Cartier Map - History

Cartier Map - History

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Jacques Cartier was born in Saint Malo, Brittany, France on December 31st, 1491. Little is known about Cartier's early years, but he would have belonged to a middle-class family, and Cartier's early education therefore would have likely been in mathematics, astronomy, and navigation as he was known in later life as a notable navigator. He became so well respected in the industry that men no less than the Bishop of Saint Malo and the Abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel introduced him to King Francis I of France. In 1520, Cartier upped his social status further when he married Mary Catherine des Granches.

King Francis I was interested in further explorations of North America's East Coast, and came to know of Cartier as being a good navigator. In April of 1534, the monarch commissioned Cartier to find a new sea route to Asia via North America, and hopefully bring back gold from the New World as well. In fact, the French King sent Cartier on three expeditions to North America for France. There were many obstacles and difficulties during these explorations, as Cartier lost some of his men during his voyages, and also lost settlers to Indian attacks. The harsh winter season was another factor that hindered some attempts by Cartier to further explore the new lands.

10 Surprising and Little-Known Facts About Cartier

Here are ten surprising facts about Cartier, the iconic brand’s legacy and the long list of family members who grew Cartier from its humble workshop in Paris to the global empire it is today.

1. Alfred Cartier was the first jeweler to successfully use platinum in jewelry-making.
Throughout the 19th century, platinum was an incredibly expensive material and was most commonly used by royalty for cutlery and watch-chains. Platinum’s high melting point made it incredibly difficult to work with, so it was an impressive feat when, in 1847, Alfred Cartier began using the brilliant and strong metal in his jewelry. Cartier incorporated it into his “Garland Style” pieces and to amplify the brilliance of diamonds.

2. Louis Cartier was the first designer to popularize the wristwatch for men.
After listening to his longtime friend and Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont lament about the difficulty of using a pocket watch to record flight times, Louis Cartier set about designing a more practical wristwatch. In 1904, Cartier debuted his first men’s wristwatch, the appropriately named “Santos” watch. At the time, it was a bold foray for the designer as society’s elite considered the pocket watch to the gentleman’s timepiece and women wore wristwatches. However Santos-Dumont’s fame and aeronautic achievements quickly spurred the popularity of the comfortable and functional wristwatch among men.

3. King Edward VII of England dubbed Louis Cartier the “Jeweler of Kings and King of Jewelers.”
Cartier’s celebrity client list included an impressive number of royals and aristocrats. Princess Mathilde, the niece of Napoleon I, made her first purchase from Cartier in 1856 and Napoleon III’s wife Empress Eugenie became a client in 1859. In the following years, Cartier would be appointed the official purveyor to King Edward VII (1904), King Carlos I of Portugal (1905), King Chulalongkorn of Siam (1908), King Peter I of Serbia (1913), King Fouad I of Egypt (1929), and King Zog I of Albania (1939).

4. J.P Morgan bought the first Cartier Mystery Clock for $3,200.
In 1913, Maurice Couet designed the first “mystery clock” for Cartier. These puzzling clocks featured seemingly floating hour and minute hands. The hands are in fact mounted to a transparent rock crystal but give the illusion the clock is running without gears. Cartier lavishly decorated these mechanical wonders with diamonds and gemstones and would sculpt the clock into a work of art. Financier J.P. Morgan purchased the first Cartier mystery clock, designed by Couet and shaped like a temple, in 1929. When it was put up for auction in 1993, it fetched over $1.5 million.

5. Pierre Cartier purchased the Cartier New York flagship not with millions of dollars but with a pearl necklace.
In 1914, Pierre Cartier had a stroke of real estate luck when one of his double-strand pearl necklaces caught the eye of millionaire Morton Plant’s second bride-to-be. Plant and his betrothed were eager to move out of the “commercialized” neighborhood where they lived on the posh corner of 5th Avenue and 52nd Street. Cartier meanwhile was keen to move in to the bustling playground of society’s upper crust. Plant and Cartier bartered a trade: Plant’s six-story apartment building plus $100 in exchange for the pearl necklace.

6. The iconic Love Bracelet’s design was inspired by medieval chastity belts.
Also Cipullo designed the Cartier Love Bracelet in 1969 and was inspired by the rather barbaric practice of chastity belts. According to folklore, chastity belts were a sort of underwear contraption designed to prevent the wearer from having sex and worn by women during the Crusades to preserve their faithfulness to their husbands who left to fight. Modern research however posits these were not a common practice and likely used in the 16th century.

