March 1912, launched 16 November 1912, commissioned 26 June 1913.

Saw extensive and varied service as a collier, military transport, and logistics support ship. Deployed to the Far East in 1925, operating in various transport, logistics and support roles. Reclassified AV 2 21 January 1930.

Decommissioned to reserve 30 June 1932. Stricken for disposal 19 May 1936. Sold 29 July 1936 and subsequently scrapped.

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Langley seaplane tender
Displacement: 11,500 tons full load
Dimensions: 520 x 65.5 x 16.5 feet/158.5 x 20 x 5 meters
Extreme Dimensions: 542 x 65.5 x 16.5 feet/165.2 x 20 x 5 meters
Propulsion: Turbo-electric, 3 190 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 7,000 shp, 15.5 knots
Crew: 714
Armor: none
Armament: 4 single 5/51 SP
Aircraft: several seaplanes

Concept/Program: Experimental aircraft carrier (originally a collier) converted to a seaplane tender following her replacement as first-line carrier. This was another of the early, make-do conversions pending the availability of purpose-built seaplane tenders. She retained a large carrier-like deck which made her quite useful as an aircraft ferry.

Design/Conversion: The forward 1/3 of the flight deck was removed to open up a seaplane servicing deck, and seaplane hoisting booms were installed. The remainder of the flight deck apparently served no purpose other than as an aircraft storage area when the ship served as an aircraft ferry.

Modifications: No major modifications in service as a seaplane tender.

Classification: Reclassified from carrier (CV) to seaplane tender (AV) after conversion.

Operational: Early in WWII she saw service as an aircraft transport in addition to seaplane duties.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Sunk early in WWII.

Other Notes: As collier she had been the first turbo-electric USN vessel.

DANFS History

Built by Mare Island Navy Yard as collier Jupiter (AC 3). Laid down 18 Oct 1911, launched 24 Aug 1912, commissioned as collier 7 April 1913. Converted to experimental aircraft carrier at Norfolk Navy Yard 24 March 1920 to 20 March 1922. Renamed Langley 11 April 1920, reclassified CV 1 and recommissioned 20 March 1922.

Replaced as carrier by new Wasp in 1936. Converted to seaplane tender at Mare Island Navy Yard 25 Oct 1936 to 26 Feb 1937, redesignated AV 3 11 April 1937, recommissioned 21 April 1937.

Used as aircraft transport early in WWII. Attacked by Japanese bombers 27 Feb 1942 while arriving at Java with P-40s as cargo hit multiple times and crippled, abandoned and scuttled by destroyer gunfire.

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Patoka former airship tender
Note: This ship saw no service as a seaplane tender while designated AV 6, but did see service as an airship tender while designated AO 9. See history under Miscellaneous US Carriers for full details on this unusual and often-overlooked ship.

Joseph Francis Bolger was born in Adams, Massachusetts on May 25, 1898. He attended the U.S. Naval Academy in 1917 as a Midshipman. He graduated U.S. Naval Academy in 1920, commissioned Ensign on June 3, 1920, class of 1921 (one year early due to the World War). He was designated Naval Aviator (Ltjg) #3150 in 1924.

He had World War I service during the summer of 1918 aboard the USS Wisconsin. Commissioned Ensign on June 3, 1920, he subsequently advanced in rank to that of Rear Admiral. On September 1, 1953 he was transferred to the Retired List of the U.S. Navy and was advance to the rank of Vice Admiral on the basis of combat awards.

He served consecutive duty aboard the Black Hawk, McCook and Charles Ausburne, being detached from the latter vessel in 1923 for instruction at the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport. In February 1924 he began flight training at NAS, Pensacola, and was designated Naval Aviator on August 1, 1924. In November 1924 he was assigned to Torpedo and Bombing Plane Squadron 1, attached to Wright Field.

Between May-November 1926 he was assigned to the staff of the Commander Aircraft Squadrons, Scouting Fleet, Wright flagship. For three years he worked with experimental aircraft torpedoes at Naval Torpedo Station, Newport. In September 1919 he joined Torpedo Squadron 9-S, attached to Wright and served there until May 1931. He next was assigned to NAS, Anacostia, doing flight test work.

In June 1934 he joined Scouting Squadron 3-B aboard the USS Lexington and commanded it until June 1936. He was then transferred to command of Scouting Squadron 11 aboard the USS Louisville and later aboard the USS Minneapolis. He returned to NAS, Anacostia, in June 1937 as Flight Officer, and in June 1939 became Commanding Officer of Observation Squadron 4 aboard the USS West Virginia.

In January 1940 he was Staff Air Officer for Commander Battle Force, Fleet, California, flagship and in February 1941 reported as Staff Operations Officer for Commander Aircraft, Scouting Force.

From May to October 1942 he was Chief of Staff and Aide to Commander Replacement Patrol Squadrons, Pacific Fleet. He then reported as Aide to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air, Washington, DC. He assumed command of the USS Intrepid on May 30, 1944 during World War II, earning two Navy Crosses.

Detached from command of the Intrepid, he assumed command on the USS Midway on September 19, 1945. In December, he reported as Commander Fleet Air Wing 1.

