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Willard, Emma Hart - History

Willard, Emma Hart - History



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Willard, Emma Hart (1787-1870) Educator: Born on February 23, 1787, in Berlin, Connecticut, Emma Hart was the ninth of ten children to her parents. An extraordinarily bright and curious young lady, she received a broad education from her father. In 1807, she became the principal of an all-girls' academy in Middlebury, Vermont. In 1809, she married John Willard, a progressive gentleman who supported his wife in her efforts, including her founding of a boarding school in 1814. She addressed the New York State legislature in 1819, requesting educational equality for women and state aid for the founding of girls' schools. The legislature rejected her proposals , but Governor De Witt Clinton supported her ideas. He invited her to move her school to Waterford, New York. She did so in 1821, renaming the school the Troy Female Seminary (now the Emma Willard School). Willard wrote many textbooks, which were widely used, and a book of poetry. In 1854, she joined educator Henry Barnard in representing the United States at the 1854 World's Educational Convention in London. Willard died in Troy, New York, on April 15, 1870.

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Sootchy Celebrates: Emma Hart Willard

Willard fought for women to have an education in subjects like math and philosophy instead of the ones taught at finishing school. In 1821, she founded Troy Female Seminary, the first school in the US to offer higher education to women.

As Women's History Month continues, we're proud to spotlight some of the amazing contributions to education that women have made in our country. Emma Willard fought for women to have an education in subjects like math and philosophy instead of the ones taught at finishing school. In 1821, she founded Troy Female Seminary, the first school in the US to offer higher education to women.


Emma Willard School's curriculum allows girls to focus their future aspirations, and equips them with the interdisciplinary knowledge competitive colleges are looking for. 

Our academic program offers more than 140 courses, including Advanced Placement options, where girls engage in discourse that brings context to high-level concepts and understanding of the world we live in. Personalized study programs enable girls to dive deep into a topic or field of their choosing, and gain hands-on experience.


Emma Willard

Emma Willard (February 23, 1787 – April 15, 1870) was an American women's rights advocate and the pioneer who founded the first women's school of higher education.

Emma Willard was born in Berlin, Connecticut, the sixteenth of her father's seventeen children and the ninth of her mother's ten children, of Samuel Hart and his second wife, Lydia Hinsdale Hart.

She attended a district school at Worthington Point. Emma started teaching at the age of 17 and shortly after turning 20, received job offers from Westfield, Massachusetts, Middlebury, Vermont, and Hudson, New York. She accepted the offer from Vermont and moved there. In 1809 she married Dr. John Willard then age 50. Willard brought 4 children from earlier marriages to their marriage. Her husband's nephew, another John Willard, lived with them while attending nearby Middlebury College.

In 1814, she opened the Middlebury Female Seminary in her home. After moving to New York she opened the Waterford Academy in 1819 in Waterford, New York, but it was closed in 1821 due to a lack of continued funding by its citizens and administration.

When Emma Willard addressed the New York legislature in 1819 on the subject of education for women, she was contradicting the statement made just the year before by Thomas Jefferson (in a letter) in which he suggested women should not read novels "as a mass of trash" with few exceptions. "For like reason, too, much poetry should not be indulged." Emma Willard told the legislature that the education of women "has been too exclusively directed to fit them for displaying to advantage the charms of youth and beauty". The problem, she said, was that "the taste of men, whatever it might happen to be, has been made into a standard for the formation of the female character." Reason and religion teach us, she said, that "we too are primary existences. not the satelites of men."

In September 1821, Willard founded the Troy Female Seminary, the first recognized institution for the education of girls, in Troy, New York. Afterward, renamed the Emma Willard School, it was notably prosperous and successful.

Mrs. Willard's husband died in 1825, but she continued to manage the institution until 1838, when she placed it in the hands of her son and her daughter-in-law. In 1830, she made a tour of Europe, and three years later published the proceeds from the sale of the book she gave to a school for women that she helped to found in Athens, Greece.