But curiously enough, Cipullo drew inspiration from chastity belts, focusing on the symbolism of devotion and fidelity. His Love Bracelet design features a solid cuff with screws and a lock mechanism so it remains secure around your lover’s wrist. The bracelet comes with a screwdriver which is meant to be kept by your significant other so only they can open it.

7. New York City hospitals keep Love screw drivers handy.
According to a recent Vogue article, the Love bracelet is so popular, NYC hospitals stock Love screw drivers in their wards so they can remove the bracelet from patients’ wrists during an emergency.

8. For their iconic Panthere design, Cartier developed a unique and painstaking setting to create the texture of the panther’s fur.
Appropriately named the “fur” setting, diamonds are set into a honeycomb lattice made of tiny, hair-thin wires of gold. Onyx and sapphire are included as the panther’s spots.

9. The highest auction price for a Cartier jewel was $30,335,698.
Cartier’s Sunrise Ruby, a 25.6 carat Burmese ruby, was put on the Sotheby’s auction block in May 2015, with the winning bid of $30,335,698. The gem is now the most expensive ruby, the most expensive colored gemstone and the most expensive non-diamond gemstone in the world.

10. In May 2016, Cartier was ranked as the 58th most valuable brand in the world by Forbes magazine.
The brand is valued at an estimated $10.1 billion and boasts sales of $6.1 billion with 286 worldwide locations.
Now that you are a veritable expert in the brand, test your Cartier knowledge with our fun quiz How Well Do You Know Cartier here.

Cartier Map - History

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European contact and early exploration

At the beginning of the 9th century ce , seaborne Norse invaders pushed out of the Scandinavian Peninsula to Britain, Ireland, and northern Europe. In the mid-9th century a number of Norse craft reached Iceland, where a permanent settlement was established. Near the end of the 10th century the Norse reached Greenland and ventured to the coast of North America. At L’Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland are the remains of what are believed to be as many as three Norse settlements. According to available evidence, the Norse settlers and the Inuit (whom the Norse called Skraeling) initially fought each other but then established a regular trade relationship. The Norse settlements were soon abandoned, probably as the Norse withdrew from Greenland.

Europeans did not return to northern North America until the Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto, known in English as John Cabot, sailed from Bristol in 1497 under a commission from the English king to search for a short route to Asia (what became known as the Northwest Passage). In that voyage and in a voyage the following year, during which Cabot died, he and his sons explored the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland, and possibly Nova Scotia and discovered that the cold northwest Atlantic waters were teeming with fish. Soon Portuguese, Spanish, and French fishing crews braved the Atlantic crossing to fish in the waters of the Grand Banks. Some began to land on the coast of Newfoundland to dry their catch before returning to Europe. Despite Cabot’s explorations, the English paid little heed to the Atlantic fishery until 1583, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert laid claim to the lands around present-day St. John’s, probably as a base for an English fishery. The French also claimed parts of Newfoundland, primarily on the north and west coasts of the island, as bases for their own fishing endeavours. The fishery ushered in the initial period of contact between the First Nations and the Europeans. Although each was deeply suspicious of the other, a sporadic trade was conducted in scattered locations between the fishing crews and the First Nations, with the latter trading furs for iron and other manufactured goods.

Cartier Map - History

Jacques Cartier was a French explorer who was famous for exploring areas in what is now modern day Canada. This explorer embarked on three journeys in his lifetime to try and find a land full of gold, jewels, and other treasurers. There is lot to learn about this early explorer. Here, we will tell you more about Jacques Cartier, his voyages, and his discoveries:

1. On December 31, 1491, Cartier was born in Saint-Malo, a town located in Brittany, France. He would also die there in 1557.

2. Dieppe was the city where Cartier received his training on navigation.

3. Cartier was actually a skilled navigator, not so much a commissioned explorer. He was so good, however, that he was commissioned to help parties exploring the New World.

4. In 1524, Cartier was sent on a journey to explore the new world with French explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano. It was not until 3 years later when he would return to France.

5. Around 1534, Cartier set out on his first solo expedition journey. During this journey, he began to explore the St. Lawrence River in Canada and claimed parts of Canada on behalf of the French. This journey was meant to be one where Cartier looked for gold and riches on behalf of the French crown.