In August 1946 he was ordered to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air), Washington, DC, and in November was designated Chief of the Aviation Personnel SubDivision of that Office. He reported in October, 1948 as Chief of the Joint Planning Staff, Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, and served as such until April 1951, when he became Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (Air). In October 1951 he was designated Deputy Chief of Naval Personnel and Assistant to the Chief of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, and served as such until his retirement.

Following the war, he was the commissioning commanding officer of the new large fleet carrier USS Midway (CVB-41). He retired in 1953, with the rank of Vice Admiral.

He died on January 21, 1985 and was buried on January 23 rd in Arlington National Cemetery, Section 6, Site 9208-A.

This Educational Venue is for former Intrepid Crewmembers

who served …’with pride and dedication’

Posted by cv11texfcm on August 2, 2012

The Value of Boston Evening Transcript Historical Data

Before the Internet came along, the primary vehicle for disseminating the comings and goings of any community was the newspaper. With the Boston Evening Transcript archive, you can climb through a window into the past.

Whether you’re looking for marriage announcements, death notices, obituaries, or feature stories about your ancestors, these archives can form a considerable part of any family history project.

So why else are these archives so valuable?

They add color to the stories of your family’s past. Official government records tend to provide the basic facts and nothing more. Newspapers tell the story of figures in the community and give you a personal account of how your ancestors lived and what they did.

Furthermore, Boston Evening Transcript historic newspapers may reveal through their announcements some of the relatives you didn’t know about.

Countless GenealogyBank users have discovered family members they’d never heard of through searching the Boston Evening Transcript database.

The historical data you uncover could form the foundation for additional research and further discovery.

Aldino Felicani Sacco-Vanzetti Collection, 1915-1977 | Boston Public Library Archival and Manuscript Finding Aid Database

April 15 - Frederick Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli are robbed and murdered in South Braintree, Massachusetts.

May 5 - Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are arrested for murder and are interviewed by District Attorney Katzmann.

May 9 - Aldino Feliciani and others establish the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee.

Jun 11-August 31 - Indictment, trial, conviction, and sentencing of Vanzetti for December 24, 1919 attempted holdup in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Fred Moore is hired to defend Sacco and Vanzetti.

September 11 - Sacco and Vanzetti are indicted for murders of Parmenter and Berardelli.

May 31-July 14 - Sacco and Vanzetti trial is heard in Dedham Supreme Court. Both men are convicted of first degree murder.

November 5-8 - Motion for new trial on the weight of the evidence and 1st Supplementary Motion (Ripley) are filed.

December 24 - Motion for new trial is denied by Judge Thayer.

May - Lawyers file six more motions for new trials over eighteen month period.

April 7 - New Trial League is formed by members of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee.

August 27 - Fred Moore submits formal resignation to the committee.

October 1 - All motions are denied by Judge Thayer.

November 8 - Fred Moore files legal notice of withdrawal as defense counsel.

November 20 - William Thompson assumes responsibility for the defense of Sacco and Vanzetti.

November 18 - Confession of Celestino Madeiros (Carlos Medeiros) for the Braintree murders.

May 12-26 - Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts affirms conviction of Sacco and Vanzetti. Denies 1st, 2nd, and 5th Supplementary Motions. Thomson files 7th Supplementary Motion (Medeiros).

October 23 - Medeiros motion is denied by Judge Thayer.

April 5 - Supreme Judicial Court affirms denial of Medeiros motion.

April 8 - Sacco and Vanzetti receive death sentence.

May 3 - Sacco and Vanzetti petition Governor Fuller for clemency.

June 1 - Governor Fuller appoints Lowell Committee for clemency investigation.

August 3 - Governor Fuller denies clemency.

August 6-8 - Motion for new trial based on judge's prejudice filed. Judge Motion is denied by Judge Thayer.

August 23 - Sacco and Vanzetti are executed. The Citizens National Committee is formed in order to prevent the execution and create national interest in the case. Sacco-Vanzetti National League (formerly the Citizens National Committee) is established tokeep the memory of Sacco and Vanzetti alive.

25th anniversary of the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti.

Governor Michael Dukakis issues proclamation calling for the removal of “any stigma from [Sacco and Vanzetti’s] names . . .”

Historical Note:

On April 15, 1920, paymaster Frederick Parmenter and security guard Alessandro Berardelli were robbed and murdered at the Slater-Morrill Shoe Company factory in Braintree, Massachusetts. On May 5, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti -- two Italian immigrants and anarchists -- were arrested for the crime. On May 9, Aldino Felicani, a friend of Vanzetti’s, along with other Italian radicals, established the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee in Boston’s North End. On September 11, 1920, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were charged with robbing and murdering Parmenter and Berardelli. Prior to their arrests, Felicani published l'agitazione, a small newspaper that, after the arrest, became the Committee’s official organ. Felicani also acted as the committee's treasurer and chief publicist. More importantly however, Felicani was the liaision between a group of Italian anarchists and a team of increasingly conservative lawyers.