She married Dr. Christopher Yates in 1838 and moved with him to Boston. He gave up his career, and after nine months of marriage they separated and a Decree nisi was granted in 1843.

She was a free woman at the age of 60 years and continued her writing. On 15 April 1870 she died in Troy, New York and was interred at Oakwood Cemetery.

Her works include The Woodbridge and Willard Geographies and Atlases (1823), which she wrote with the American geographer William Channing Woodbridge History of the United States (1828) Universal History in Perspective (1837) Treatise on the Circulation of the Blood (1846) and Last Leaves of American History (1849).

With Woodbridge she co-authored A System of Universal Geography on the Principles of Comparison and Classification.[3] She has been the subject of several biographies. Her Geographies are discussed by Calhoun and her histories by Baym. A statue honoring her services to the cause of higher education was erected in Troy in 1895. An Emma Willard Memorial was erected in Middlebury, Vermont in 1941.

In 1905, Willard was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans in the Bronx, New York and the National Women's Hall of Fame

History of New Britain:with Sketches of Farmington and Berlin, Connecticut 1640-1889 Page 463-465

Emma Hart Willard (February 23, 1787 – April 15, 1870) was an American women's rights activist who dedicated her life to education. She worked in several schools and founded the first school for women's higher education, the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York. With the success of her school, Willard was able to travel across the country and abroad, to promote education for women. The Troy Female Seminary was renamed the Emma Willard School in 1895 in her honor.

Emma Willard was born on February 23, 1787, in Berlin, Connecticut.[1] She was the sixteenth of seventeen children from her father, Samuel Hart, and his second wife Lydia Hinsdale Hart.[2] Her father was a farmer who encouraged his children to read and think for themselves. At a young age, Willard's father recognized her passion for learning. At that time women were only provided basic education. However, Willard was included in family discussions such as politics, philosophy, world politics and mathematics that were primarily male subjects.[3] At age 15, Willard was enrolled in her first school in 1802 in her hometown of Berlin. She progressed so quickly that just two years later at the age of 17 she was teaching there. Willard eventually took charge of the academy for a term in 1806.[4]

In 1807, Willard left Berlin and briefly worked in Westfield, Massachusetts, before accepting a job offer at a female academy in Middlebury, Vermont. She held the position of principal at the Middlebury Female Seminary from 1807 to 1809.[5] However, she was unimpressed by the material taught there and opened a boarding school for women in 1814, in her own home. She was inspired by the subjects her nephew, John Willard, was learning at Middlebury College and strived to improve the curriculum that was taught at girls' schools.[4] Willard believed that women could master topics like mathematics and philosophy rather than just subjects taught at finishing schools. This passion for women's education led her to fight for the first women's school for higher education.

Her success inspired her to share her ideas on education and to write A Plan for Improving Female Education in 1819, a pamphlet that she presented to the members of the New York Legislature. Her plan included a proposal for a women's seminary to be publicly funded just as men's schools were.[3] Willard did not receive a response from the legislators, who believed women's education to be contrary to God's will. Willard finally received support from New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, who invited her to open a school there.[4] Originally Willard opened an institution in Waterford, New York but she did not receive the promised financial support and therefore moved her school to Troy, New York, where she received more support and funding.[6] The Troy Female Seminary opened in September 1821, for boarding and day students.[1] This was the first school in the United States to offer higher education for women. The curriculum consisted of the subjects she had longed to include in women's education: mathematics, philosophy, geography, history, and science.[3] Willard led the school to success, and in 1831, the school had enrolled over 300 students.[2] The school attracted students from wealthy families or families of high position. Although most of the students would still end up as housewives, Willard never hindered her students' pursuit towards women's education and continued to fight for their rights. Despite her reputation today in women's history, Willard was not a supporter of the women's suffrage movement during the mid-19th century. Willard believed that women's education was a much more important matter.[2]

When Emma Willard addressed the New York State Legislature in 1819, the year before, for example, Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter in which he suggested women should not read novels "as a mass of trash" with few exceptions. "For like reason, too, much poetry should not be indulged." Emma Willard told the legislature that the education of women "has been too exclusively directed to fit them for displaying to advantage the charms of youth and beauty". The problem, she said, was that "the taste of men, whatever it might happen to be, has been made into a standard for the formation of the female character." Reason and religion teach us, she said, that "we too are primary existences. not the satellites of men."