6. Just a year later (1535) Cartier went on his second expedition. In addition to riches, he was also looking for a passage through the continent to Asia.

7. This expedition saw Cartier explore more of the area around Mount Royal, the St. Lawrence Bay and St. Lawrence River. They also explored the area where modern day Quebec is located.

8. During the second expedition, Cartier and his group tried to stay in the Quebec area for the winter. They made friends with the local Iroquois tribe during this time and even returned to France in the spring with a few of them.

9. The Iroquois told the French king, King Francis, stories of a city full of treasures in the area.

10. Cartier then headed up another journey to establish a permanent colony. He thought he found gold and diamonds and promptly abandoned the settlement and settlers to go back to France. However, his treasures were not real. Cartier’s expeditions would not be funded anymore.

11. During this third journey, the local natives also turned on the French potential settlers.

12. It was around 50 years until France would again explore this area of the New World.

Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site

Jacques Cartier made three voyages to Canada. On April 20, 1534, accompanied by approximately 60 sailors who were to handle two ships of about 60 tonnes each, Cartier set sail from Saint-Malo. Crossing the Atlantic went smoothly after 20 days, he entered the Strait of Belle Isle. After following the north shore of the gulf of St. Lawrence for a time, he turned back, then headed south following the west coast of Newfoundland. Then, sailing toward the continent, he deduced the existence of the Cabot Street, skirted the Magdalen Islands, rounded the northern tip of Prince Edward Island, and put in at Chaleur Bay. Believing he had discovered the passage to Asia, he travelled to the head of the bay, but then had to backtrack. A storm drove him into the bay of Gaspé, where he met more than 300 people from Stadacona (Québec), who had come there to fish. Two Amerindians who were relatives (sons) of the chief Donnacona were made to embark on Cartier's ship they accompanied the explorer on the remainder of his exploration.

Following this, weather conditions prevented Cartier from making out the entrance to the St. Lawrence River between the Gaspé peninsula and Anticosti Island. After hunting along the north shore of this island, he finally found a passage, but was unable to travel further inland on account of strong winds and opposing tides. As winter was not far off, Cartier and his men decided to head the two ships back to France. A second voyage thus became a compelling necessity: the St. Lawrence River might be the northern passage so ardently hoped for.

Cartier Map - History

King's Highway 401 is the primary through route across Southern, Central and Eastern Ontario. Since the highway's completion in the late 1960s, Highway 401 has evolved from being a convenient bypass to a vital economic corridor. Today, the highway is used by millions of motorists to travel across the province quickly. It is also used by thousands of transport trucks every day, carrying goods to and from Ontario manufacturers and consumers. The economic activity generated by Highway 401 is immeasurable. This highway has contributed greatly to Ontario's prosperity in recent decades. One section of Highway 401 in Toronto between Weston Road and Highway 400 now carries over 420,000 vehicles on an average day, giving Highway 401 the distinction of being North America's busiest highway.

The need for a new east-west highway across Ontario was first recognized in the 1930s, when congestion started to become a problem in towns and cities along Highway 2. Before the days of Highway 401, all through traffic had to use Highway 2, which was a standard two-lane highway that passed right through every town along its route from Windsor to the Quebec Boundary. Planning for a new four-lane highway began before World War II, but the first section of the new highway was not completed until 1947. This new highway ran from West Hill in Scarborough Township to Oshawa and was known initially as Highway 2A. The route number was changed from Highway 2A to Highway 401 in 1952, when 400-series highway numbering was first introduced. The most important link in Highway 401 was the Toronto Bypass. This critical section of the new highway ran just to the north of the urbanized area of Toronto. The Toronto Bypass was completed in 1956 after several years of construction. It ran from Highway 27 to West Hill, located in Scarborough Township. The rest of Highway 401 was completed across Ontario in multiple phases, with the highest priority given to those sections where traffic congestion on neighbouring highways was a problem. The high priority sections included the Windsor to Tilbury section, the London to Woodstock section, the Milton to Toronto section, the Oshawa to Port Hope section, the Trenton to Belleville section and the Kingston to Gananoque section. The remaining phases of Highway 401 were completed later, during the 1960s. Eventually, a new four-lane highway had been completed from the Oshawa area easterly to the Quebec Boundary, and from Toronto southwesterly to Windsor. The final section of Highway 401 was completed between Gananoque and Brockville in 1968, completing an 818 km controlled-access freeway across the southern half of Ontario. The highway was officially rededicated as the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway in 1965, to commemorate two of Canada's Fathers of Confederation, Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir George Etienne Cartier. Special commemorative highway signs, like the example seen above, used to greet motorists at every entrance to the highway. After a decade of government cost-cutting, the blue signs were deemed to be expendable and were quickly phased out in the 1990s. The last Macdonald-Cartier Freeway sign was removed from Hwy 401 near Pearson International Airport in 2014.