The purpose of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee was two-fold: to keep the names of Sacco and Vanzetti in the public consciousness and to free them from jail. They did this by raising money to pay for the men’s legal expenses and publishing and disseminating news items which refuted every aspect of prosecution’s case. Fundraising efforts included sending subscription lists to labor unions and other progressive organizations, selling publications, and holding meetings featuring well known labor leaders. Over the years, radicals, civil rights leaders, and activists such as Joseph Ettor, Frank Lopez, Mary Donovan, Jackson Gardner, Hapgood Powers, Selma Maximon, Elizabeth Glendower Evans, and Creighton Hill all worked for the cause.

In August 1920, at the urging of Italian anarchist Carlo Tresca and American Civil Liberties Union founder Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the committee hired labor attorney Fred Moore to lead the defense team of William G. Thompson and Thomas and James McAnarney. Other lawyers who represented Sacco and Vanzetti were Arthur D. Hill, who was retained to make final arguments, and Herbert Ehermann.

Fred Moore, who had a role in the Lawrence mills strike 0f 1912 (Bread and Roses strike), based part of his defense strategy on transforming a local criminal trial into an international cause. His connections with prominent socialist and labor leaders enabled him to enlist the help of many liberal, radical, and progressive organizations in the country. The United Mine Workers, International Ladies Garment Union, and the International Workers of the World were a few of many unions whose membership contributed substantially to the defense of the two men. Financial backing from such progressive organizations as the International Labor Defense Office and the American Fund for Public Service made it possible for the committee to do its work. The American Civil Liberties Union, the New England Civil Liberties Union, and the League for Democratic Control were among the the civil rights organizations that were active in the movement to free Sacco and Vanzetti.

In addition to these organizations, Moore enlisted the help of writers and intellectuals such as John Dos Passos, Eugene Lyons, and Upton Sinclair, who wrote articles and stories for The Nation, The New Republic, and The Federated Press Service, thereby keeping Sacco and Vanzetti headlines in the radical press for seven years. In addition, John Dos Passos and Upton Sinclair also wrote novels about the case. Moore also brought the case to the attention of prominent socialist leaders such as Eugene V. Debs, who became an important figure in the campaign to free the two men. Given the amount of publicity that Moore generated together with the fact that Sacco and Vanzetti were immigrants, it did not take long for laborers and leftist organizations throughout Europe and South America to form their own Sacco and Vanzetti defense committees.

On July 14, 1921 Sacco and Vanzetti were found guilty of robbery and murder. From November 1921-November 1923, Moore and the defense team filed seven motions for new trials. In the summer of 1924, the New Trial League was formed by Committee members Elizabeth Glendower Evans, Selma Maximon, John S. Codman, and John Van Vaerenwyck. The sole purpose of this group was to raise money for a new trial. On October 1, 1924, Judge Thayer denied all motions for a new trial. The New Trial League disbanded shortly after and gave the money it collected to the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee.

For the next three years, the committee continued to raise money and publish its manifestos, and Fred Moore continued to investigate leads. One such investigation occurred in Italy, where he sent Eugene Lyons (Morris Gebelow) to examine the customs agent who spoke to Sacco on the day of the murder. Fred Moore resigned his position in 1924 and William Thompson became chief counsel. Thompson made numerous attempts to overturn the verdict, including filing a motion for a new trial in light of the confession to the murders by convicted criminal Celestino Madeiros in May 1926. The death sentence, which was handed down on April 9, 1927, met with world-wide protest causing Governor Alvan T. Fuller to postpone the executions and establish an advisory committee, the Lowell Committee, to investigate the possibility of clemency.

The failure of the Lowell Committee to recommend clemency resulted in demonstrations all over the world, and although Fuller granted a ten day stay during which time several more appeals were made on behalf of the men, nothing could be done. Sacco and Vanzetti were executed on August 23, 1927 in the Charlestown State Prision in Charlestown, Massachusetts. On August 28, 1927, the funeral service for Sacco and Vanzetti was held in Boston’s Forest Hills Cemetary. Mary Donovan gave the eulogy.

Soon after the funeral, Aldino Felicani along with Creighton Hill, Hapgood Powers, Mary Donovan, and Gardner Jackson established the Sacco-Vanzetti Memorial Committee. The purpose of memorial committee was similar to that of the defense committee: to keep the names of Sacco and Vanzetti from fading from public memory. They did this by organizing memorial meetings to commorate the anniversaries of the executions. In addition, they made plans for Freedom House, a memorial building they wanted to be constructed in Boston near the Massachusetts State House. In order to pay for the building, Gardner Jackson approached sculptor Gutzon Borglum to make a bas relief of Sacco and Vanzetti, which they hoped would produce enough subscriptions to underwrite the cost of the project. At the first memorial meeting on August 23, 1928, the plaster rendering of the sculpture was unveiled. Considered part of the Felicani collection, the rendering was installed in the entrance way of the Rare Books Department of the Boston Public Library in 1979.

Although the Freedom House was never built, the memorial committee continued to work to clear the men’s names by holding anniversary meetings, publishing articles and memoirs, and appearing at speaking engagements. In addition, Felicani published two magazines - The Lantern, which was inspired by Sacco and Vanzetti and the anti-fascist Countercurrents.