While working at the academy in Middlebury, Vermont, Willard met her future husband John Willard. He was a physician and 28 years her senior.[2] John Willard brought four children to the marriage from his previous marriages. His nephew, also named John Willard, lived with them while attending Middlebury College, which gave Emma Willard much inspiration in forming her educational views. The couple had one son together named John Willard Hart, who received the management of the Troy Female Seminary when Willard left it in 1838. Her first husband died in 1825, and in 1838, she married Christopher C. Yates, but was divorced from him in 1843.[7]

Along with the profits made from the Troy Female Seminary, Willard also made a living from her writing. She wrote several textbooks throughout her lifetime, including books on history and geography. Some of her works are History of the United States, or Republic of America (1828), A System of Fulfillment of a Promise (1831), A Treatise on the Motive Powers which Produce the Circulation of the Blood (1846), Guide to the Temple of Time and Universal History for Schools (1849), Last Leaves of American History (1849), Astronography or Astronomical Geography (1854), and Morals for the Young (1857).[2] Willard also published a book of poetry, The Fulfilment of a Promise (1831) with her most popular poem entitled "Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep," which she reportedly wrote while on an ocean voyage in 1839.[4] [8] In 1830, she made a tour of Europe. Three years later, the proceeds from her book about her travels[9] she gave to a school for women that she helped to found in Athens, Greece.

Works with other authors Willard cowrote The Woodbridge and Willard Geographies and Atlases (1823), with American geographer William Channing Woodbridge[10] Also with Woodbridge she co-authored A System of Universal Geography on the Principles of Comparison and Classification.[11] She has been the subject of several biographies.[12] Her Geographies are discussed by Calhoun[13] and her histories by Baym.[14]

Later life John Willard, Emma's husband, died in 1825. She headed the Troy Female Seminary until she remarried in 1838, and left the school in the hands of her son and daughter-in-law. She married Dr. Christopher Yates and moved to Boston with him.[1] He gave up his career, and after nine months of marriage they separated and a Decree nisi was granted in 1843. She spent her later years traveling across America and throughout Europe to promote women's education. In support of her efforts she published a number of articles and presented lectures across the country to promote the cause. Her efforts helped to establish a school for women in Athens, Greece.[3] Emma Willard died on April 15, 1870, in Troy, New York and was interred at Oakwood Cemetery.

The Troy Female Seminary was renamed the Emma Willard School in 1895, in her honor and today is still promoting her strong belief in women's education.[1] A statue honoring her services to the cause of higher education was erected in Troy in 1895. An Emma Willard Memorial was erected in Middlebury, Vermont in 1941. In 1905, Willard was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans in the Bronx, New York.


Women 's Rights Convention ( Seneca Falls )

What impacts have women’s rights have had then and now? Women’s rights convention (Seneca Falls) has not only impacted women’s laws and rights but has also allowed women to take a stand in pursuing success for women’s lives. Back in the 1848 many women were disenfranchised because they had no rights. The world was very sexist. Only men has all the power. Many women decided to change this. What impact have women’s lives have had then and now? The women’s rights convention (Seneca Falls) has not only


Universal History in Perspective

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Willard, Emma Hart - History

Schoolchildren may not fully appreciate the opportunity to receive an education, but it wasn't so long ago that instruction in the arts and sciences was reserved for a privileged few. Fortunately, concerned educators have worked to provide schools for all children and to develop the most effective teaching methods possible. Here, we feature two such reformers: Emma Willard and John Dewey.

Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870)

The sixteenth of seventeen children, Emma Hart Willard grew up on a Connecticut farm in an age that generally thought most females incapable of absorbing much formal learning beyond the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Her father, however, did not take that view, and while she was taught the domestic arts that were to prepare her for future duties as a wife, in addition her father often made time with her to discuss abstract ideas such as philosophy and to encourage her pursuit of learning. Emma responded eagerly to this encouragement and in 1802 enrolled in the Berlin Academy. Within two years, she was teaching the school's younger pupils, and in 1806, she took over the task of running the entire academy for a term.

Soon after accepting a teaching position in Middlebury, Vermont, she met her future husband, physician John Willard. As was the custom, she abandoned her career in order to fulfill her domestic duties. However, the thought of educational discrimination against girls continued to bother her, and in 1814 Willard opened the Middlebury Female Seminary in her own home. The term "seminary" implied advanced learning in classics, arts, and sciences--a curriculum traditionally reserved for males. To prepare herself to teach these subjects, she tried to take classes at Middlebury College. Not surprisingly, the college denied her entrance because of her sex. Instead, she was forced to remedy the situation through a combination of self-instruction and tutelage from sympathetic friends. This stopgap measure proved adequate, and her seminary was soon offering ample demonstration that girls could meet the challenges of a rigorous academic program.

In 1819, Willard saw an opportunity to open her own school in Waterford, New York. Hoping to earn state financial support for the venture, she published An Address to the Public Particularly to the Members of the Legislature of New-York, Proposing a Plan for Improving Female Education, which described the benefits to society of better education for women. The pamphlet's well-stated arguments eventually exercised considerable influence in raising standards in female education. It did not, however, win state funding. Instead, the town of Troy, New York, provided the money, and in 1821, Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary, a private secondary school for girls. This institution, the first of its kind in the United States, continues today as the Emma Willard School.

Willard never advocated a radical alteration of women's role in society, but she did insist that girls were intellectually just as capable as boys. Along with the traditional academic subjects, a student at the Troy Female Seminary learned the art of being a "lady." Indeed, Willard was well known for her impeccable grace and style, which she imparted to a whole generation of America's elite young women. More importantly, Willard proved the ability of women to learn and teach. Graduates of the school were in high demand to staff the growing number of public schools for both girls and boys. By the end of her life, Willard could take satisfaction in an educational system that, thanks in part to her own efforts, included many more opportunities for women as both students and teachers.

John Dewey (1859-1952)

John Dewey was not only an influential philosopher and a respected experimental psychologist, but he was an educator and a social reformer as well. The son of a grocer, he attended public schools in his hometown of Burlington, Vermont. Later he graduated from the University of Vermont and taught school in rural Pennsylvania. Perhaps it was these origins that prompted Dewey's faith in the common man. Though he went on to spend his professional life in the elite circles of America's finest universities, he never lost sight of the needs and potential of ordinary citizens.

Dewey's philosophy was largely a reaction to the rising importance of science during the late nineteenth century. How, Dewey wondered, could the scientific method be applied to shaping individual and social behavior? For him, the answer lay in a process of enlightened inquiry, in which men and women engaged in experimentation and evaluation to determine the best course of action. Not only could individuals use the process to benefit their own lives, but whole nations could do the same through democratic participation. Thus, rather than reacting passively to the environment, both individuals and nations could assert a measure of control over their destinies by making informed choices.

The key, Dewey felt, was to train people from childhood in the art of rational deliberation. At the time, traditional schooling relied on rote memorization, strict discipline, and a minimum of student input. Dewey envisioned a student-centered environment, in which teachers adapted their curriculum to the needs and abilities of each child. The object was to help children use knowledge and experience to solve a wide variety of problems, not just achieve a mere absorption of facts and information. By taking advantage of the controlled atmosphere of the classroom, teachers could prepare students to grapple with the complexities of the real world.