Initially, the entire highway was four lanes, with two lanes for each direction of travel. By the late 1950s, congestion was becoming a serious problem on Highway 401 across Toronto. The Toronto Bypass was widened to a minimum of twelve lanes (six lanes per direction) from Islington Avenue to Neilson Road during the 1960s and early 1970s. This project included the introduction of a collector-express lane configuration, in order to separate local traffic from through traffic. With the new collector-express lane configuration, motorists could only enter or exit the highway from the collector lanes. There was no direct interchange access from the express lanes to intersecting roads, except at a handful of freeway interchanges. Motorists wishing to switch between the express and collector lanes could utilize one of the transfer roads. These transfer roads joined the collector and express lanes together at strategic intervals along Highway 401. In 1985, another multi-lane collector-express section of Highway 401 was completed between Highway 427 and Highway 403 in Mississauga, boasting eighteen though lanes (nine lanes for each direction). The most ambitious recent collector-express lane construction project on Highway 401 was between Neilson Road and Brock Road. This massive reconstruction project was completed in 1997 and provided a minimum of twelve lanes (six lanes in each direction) along Highway 401 between Scarborough and Pickering. An extension of the collector-express lanes in Mississauga through the Hurontario Street Interchange began in 2009 and was officially commissioned on October 30, 2013. The widening of Highway 401 from Hurontario Street to the Credit River began in mid-2016 and is scheduled for completion in 2020. The extension of the collector-express lanes from the Credit River westerly to Winston Churchill Boulevard and from Highway 407 to Milton is now in the construction phase, with some preliminary work underway as of July, 2019. More significant construction work began along this 18 km section towards the end of 2019. This $640-million highway expansion is being undertaken as a Public-Private Partnership between the province and the private sector (West Corridor Constructors). Expansion of Highway 401 between Highway 25 in Milton and the Credit River is scheduled for completion in 2022.

Many other sections of Highway 401 have been widened to six lanes since the 1970s. The entire route of Highway 401 from the western end of Mississauga to Kitchener was widened to six lanes during the 1980s and early 1990s. The highway was also widened to six lanes from London to Woodstock during the early 1990s and from Kitchener to Highway 97 (Cedar Creek Road) between 2000 and 2003. Highway 401 was widened to six lanes through Ajax, Whitby, Oshawa and Bowmanville in the 1970s and early 1980s. Since 2004, Highway 401 from Windsor to Tilbury have been widened to six lanes. The Ministry of Transportation (MTO) completed reconstruction and widening of the last remaining four-lane section of Highway 401 in the Windsor area to six lanes in 2010. The MTO also completed the widening of the final four-lane section of Highway 401 from Woodstock to Highway 97 (Cedar Creek Road) in early 2011. The existing six-lane section of Highway 401 between the Highway 8 Interchange and Highway 24 Interchange in Cambridge is now scheduled for widening to ten lanes. This project began in 2015 and is tentatively scheduled for completion by the end of 2018. Since the late 1990s, Highway 401 has been widened to six lanes from the Highway 35 & Highway 115 Interchange near Bowmanville to the Burnham Street Interchange in Cobourg. Widening of Highway 401 from four to six lanes from Burnham Street to beyond Nagle Road near Cobourg began in 2015 and be completed by late 2017. Widening of the Kingston Bypass to six lanes began in 2005 and was completed between Highway 38 and Montreal Street in 2012. Widening of the last section of the Kingston Bypass, from Montreal Street to the Highway 15 Interchange, is expected to be completed by 2016. Improvements have also been made to the section of Highway 401 from Brock Road in Pickering to Salem Road in Ajax, where a total of ten through lanes (5 per direction) have been provided.