To mark the fiftieth anniversary of their deaths, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis issued a proclamation which stated that Sacco and Vanzetti’s trial was prejudiced against them because of their ethnicity and political beliefs and that given the limited scope of the appellate review, they should have been granted another trial. Because of this, Chapter 341 of the Acts of 1939 was adopted, which permitted the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court to order a new trial both because the verdict was contrary to the law and because “it was against the weight of the evidence, contradicted by newly discovered evidence” and also “for any other reason that justice may require.” Finally, Governor Dukakis declared August 23, 1977 to be “Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Memorial Day.” As of 2009, there has been no public memorial dedicated to Sacco and Vanzetti.

Items in this collection may be subject to copyright restrictions. The Boston Public Library does not hold copyright on the material in this collection. Researchers are responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations that hold copyright.

When reproducing material from this collection please include the credit line "Courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library/Rare Books."

Collection material in English, French, Italian, and Spanish. English translations of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti’s letters are available.

Location Guide:

1. Sacco and Vanzetti Correspondence and Manuscripts - Boxes: 1-5

2. Defense Committee Records - Boxes: 6-30, 71-72, Map Case 3

3. New Trial League Records - Boxes: 31

4. Fred Moore Papers - Boxes: 32-47, 72

5. Defense Team Correspondence - Boxes: 48

6. Aldino Felicani Correspondence and Related Material - Boxes: 49-53, 61

7. Trial Transcripts, Motions, and Affidavits - Boxes: 53-58

8. Manuscripts and Printed Material - Boxes: 59-60

9. Memorabilia and Photographs - Boxes: 61-66, Vault, Map Case 3, Vertical File

The Aldino Felicani Sacco-Vanzetti Collection spans the years 1914-1967, with the bulk dating from 1920-1927. The collection documents the efforts and activities of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee to free Nicola Sacco (1891-1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888-1927) from prison for the murders of Frederick Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli, which were committed on April 15, 1920 in Braintree, Massachusetts. In particular, the collection documents the committee's propaganda campaign, Fred Moore's investigation and defense strategies, post-trial proceedings, and the execution of the two men. The efforts, financial and otherwise, made by labor unions, defense organizations, and individuals on behalf of Sacco and Vanzetti are also documented. In addition, Sacco and Vanzetti’s thoughts regarding the guilty verdict and their impending execution are included.

Both Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti wrote more than 200 letters while they were in jail, many of which share common themes, particularly their innocence, the emotional and physical effects of long term imprisonment, and the injustice of the legal system. The letters the two men exchanged between themselves contain news about friends and family, their loyalty to their comrades, and words of support and encouragement. Each man also wrote several letters to members and friends of the committee extending their gratitude for the work that was being done on their behalf, others speaking directly to the historical significance of their fight, and still others that call for mass protests and demonstrations.

Throughout his correspondence, Sacco focuses primarily on the visits from his wife Rose and children Dante and Ines, and how they rejuvenated his spirits. In his letters to Mrs. Jack Cerise, Elizabeth Glendower Evans, and Aldino Felicani, Sacco explains the reasons for his hunger strike, his distrust of Fred Moore, and his conviction that his death will help create a better future for the working class.

Vanzetti corresponded with a number of people including Aldino Felicani, Elizabeth Glendower Evans, his sister Luigia, the Brini family, Alice Stone Blackwell, Roger N. Baldwin, and Eugene and Theodore Debs. The majority of the letters are reflections on the social, political, and religious literature was reading such as Bible, The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Why Men Fight by Bertrand Russell. In other letters, Vanzetti writes about Dedham and Braintree trials and the post-trial procedures, and the active role he played in his defense.

While in prison, Vanzetti wrote 54 essays, articles, autobiographical pieces, and editorials in which espressed his ideas about justice, freedom, the bias of the press, and the life experiences that influenced his decision to become an anarchist. Among these writings are “The Story of a Proletarian Life” and “Memories of My Mother’s Life”. In several essays, Vanzetti put forth his arguments for the necessity of a new trial. These include “What I Would Say to the Jurors in My Defense”, and “What I would Have Said to Thayer, Had He Given Me the Chance”.

The correspondence of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee documents the efforts and activities generated by the committee, particularly in the areas of fundraising, disseminating propaganda, publicity, and organizing meetings and demonstrations. In addition, the committee’s relationship with the legal defense team, especially Fred Moore and William Thompson, is documented. The participation of labor unions and civil rights organizations, such as the United Mine Workers, the International Labor Defense, the Sons of Italy, and the American Civil Liberties Union is included. Letters written by Mary Donovan, Selma Maximon, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn report on the organizing that was being done in cities throughout the country, while correspondence from Eugene V. Debs, Eugene Lyons, and Roger Baldwin provide insight into the case from a few of the American radicals who were sympathetic to Sacco and Vanzetti. The letters from Italian anarchists Carlo Tresca and Felice Guadagni are among those that refute the guilty verdict on the basis of political discrimination. Moreover, the efforts of several committees that were established while the men were in jail and after the execution such as the Sacco-Vanzetti Memorial Committee (which was made up of members of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee), the Committee for the Vindication of Sacco and Vanzetti, and the Citizens National Committee for Sacco and Vanzetti are also documented.