Dewey published his philosophy in numerous writings, including The School and Society (1899), The Child and the Curriculum (1902), and Democracy and Education (1916). In addition, his ideas were put into practice at the Dewey School, now known as the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, founded and run by Dewey from 1896 to 1904. Still in existence today, the Lab School served as a testing ground for the latest theories of pedagogy and child psychology. Dewey's work perfectly captured the scientific spirit of the age, and progressive reformers quickly adopted his ideas in classrooms across the country. Eventually the progressive education movement would be harshly criticized for pampering children at the expense of academic performance, and even Dewey disapproved of its excesses. Nevertheless, many of Dewey's ideas have persisted in classrooms and schools around the world. More important, his philosophy has been the inspiration for many who hoped for rational, democratic solutions to the great social challenges of the twentieth century.


Troy Female Seminary aka Emma Willard School

Troy Female Seminary, located in Troy, New York, was founded by Emma Hart Willard in 1821, with the stated goal of offering women the same educational opportunities in history, mathematics, and science as college-educated men. The seminary was renamed the Emma Willard School in 1892 and continues today as a leading all-girls college-preparatory day and boarding school. Troy Female Seminary is generally regarded as the first institution of higher education for women in the United States, predating public high school for girls, women's colleges, and ultimately coeducation universities. At the time of its founding, educational opportunities for women were generally limited to "finishing schools." Willard felt that while it was fine to "decorate the blossom," serious cares were also needed to "perfect the fruit." Willard promoted her rationale and plan for women's higher education in 1819 with the publication of An Address to the Public Particularly to the Members of the Legislature of New York, Proposing a Plan for Improving Female Education. Her vision resonated with the City of Troy, which provided financial support for the establishment of her seminary. Troy Female Seminary opened in 1821 with 90 students from across the country, and within a decade it educated a student body of over 300. It speaks to the value placed on female education by Daniel and Elizabeth Huntington that their daughter Elizabeth is listed in Emma Willard and Her Pupils or Fifty Years of Troy Female Seminary 1822-1872 as one of the schools 90 entering students. Their daughters Bethia and Mary also attended the seminary, and references to the school are found throughout the family correspondence. For example, in a letter dated June 28, 1832, Mary writes to her sister Bethia (a Troy Female Seminary alum) regarding "reviewing for examination" so she "shall not dread [her] French recitations" and discussing with Mrs. Willard the opportunity to "take lessons upon the guitar." Emma Hart Willard’s sister , Almira Hart Lincoln , married John Phelps in 1831 , thus the Huntington ’s had a sense of family connection to the school. Joining the Huntington sisters are many other notable alumni, including the abolitionist and women's rights activist Elizabeth Stanton (1815-1902) and the Academy Award-winning actress Jane Fonda.


Emma Hart Willard: Leader in Women’s Education

Emma Hart Willard was born (the 16th of 17 children) to Samuel and Lydia Hart on February 23, 1787, in Berlin, Connecticut. She went on to rise to international fame as a leader in women’s education and proponent of the co-educational system.

Willard’s father, supporting his daughter’s interest in education, enrolled her in school in Berlin at age 15. She progressed so quickly that by the age of 17 she was teaching. After finishing her education in Berlin, she left for Vermont. From 1807 to 1809, Willard served as the principal at the Middlebury Female Seminary in Middlebury, Vermont. She met her future husband, John Willard, at the seminary, and despite his being 28 years her senior, they married. John already had four children, and Emma soon gave birth to a son, John Hart Willard.

While caring for her children at home Emma Hart Willard began reading college books given to her by her nephew, John Willard. The textbooks furthered her interests in institutionalized education for women and Willard eventually founded the Middlebury Seminary Academy in her home. Willard’s curriculum included mathematics and history, subjects typically not taught to women, and her high academic standards not only created new opportunities for women by fostering the growth of co-educational schools, but also helped further the improvement of educational curricula in general.