In January 2005, the Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC) study team embarked on a multi-year study to investigate potential border crossing improvement options between Windsor and Detroit. The study sought to address the capacity problems associated with the two existing crossings at the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel. Until recently, all traffic from Highway 401 was deposited onto municipally-maintained surface streets (specifically Huron Church Road and Dougall Avenue) about 11 km south of the two existing crossings. Serious traffic congestion occurred on the streets approaching the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, as through traffic mixed with local city traffic. Studies have been done to investigate different construction options, including the improvements of the two existing crossings. On May 1, 2008, the DRIC study team announced that a preferred alternative had been selected. Plans for the new Windsor-Essex Parkway were unveiled. This new 11 km freeway was essentially a westerly extension of Highway 401.

Environmental assessment approvals were received in 2009 and the property acquisition phase began shortly thereafter. The construction contracts for the first phase of the Windsor-Essex Parkway got underway in December 2009. The new Windsor-Essex Parkway began where Highway 401 previously ended at the Highway 3 Interchange in Windsor. The new freeway then proceeded to the site of a proposed new international bridge between LaSalle and the current Ambassador Bridge. The Windsor-Essex Parkway was constructed as a six-lane fully controlled access freeway, with interchanges at all major crossing roads. Most of the Windsor-Essex Parkway will be built below-grade. A series of 11 tunnels, totalling 1.8 km in length, were built so that international traffic would not interfere with local traffic and pedestrian movements. The Windsor-Essex Parkway generally followed the route of Talbot Road and Huron Church Road from the current terminus of Highway 401 to the E.C. Row Expressway, where the new Parkway diverged from Huron Church Road and headed due west towards the proposed international bridge site near LaSalle. The diversion of truck traffic onto the new Windsor-Essex Parkway resulted in a more pleasant environment along local Windsor streets, which have long been overburdened with international traffic. On November 28, 2012, the Ontario Government announced that the Windsor-Essex Parkway would be dedicated to the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray, a well-known and long-serving member of parliament representing the Windsor area. Since 2012, the Windsor-Essex Parkway has been officially known as the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway. This parkway is essentially an extension of Highway 401. The easternmost 8 km of the highway between Highway 3 and the E.C. Row Expressway officially opened to traffic on June 29, 2015, while the balance of the 11 km highway from the E.C. Row Expressway to the proposed international bridge site opened to traffic on November 21, 2015. This event was be historically significant, as it marked the true completion of Ontario's famous transprovincial freeway, Highway 401. The Windsor Extension of Highway 401 cost $1.4 billion over four years and created 12,000 construction jobs. The last time a new section of Highway 401 opened was in the Brockville area in October, 1968.

On August 24, 2007, Transportation Minister Donna Cansfield announced that Highway 401 from Trenton to Toronto would be dedicated as the "Highway of Heroes". The intent of this new designation is to commemorate Canada's fallen soldiers who died while serving in Afghanistan. This section of Highway 401 has witnessed several repatriation ceremonies over the years and it is hoped that the new highway designation will encourage Canadians to reflect upon the sacrifices that our Armed Forces have made while serving in Afghanistan. New highway signs bearing a large red poppy and the commemorative Highway of Heroes designation were installed along Highway 401 between Toronto and Trenton in September, 2007. The Highway of Heroes designation was extended westerly from its previous western terminus at the Highway 404 & Don Valley Parkway Interchange to the Keele Street Interchange on September 18, 2013. The extension of the highway designation was a result of the relocation of the Forensic Sciences Centre from Downtown Toronto to the Downsview Government Complex.

There are 19 Service Centres located along Highway 401. These centres are open 24 hours a day and offer motorists convenient access to fuel, restaurants and picnic areas. The centres are located about every 80 km (50 miles) except through the Greater Toronto Area, where services are generally available at almost every interchange. The posted speed limit on Highway 401 is 100 km/h (60 mph). Exits along Highway 401 are numbered based on their distance from the Ambassador Bridge in Windsor. Approximate distances along the highway can therefore be calculated by subtracting one exit number from another. For example, the distance from Highway 404 (Exit 375) to Highway 37 (Exit 544) is 169 km (544 - 375 = 169). Please visit the Highway 401 Mileage Chart page for a list of interchange numbers along Highway 401.