Meeting minutes of the Executive Committee date from 1924-1927 and provide rare insight into how the committee operated. The majority the entries are comprised of interactions between the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee and the New Trial League and its response to Sacco and Vanzetti’s opinions about who should be in handling their defense. Other subjects include reports from field organizers, publicity arrangements, and fundraising matters.

One of the primary responsibilities of the committee was to keep the names of Sacco and Vanzetti from slipping into the back pages of the newspapers. They did this by constantly publishing and disseminating the facts of the crime, the trial, and subsequent post-trial proceedings. Some of the subjects covered in the publications are the trial and guilty verdict, the failure of the judicial process, the inequality of law in Massachusetts, and Judge William Thayer’s ability to conduct a fair trial. Elizabeth Glendower Evans, John Dos Passos, Eugene Lyons, and Upton Sinclair were among the contributing writers for the press releases, the official Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee Bulletin, and the “News Service” bulletins. Many untitled and unpublished articles by John Nicholas Beffel, Eugene Lyons, and Sinclair Lewis are also included.

The other important function of the committee was fundraising. Among the several expenses that were incurred over the years were attorney and court fees, the costs of the pre-trial investigation, and the contributions made to Sacco’s family. Other expenses, such as daily operating expenses, salaries of office workers, and fees for expert witness testimonies were paid for by contributions made by union members, individuals, and groups from all over the country, including other Sacco-Vanzetti organizations. For seven years, the committee sent out circular letters requesting donations, sold publications, held mass meetings where hats were passed, and received aid from The American Fund for Public Service, Inc., International Labor Defense, and the Workers Defense Union.

Fred Moore’s correspondence from leaders of the labor movement, radicals, and the progressive press documents the steps he took in transforming the trial from a local matter to an international cause. In addition, it documents his defense strategies, his relationship with Sacco and Vanzetti and the committee, and his resignation. Some of the topics discussed throughout are meeting arrangements, the activities unions and defense organizations were doing on behalf of Sacco and Vanzetti, and the relationships between the New York and Boston Sacco-Vanzetti defense committees.

Moore’s correspondence also includes the in-depth investigation Eugene Lyons (Morris Gebelow) undertook in Italy to find the Italian consulate employee Sacco said he had spoken with on the afternoon the crime occurred, the active role Elizabeth Gurley Flynn had in making decisions for the committee and for providing the perspective of the American Civil Liberties Union on the case, and Sacco and Vanzetti’s active monitoring of the status of the case. The letters from the field staff, particularly Selma Maximon and Matilda Robbins, document their efforts to organize support with groups in New York and with other sympathizers throughout the United States.

From the beginning of his position as defense counsel to the time he resigned, Moore compiled twelve notebooks containing material he gathered from his investigation of the robbery and murder. The notebooks contain the results of his investigations such as the personal histories of Frank Silva, Jacob Luban, and other known criminals, and further questioning of several witnesses, among them Anna De Falco and Ruth Johnson. Also documented is the history of the get-away car, Vanzetti’s account of his treatment during his years in prison, and the cause of Frederick Parmenter and Alexander Berardelli’s deaths. In addition, testimonies from eyewitnesses, police, and character witnesses, the backgrounds and work histories of Sacco and Vanzetti, and an analysis of witness testimonies in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Bartolomeo Vanzetti trial are recorded.

After Moore’s resignation in late 1924, William Thompson was named chief counsel. Consequently, the majority of the defense attorney’s correspondence, which dates from 1921-1956, is Thompson’s. The correspondence reflects the state of the case prior to Judge Thayer’s denial of the motions for a new trial in October 1921, the strategies Thompson wanted to implement as the options for a new trial became fewer, and the question of James McArney’s representation of Nicola Sacco. Also included are summaries of his conversations with Vanzetti, the procedures necessary to bring the case to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and the dynamics between Thompson and the committee.

Aldino Felicani’s correspondence dates from 1914-1967 and documents his efforts to prove Sacco and Vanzetti’s innocence both while they were alive and after their deaths. The majority of his correspondence from 1914-1920 is in Italian and contains letters from several anarchists, among them Tomaso Concordia, Norman Thomas di Giovaini, Carlo Tresca, and Erasmo S. Abate. Also included is correspondence from Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. After 1920, Felicani's correspondence reflects his position as treasurer of the committee, his role in the defense of Sacco and Vanzetti, and his formation of the Sacco-Vanzetti Memorial Committee. Moreover, his efforts publish to two magazines, The Lantern and Countercurrents, are documented. Much of the later correspondence with former Committee members, particularly Mary Donovan and Hapgood Powers, Creighton Hill, and Jackson Gardner provide details into their personal lives and careers in later years. Other important correspondents include Vincenzia Vanzetti, who kept Felicani up with the news from Villafalletto and the efforts there to clear Vanzetti’s name, Roger Baldwin of the American Civil Liberties Union, and the authors of the books, television and movie scripts written about Sacco and Vanzetti. The letters and newspaper clippings in this series are not translated.

