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The Nieuport 28 was a totally new design that was produced in an attempt to replace the famous sesquiplane fighters that had begin with the Nieuport 10 and Nieuport 11. It was most famous as the first fighter to be used in combat by the American Expeditionary Force.
The classic Nieuport fighters had been light, manoeuvrable aircraft, normally armed with a single machine gun and with a sesquiplane wing layout. The lower wing had a similar span to the upper wing, but half the chord and thus half the area. The two wings were connected by 'V' struts. This wing layout produced manoeuvrable aircraft, but it made it hard to increase engine power, as the heavier engines also increased wing loading and thus made the aircraft harder to fly. By the autumn of 1917 the last production versions of this design, the Nieuport 24 and Nieuport 27, had appeared, but despite Gustave Delage's best efforts they weren't able to compete with the improved German types, or with the excellent Spad fighters.
Delage responded to this problem with an almost entirely new design. The Nieuport 28 abandoned the sesquiplane layout in favour of a much more standard biplane layout. The lower wing was still slightly smaller than the upper wing, but not by much, and the overall wing area increased from just under 15 square meters to 18 square meters. The new wings were straight edges, un-tapered and had rounded ends. They were connected by parallel struts. The aircraft used a similar tail to the Nieuport 27, with a small fixed vertical fin and rounded rudder. It was powered by a 150hp Gnome Monosoupape 9N rotary engine.
The first prototype was flying by June 1917. This aircraft had a very small gap between the fuselage and the upper wing, no dihedral on the lower wing and a significant amount of dihedral on the upper wing. This design wasn't a success and a second prototype was produced with a bigger gap between the fuselage and upper wing and no dihedral on the upper wing. This was followed by a third design with the same wing gap, but with 1.5 degrees of dihedral on the upper wing. This became the production version of the aircraft.
A few Nieuport 28s may have entered French service late in 1917, but it was not adopted for widespread use and was quickly replaced by the Spad fighters.
Instead the type entered large scale production for the Americans, who had been promised a large number of fighter aircraft. There weren't enough Spad fighters to fulfil this promise and so they were given the Nieuport 28 instead. A total of 297 aircraft were delivered to the Americans, where they were used by the 27th, 94th, 95th and 147th Aero Squadrons of the First Pursuit Group.
The combat debut of the 94th and 95th Squadrons was unusual - in March 1918, while based at the Villeneuve training centre they were used for unarmed flights along the line of the Marne, designed to discourage high flying German photo reconnaissance aircraft. No machine guns were carried as the operation was too far behind the lines for opposition to be expected. Eight of these patrols were carried out before the German spring offensives forced the Americans to change base. Soon afterwards, in mid-April, the American Air Service was given responsibility for the Toul sector of the front, with combat operations beginning on 14 April. On that day Douglas Campbell became the first American-trained fighter pilot to claim an aerial victory, although of course many French-trained Americans had scored victories when flying with the Escadrille Lafayette. Campbell would also go on to be America's first ace. The first AEF victory was actually scored by Campbell's colleague Alan Winslow, earlier in the same fighter, but he was French trained.
The Nieuport was unpopular with the Americans after a few lost their upper wing covering in fast dives (the most successful American fighter pilot of the war, Eddie Rickenbacker, survived one loss of wing fabric). The engine was also unreliable, and Quentin Roosevelt (son of President Theodore Roosevelt, lost on 14 July) and Raoul Lufbery (lost on 19 May) were both shot down and killed while flying the type. Some American pilots did achieve success with the type, including Eddie Rickenbacker, Winslow, Douglas Campbell and Jimmie Meissner.
In July 1918, in the middle of the German Champagne-Marne Offensive (15-18 July 1918), the US squadrons converted from Nieuport 28 to the Spad XIII. The new aircraft were welcomed, but they also suffered from problems with their Hispano-Suiza engines. Despite these early problems the American pilots began to achieve success in the new fighters, although this was probably due more to their increased experience than to the merits of the two aircraft. The type remained in limited use into August, and on 1 August the 27th Squadron suffered the AEF's most losses on a single day. Soon after that the squadron changed aircraft.
After the war twelve aircraft were used by the US Navy for experiments with flying off platforms mounted on battleship turrets.