Her educational achievements caught the attention of such renowned political leaders as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe, who leant support to her educational reforms. In 1819, she wrote a proposal to the New York State legislature entitled, “A Plan for Improving Female Education,” intended to promote improvement to women’s education. Most of the legislators did not agree with Willard’s vision of women’s education, however, but governor Dewitt Clinton did. Support from the town of Troy then led to the town raising taxes to fund Willard’s educational endeavors. The town of Troy eventually raised $4,000 to start the Troy Seminary School in September of 1821, opening its doors to 90 female students.

Despite Willard’s efforts, only the daughters of the wealthy attended Troy Seminary, as the cost of tuition proved beyond the means of a typical middle-class working family. In 1838, Willard’s son and daughter-in-law took over operations at the school.

Emma Willard as Author

In addition to being an educator and reformer, Willard was also a prolific writer whose publications greatly increased her influence. She believed in establishing her own guidelines for better education for women, and her book proceeds helped improve female education throughout the world. In 1833, she published Journal and Letters from France and Great Britain, focusing on the mediocrity of schools for women in France compared to those found in the United States. Profits from that book established a women’s seminary school in Greece.

In 1849, Willard penned Guide to the Temple of Time and Universal History for Schools. In the same year, she published Last Leaves of American History. As a result these and many other accomplishments, she ended up representing the United States at the World’s Educational Convention in 1854 where she shared her knowledge of the co-educational system and its proposed benefits to both women and men.

Willard’s passion for education reform continued right up until her death at her home in Rensselaer County, New York, on April 15, 1870. She received a burial at Oakwood Cemetery in Troy, New York.

Anthony Vinci is a student at Central Connecticut State University majoring in history with a minor in public history. He currently works for the Central Connecticut State University TRiO Program and is interning at the Central Connecticut State University Veterans History Project. After graduation, he intends to pursue a master’s in public history at Central Connecticut State University.


19C American Women in a New Nation

Brooks, Maria Gowen. Judith, Esther, and Other Poems.

Cheney, Harriet Vaughan Foster. The Sunday School, or Village Sketches.

Huntington, Susan Mansfield. Little Lucy, or, The Careless Child Reformed.

Robbins, Eliza. American Popular Lessons.

Savage, Sarah. Filial Affection, orThe Clergyman's granddaughter.

Savage, Sarah. James Talbot.

Thayer, Caroline Matilda Warren. Letter to Members of the Methodist Episcipal Church of the City of New York.
_____, compiler. Muzzy, Harriet. Poems, Moral and Sentimental [includes poems by Thayer].
Willard, Emma Hart and William C. Woodbridge. Rudiments of Geography, on a new plan.

Rowson, Susanna Haswell. Biblical Dialogues Between a Father and His Family.

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. Mary Hollis.

Sigourney, Lydia Howard Huntley. Traits of the Aborigines of America.

Willard, Emma Hart and William C. Woodbridge. Ancient Geography.

Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. The Genius of Oblivion and Other Original Poems.

Morton, Sarah Wentworth Apthorp. My Mind and Its Thoughts in Sketches, Fragments, and Essays.

Rowson, Susanna Haswell. "America and Liberty" [song].
_____. "America, Commerce and Freedom" [song].
Savage, Sarah. Advice to a young woman at service.

Thayer, Caroline Matilda Warren. First Lessons in the History of the U.S.

Adams, Hannah. Letters on the Gospels.

Cheney, Harriet Vaughan Foster. A Peep at the Pilgrims.

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. Hobomok.

_____. Evenings in New England.

Cushing, Eliza Lanesford Foster. Saratoga: A Tale of the Revolution.

Dix, Dorothea Lynde. Conversations on Common Things.

Livermore, Harriet. Scriptural evidence in favor of female testimony in meetings for Christian worship in letters to a friend.

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. Redwood.

Sigourney, Lydia Howard Huntley. Sketch of Connecticut, Forty Years Since.