Interspersed with Felicani's correspondence are several documents which contribute to the history of the committee and Felicani’s role in it. These documents include a piece Felicani wrote about Luigia Vanzetti after her death, which is the only documentation that exists in the collection specifically about her (in Italian), the history of Gutzon Borglum’s memorial sculpture, and the legal document giving Felicani power of attorney by Luigia Vanzetti, which gives explicit instructions concerning the dispersal of Bartolomeo’s ashes. Other notable papers are Felicani’s essays “In the Shadow of the Chair” and “Gardner Jackson: a Memoir of the Sacco-Vanzetti Days” because they chronicle the last hours of Sacco and Vanzetti and the ceremony at Forest Hills Cemetery.

The trial transcripts of the proceedings of Commonwealth of Massachusetts v Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts v Nicolo Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, are also contained in the collection. Other legal records include the post-trial motions and supplementary motions, appeals, and responses to motions. Subjects cover the prosecution’s claim against Sacco and Vanzetti, the crime, Sacco and Vanzetti’s histories and characters, and the evidence. The legal records in this series are not complete. Included in the Manuscripts and Printed Material series are poems by Babbette Deutsch, Edna St. Vincent Millay, and Carl Sandberg, and the majority of Upton Sinclair’s book, Boston. In addition, the series contains post-execution newspaper clippings from Italy, television scripts, and essays.

The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti, their deaths, and funeral are documented through photographs, newspaper clippings and press releases, arm bands, and original art work. Also contained in the series are a number of broadsides from unions and Sacco- Vanzetti defense organizations in Europe and South America, which represent the international response to the plight of the two men. Among these groups are the Comité de Ágication Pro Libertad de Sacco y Vanzetti (Argentina), Le CalVarie de Sacco et de Vanzetti (France), Irish Labour Protest Meeting Against Judicial Murder (Ireland), and the Comitato Pro Ribilitazione di Bartolomeo Vanzetti (Italy). In addition, cartoons from the Daily Worker provide political commentary from the communist perspective, while those from the Boston Post report on the big moments of the trial. The series also contains three scrapbooks: two consisting of newspaper clippings and press releases and one of photographs. The newspaper scrapbooks document the entire history of the trial through the 1960s. The “Publicity” scrapbook includes both clippings from both the mainstream press and the committee’s press. Among the subjects documented in the photograph scrapbook are the crime scene, Sacco and Vanzetti when they are first arrested, and Vanzetti’s fish cart. The loose photographs cover such events as the removal of Sacco and Vanzetti’s bodies from the Charlestown jail, the funeral procession through the North End and Scollay Square, and visits to the jail by Rose Sacco and her children, Mary Donovan, and Luigia Vanzetti. Additional photographs document the public and personal reactions to the trial and execution of the anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. Of note are the photographs that show the public demonstrations and protests that occurred during this time around Boston and in New York, emphasizing police action at these events. Also included are photographs of their supporters, such as Edna St. Vincent Millay, Jean Longuet, and Madame Séverine, as well as their family members and attorneys.

Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone

On March 7, 1876, 29-year-old Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his revolutionary new invention: the telephone.

The Scottish-born Bell worked in London with his father, Melville Bell, who developed Visible Speech, a written system used to teach speaking to the deaf. In the 1870s, the Bells moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where the younger Bell found work as a teacher at the Pemberton Avenue School for the Deaf. He later married one of his students, Mabel Hubbard.

While in Boston, Bell became very interested in the possibility of transmitting speech over wires. Samuel F.B. Morse’s invention of the telegraph in 1843 had made nearly instantaneous communication possible between two distant points. The drawback of the telegraph, however, was that it still required hand-delivery of messages between telegraph stations and recipients, and only one message could be transmitted at a time. Bell wanted to improve on this by creating a “harmonic telegraph,” a device that combined aspects of the telegraph and record player to allow individuals to speak to each other from a distance.

With the help of Thomas A. Watson, a Boston machine shop employee, Bell developed a prototype. In this first telephone, sound waves caused an electric current to vary in intensity and frequency, causing a thin, soft iron plate�lled the diaphragm–to vibrate. These vibrations were transferred magnetically to another wire connected to a diaphragm in another, distant instrument. When that diaphragm vibrated, the original sound would be replicated in the ear of the receiving instrument. Three days after filing the patent, the telephone carried its first intelligible message—the famous “Mr. Watson, come here, I need you”𠅏rom Bell to his assistant.

Deceased Divinity Students

Frederick Bentley, born Ireland Newcastle received as student by Southern Presbytery 20th May 1930 publication Authorised or Revised? (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1931, 23pp.) [signed his name in Gaelic in letters to newspapers left abruptly in 1936 in controversial circumstances].

A. Cameron, student 1894, supplying Dumbarton.

James Cameron (1869-1964) born Achterneed dux of Dingwall Academy classics degree at Edinburgh University acquired Gaelic. Free Presbyterian student 1894 missionary Strathpeffer 1895-1900 and still a missionary in December 1904 when he married Margaret MacQueen. They had three children, Ewen, David and Hugh James (d. aged eight months). Still an irregular student in 1908 but not mentioned in Northern Presbytery minutes after February of that year. He remained in the FP Church and took Free Presbyterian services in Bonar Bridge in 1930s buried Fodderty.