Image gallery

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the garden, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2009-2010

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the garden, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2009-2010

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2013

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the building under snow, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2010-2011

© Jean Nouvel, Emmanuel Cattani & Associés

View of the exhibition Vivid Memories, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, Paris, 2014

Key Facts & Information


  • Jacques Cartier was born on or around December 31, 1491 (one year before Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue) in Saint Malo in the medieval state of Brittany.
  • His early life was poorly documented, but it is known that he was employed in business and navigation from a young age.
  • After marrying Mary Catherine des Granches (the daughter of a knight of Saint Malo), his social status improved, as did his opportunities.
  • It is speculated (but not known) that Cartier took part in Giovanni da Verrazzano’s expeditions in 1524 and 1528, and that he had some knowledge of navigation and of the sea.


  • On March 19, 1534, Cartier was tasked with sailing to the “New Lands” to discover islands and countries where gold and other riches were said to have been.
  • Other accounts allude to the idea that Cartier was tasked with finding a route to Asia, as opposed to just finding gold and riches.
  • The next day, he and his crew of 61 sailed off towards the “New Lands” and reached Newfoundland in early April of 1534, apparently as a result of good weather.
  • According to accounts, Cartier had already been familiar with the coast of “Newfoundland”.
  • His exploration began in an area called the Strait of Belle Isle to southern Newfoundland.
  • He was not fond of the “land God gave to Cain” (the northern coast of Newfoundland), as he found it had no quality, fertile land.
  • It was here, on the 12th or 13th of June, that he saw indigenous people who had come from inland to hunt the seals.
  • After skirting around the coast of Newfoundland, he entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence by the Strait of Belle Isle and travelled south.
  • Once he reached what is known today as the “Cabot Strait”, he turned westward.
  • He came across islands that looked fertile compared to Newfoundland, and set up a cross he then moved on to Île Brion and the Îles de la Madeleine.
  • By 29 June he saw what is now known as Prince Edward Island, but didn’t realize it was an island. He also came across New Brunswick.
  • He is credited with being the first explorer to have sailed through and mapped the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
  • On July 24, 1534, he planted a cross in the name of France, and took possession of the land.
  • Before leaving for France, Cartier captured two Iroquoians in exchange for bringing back European goods on his new voyage.
  • The two Iroquoians were the sons of the Iroquoian chief named Donnacona.
  • In May of the following year, he returned with more crew members and resumed his quest of the lands.
  • After reaching St.Lawrence, he sailed up river and stopped, as he was blocked by rapids.
  • Realizing it was too late to return to France, Cartier buckled down for the winter, and dealt with scurvy until they were given “spruce beer” to cure them.


  • After returning to France with Donnacona in tow, he was informed that King Francis I wanted Cartier to go back to Canada to help with a colonization project.
  • On May 23, 1541, Cartier departed, with the intent to find the “Kingdom of Saguenay”, which was supposed to hold riches and gold.
  • Upon landing at Cap-Rouge, Quebec, they prepared to stay by planting gardens, releasing the livestock they had brought over, and building permanent forts and settlements.
  • As the Frenchmen were settling in, Cartier noticed the Iroquoians becoming more secretive, and not coming around to visit and trade.
  • He realized that their trust was decreasing, and that the French needed to increase their defenses.
  • At the port of St. John’s, Cartier ran into Roberval (who was sent to settle Canada and spread the “Holy Catholic faith”).
  • Roberval ordered them to leave.
  • Cartier sneakily headed back to France in the middle of the night, which he was likely reprimanded for, as he didn’t make any long- range expeditions after that.


  • Cartier has been hailed by the French in Canada as the discoverer of Canada (although this is up for debate by historians).
  • Cartier is credited with producing a helpful estimate of the resources available in Canada (both natural and human).
  • He was the first person to document the name “Canada”.
  • He was the first European to land on the continent.

Jacques Cartier Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Jacques Cartier across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Jacques Cartier worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about Jacques Cartier who was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named “The Country of Canadas”, after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island).

Complete List Of Included Worksheets

  • Mapping His Route
  • Jacques Cartier Crossword
  • Fact or Myth?
  • The Charlesbourg-Royal
  • Cartier Coloring Page
  • Diary from Canada
  • Cartier Acrostic
  • Jacques Cartier Wordsearch
  • Cartier: Discoverer of Canada?
  • Design a Postage Stamp

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Use With Any Curriculum

These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.

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