Smith, Margaret Bayard. A Winter in Washington.

Willard, Emma Hart and William C. Woodbridge. Universal Geography.

Brooks, Maria Gowen. Zophiel, a Poem.

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. The Rebels.

Dix, Dorothea Lynde. Hymns for Children.

Evans, Sarah Ann. Resignation: an American Novel.

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. The Travellers.

Cushing, Eliza Lanesford Foster. Yorktown: An Historical Romance.

Livermore, Harriet. An epistle of love, addressed to the youth and children of Germantown, Pa.

_____. A narration of religious experience.

Royall, Anne Newport. Sketches of History.

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. The Deformed Boy.

Smith, Sarah Pogson. Daughters of Eve.

Willard, Emma Hart. Geography for Beginners.

Cheney, Harriet Vaughan Foster. The Rivals of Acadia.

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. Emily Parker, or Impulse, not Principle.

Dix, Dorothea Lynde. John Williams, or The Sailor Boy.

_____. The Prize: or Three Half Crowns.

Follen, Eliza Lee Cabot. The Well-Spent Hour, No. I-XII. . (1827-1828)
Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Northwood: A Tale of New England.

Hart, Jannette M. Nahant: or, "The Floure of Souvenance."

Leslie, Eliza. Seventy-five Recipes for Pastry, Cakes, and Sweetmeats.

Robbins, Eliza. Sequel to American Popular Lessons.

Royall, Anne Newport. The Tennessean.

Savage, Sarah. Life of Philip, the Indian Chief.

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. Hope Leslie.

Sigourney, Lydia Howard Huntley. Poems.

Tuthill, Louisa Caroline Huggins. James Somers: The Pilgrim's Son.

Wood, Sarah (Sally) Sayward Barrell Keating. Tales of the Night.

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. Biographical Sketches of Great and Good Men..

_____, ed. Moral Lesson in Verse.

_____. The First Settlers of New England or, Conquest of the Pequots, Narragansetts, and Pokanokets.

Dix, Dorothea Lynde. Meditations for Private Hours.

_____. Sequel to Marrion Wilder.

_____. George Mills, or, The Little Boy Who Did Not Love His Books.

Embury, Emma Catherine Manley. Guido: A Tale Sketches from History and Other Poems.

Hale, Sarah Preston Everett. Boston Reading Lessons for Primary Schools.

Hart, Jannette M. Cora or The Genius of America.

_____, translator. Eugene and Lolotte.

Robbins, Eliza, ed. Poetry for Schools.

_____. Primary dictionary, or Rational Vocabulary.

Rowson, Susanna Haswell. Charlotte's Daughter.

Royall, Anne Newport. The Cabinet, a play.

_____. The Black Book. (1828-1829)
Sanders, Elizabeth Elkins. Conversations.

Sedgwick, Catharine Maria. A short essay to do good.

Sedgwick, Elizabeth Buckminster Dwight. The Beatitudes.

Smith, Margaret Bayard. What is Gentility?

Tuthill, Louisa Caroline Huggins. Love of Admiration, or Mary's Visit to Boston.

Willard, Emma Hart. History of the U.S.

Beecher, Catherine Esther. Suggestions Respecting Improvements in Education.

Child, Lydia Maria Frances. The Frugal Housewife.

Davidson, Lucretia Maria. Amir Khan and Other Poems.

Dix, Dorothea Lynde, ed. The Garland of Flora.

_____. The Pearl, or Affection's Gift[no known extant copy]
Follen, Eliza Lee Cabot. The Warning.

_____, ed. Selections from Fenelon.

Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. Sketches of American Character.

Leslie, Eliza. Stories for Emma.

_____. Stories for Adelaide.

_____. The Young Americans.

Phelps, Almira Hart Lincoln. Familiar Lectures on Botany.
Reed, Anna C. The Life of George Washington.

Robbins, Eliza. Tales from American History containing the principal facts in the life of Christopher Columbus.


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