Thomas Russell Cameron (1884-1982) Free Presbyterian student December 1909, May 1910, taking services in London (FPM, Vol. 14, p.288 Vol. 15, p.39) preached at Hyde Park Corner (see FP Synod Proceedings, 1969, pp. 27-8), surprised at hostile reception turned Arminian and went to New Zealand did a year of home mission work in Auckland for the PCNZ in 1913, but then found in Brethren circles and with the Baptists in the mid-1920s. Promoted himself greatly (see an article in the Sydney Morning Herald, 17th August 1935). A man of the same name from Auckland, NZ, received by the Free Church as minister without charge on 21st November 1934 (presumably the same man). Went from New Zealand to Australia in 1935 and gave supply in Geelong and Sydney for the PCEA. Banned from PCEA pulpits on account of Arminian theology and the division caused. Returned to New Zealand where he died in 1982.

Peter Munro Chisholm (1884-1957) born 24th January 1884, Gravir student left Free Presbyterian Church 1912 set up independent services—the Chisholmites continued in Achmore until 1960s joined Free Church 1921 publications died 1st July 1957 buried Gravir (FC Fasti FPM, Vol. 18, pp. 32-3 Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, Vol. 2 (2012) pp. 275-291).

John Hamilton (1857-1897) born Glasgow Glasgow University Free Presbyterian student 1893 missionary Oban 1894-7 died 23rd December 1897 buried Pennyfuir Cemetery, Oban (Ministers and Men of the Free Presbyterian Church).

Roderick MacCowan (1871-1948) Free Presbyterian student August 1904 joined Free Church November 1906 publication Men of Skye (1902 2nd edition 2013) unmarried died 11th September 1948 buried Portree (FC Fasti Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, Vol. 5 (2015), pp. 353-397).

Donald Macdonald (1873-1897) born 26th December 1873, Newtonmore Aberdeen Grammar School 1889-91 Edinburgh Univ. died 23rd Feb. 1897 presumably buried Newtonmore.

Murdo Macfarlane ( -1918) born South Uist died 1st Aug. 1918 bur. Portree [nephew of Rev D. Macfarlane].

Donald Mackay (1867-1900) born 27th February 1867, Strathy Point died 2nd August 1900 (FPM, Vol. 5 (1900), pp. 160, 375) [brother of Rev. J.R. Mackay letters in FPM, Vols. 8, 9, etc.].

John Alexander Mackay (1889-1983) born Inverness Aberdeen University Free Presbyterian student 1910-13 Free Church 1916 President of Princeton, etc. (DSCHT).

William Mackay (1865-1928) born Balintore Free Presbyterian student 1893 Glasgow University at Original Secession College 1896 gave up preaching through ill-health died 15th September 1928.

John Mackenzie (1880-1918) born July 1880, North Tolsta accepted as Free Presbyterian student 1914, took services killed 9th June 1918, (Ministers and Men of the Free Presbyterian Church).

Kenneth Mackenzie (1873 -1899) born Sand, Gairloch died 11th May 1899 (FPM, Vol. 4, pp. 148-151).

Donald Macleod, from Oban, student, Edinburgh 1900-1902 Oban 1903-5 (Ullapool November 1904—is this Rev. D.N. Macleod?).

John Macneilage (1858-1931) born Kilcreggan brother of Archibald Macneilage, editor of Free Church Monthly Record, (1906)-1917 printing and publishing in Glasgow between 1892 and 1908 including Free Presbyterian Magazine (1896-1905), Thomas Boston’s Memoirs (1899), Roderick MacCowan’s Men of Skye (1902), and Memoir of Rev. Donald Macdonald, Shieldaig (1903) architect and measurer Synod elder 1900 and 1904 Free Presbyterian student admitted to Free Church of Scotland as probationer, 21st May 1908 ordained and inducted Dunbeath and Berriedale 28th July 1908 Bower 1913 died 15th January 1931 (Free Church Fasti).

Duncan Matheson, received as irregular Free Presbyterian student 1931.

John Murray (1898-1975). Left Free Presbyterian Church 1930 (see DSCHT).

Kenneth Ross (1872-1939) born Strath, Gairloch student 1894 Church of Scotland 1900 minister of Bracadale 1904-1915 Sleat 1915- died 21st June 1939.

MF (James) Saki ( -1902) left before July 1900 (adopted Plymouth Brethren views).

John Peter Sinclair (1875-1933) born October 1875, Pultneytown, Wick Free Presbyterian student c.1903, November 1904 joined Free Church 1905 died 11th September 1933 (Free Church Fasti).

Thursday, September 6, 2018


On September 4, 2018, two hundred and fourteen years to the day Richard Somers died in the explosion of the USS Intrepid in Tripoli Harbor while fighting Barbary Pirates, the USS Somers Crewmembers Association dedicated a USS Somers Plaque at the US Naval Yard in Washington D.C.

Rear Admiral Frank Thorpe IV, President and Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. Navy Memorial addressed the attendees, along with Master of Ceremonies Retired Commander Mike Newell, a former Communications and Navigation Officer and later Supply Officer for the USS Somers (DDG34).

"It was an extraordinary event," said Bob Plante, administrator of the association, "certainly a time that will be remembered by all attendees."

The plaque depicts the four USS Somers of modern times that served during World War II and Vietnam - DD 301-1920-1930, DD-381 1937-1945, DD-947 1959-1966, DDG-34 1968-1982.

There were two nineteenth century sailing ships named USS Somers, and the Crewmembers Association is working hard to get the Navy to name a new ship after Richard Somers, of Somers Point, NJ, one of the first midshipmen in the US Navy. Somers never returned from Tripoli, where he perished in the explosion of the USS Intrepid in Tripoli Harbor on September 4, 1804. His remains are believed to be entombed in a crypt in Old Protestant Cemetery at Tripoli Harbor, despite repeated requests for his repatriation by the Somers family, the citizens of Somers Point, the New Jersey State Legislature, the VFW, American Legion, AM-Vets. The USS Somers Crewmembers Association have added their voice to the choir calling for the repatriation of Somers and the men of the Intrepid.

Congress had previously inserted a requirement for their repatriation in a Defense Authorization Act, but it was removed and replaced with an order for a study of the feasibility of repatriation by Senator John McCain. Ironically, the 2019 Defense Authorization Act is named in John McCain's honor and he passed away a few days before the dedication of the USS Somers Plaque.

When McCain was asked why he blocked the repatriation of Somers and the men of the Intrepid he said that he didn't know the reason, he was only following the orders of the Admirals and Generals and top brass who have opposed repatriation, for their own reasons.

It has been suggested that now that McCain is gone, the repatriation could happen, and that remains a possibility.

3. Awards

  • American Defense Service Medal with "A" device
  • Humanitarian Service Medal
  • China Service Medal
  • Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal
  • American Campaign Medal with one battle star
  • Philippine Presidential Unit Citation
  • Philippine Liberation Ribbon with one star
  • World War II Victory Medal
  • Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation
  • Coast Guard Special Operations Service Ribbon
  • Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three battle stars
  • Coast Guard Meritorious Unit Commendation – 2 awards
  • National Defense Service Medal with star
  • Vietnam Service Medal with three campaign stars
  • European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two battle stars
  • Coast Guard Unit Commendation - 2 awards with "O" device
  • Presidential Unit Citation – 2 awards
  • Coast Guard E Ribbon – 3 awards
  • Ohio Ingham surname USCGC Ingham WHEC - 35 a heavily decorated U.S. Coast Guard Cutter preserved as a memorial ship USRC Ingham 1832 U.S. Coast Guard
  • 1926. Later, he would command the USS Abel P. Upshur DD - 193 and USCGC Ingham WHEC - 35 During World War II, Spencer commanded the USS Bayfield APA - 33
  • USCGC Midgett WHEC - 726 USCGC Kukui WAK - 186 USCGC Bibb WPG - 31 USCGC Campbell WPG - 32 USCGC Duane WPG - 33 USCGC Hamilton WPG - 34 USCGC Ingham WHEC - 35
  • Reinforcements Destroyers: USS Babbitt DD - 128 HMS Vimy USCG Cutter: USCGC Ingham WHEC - 35 Raubgraf U - 84, U - 89, U - 91 U - 435 U - 468 U - 600, U - 603, U - 615, U - 621
  • USCGC Taney WPG WAGC WHEC - 37 ˈtɔːni is a United States Coast Guard High Endurance Cutter, notable as the last warship floating that fought in the
  • war, she was in commission as the Coast Guard cutter USCGC Dexter WAGC - 385 later WAVP - 385 and WHEC - 385, from 1946 to 1952 and from 1958 to 1968. Biscayne
  • coastal buoy tender WLM On 27 May 1988, after the decommissioning of USCGC Ingham Fir gained the distinction as the U.S. Coast Guard s oldest commissioned
  • USS Momsen DDG - 92 USCGC Mellon WHEC - 717 HMCS Yellowknife MM 706 HMCS Whitehorse MM 705 Ships inclueded: USS Mobile Bay CG - 53 USS Spruance DDG - 111 USCGC Active WMEC - 618
  • DERs and WHECs and fewer shallow draft assets were needed there. 19 September was a busy day for Division 11 in the Gulf of Thailand with USCGC Point Glover
  • USCGC Greenbrier WAGL - 214 USCGC Icarus WPC - 110 USCGC Ingham WHEC - 35 USCGC Tamaroa WMEC - 166 USCGC Taney WHEC - 37 USCGC Triton WPC - 116 USCGC
  • Protector - class Cutters, the USCGC Sea Fox WPB - 87374 USCGC Sea Devil WPB - 87368 USCGC Sea Dragon WPB - 87367 and USCGC Sea Dog WPB - 87373 The U.S


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Watch the video: Tour of the USS Constitution and USS Cassin Young at the Boston Navy Yard (November 2022).

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