Engine: Gnome 9B rotary engine
Span: 26ft 3in
Length: 20ft 4in
Height: 8ft 1.75in
Empty weight: 1,172lb
Maximum take-off weight: 1,631lb
Max speed: 121mph at 6,500ft
Climb Rate: 21min 15sec to 16,405ft
Service ceiling: 17,060ft
Range: 248 miles
Armament: two fixed forward firing Vickers machine guns
Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War
Nieuport 28 - History
Nieuport N.28C-1 Fighter
WWI single-engine single-seat biplane fighter, France
Archive Photos 
[Nieuport N.28C-1 on display (c.1993) at the San Diego Aerospace Museum, San Diego, California (Photo by John Shupek copyright © 2001 Skytamer Images)]
[Nieuport N.28C-1 on display (5/4/1995) at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio (Photo by John Shupek copyright © 2001 Skytamer Images)]
[Nieuport N.28C-1 on display (2/16/2004) at the National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia (Photo by Jim Hough, 2/16/2004)]
- Nieuport 28C-1
- Role: Fighter
- Manufacturer: Nieuport
- Designer: Gustave Delage
- First flight: 14 June 1917
- Introduction: March 1918
- Retired: July 1918
- Primary users: U.S. Army Air Service, Aéronautique Militaire
- Number built: about 300
The Nieuport 28 (N.28C-1) was a French biplane fighter aircraft flown during World War I, built by Nieuport and designed by Gustave Delage. Its principal claim to fame is that it was the first aircraft to see service with an American fighter squadron. By the middle of 1917 it was obvious that the Nieuport 17 was unable to cope with the latest German fighters, and that direct developments of the 17, such as the Nieuport 24bis. were unable to offer a substantially improved performance. In fact, the Nieuport was already being rapidly replaced in French service with the SPAD S.VII.
The Nieuport 28 design was an attempt to adapt the concept of the lightly built, highly maneuverable rotary engine fighter typified by the Nieuport 17 to the more demanding conditions of the times. It had a more powerful engine, and a new wing structure, for the first time a Nieuport biplane was fitted with conventional two spar wings, top and bottom, in place of the sesquiplane "V-strut" layout of earlier Nieuport types. Ailerons were fitted to the lower wings only. The tail unit's design closely followed that of the Nieuport 27, but the fuselage was much slimmer, in fact it was so narrow that the machine guns had to be offset to the left. The prototype (and, perhaps a handful of early production aircraft) had marked dihedral in the top wing only and a tightly spaced cabane structure. Production machines had only a slight dihedral in the upper wing, taller cabane struts, and two Vickers machine guns.
Operational History 
By early 1918, when the first production Nieuport 28's became available, the type was already "surplus" from the French point of view. The SPAD S.XIII was a superior aircraft in most respects, and was in any case firmly established as the standard French fighter.
On the other hand, the United States Army Air Service was desperately short of fighters to equip its projected "Pursuit" (fighter) squadrons. The SPAD was initially unavailable due to a shortage of Hispano-Suiza engines, and the Nieuport was offered to, and perforce accepted by, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), as an interim alternative. A total of 297 Nieuport 28's were purchased by the Americans, and they were used to equip the very first American fighter squadrons, starting in March 1918. All together, four AEF "Pursuit" squadrons flew Nieuport 28's operationally, the 27th, 94th, 95th and 103rd Aero Squadrons.
Due to an early shortage of machine guns in the American squadrons some early patrols were flown with one machine gun. On 14 April 1918, the second armed patrol of an AEF fighter unit resulted in two victories when Lieutenants Alan Winslow and Douglas Campbell (the first American-trained ace) of the 94th Aero Squadron each downed an enemy aircraft. Several well known World War I American fighter pilots, including Quentin Roosevelt, the son of United States President Theodore Roosevelt, as well as American aces like the 26-victory ace, Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, began their operational careers on the Nieuport 28.
On the whole the type was not a success, however. Although very maneuverable and easy to fly, its performance turned out to be mediocre and its engine unreliable. More seriously, the mixed plywood/fabric skinning of the wings proved problematic, the fabric which covered the rear portion of the wings tending to "balloon" and become detached from the plywood leading section. Although a solution to this problem was speedily found, the operational Nieuports in American service were replaced with SPAD's as soon as sufficient of the latter became available. This process was complete by the end of July 1918.
After the end of the war some examples of the type crossed the Atlantic with the returning American forces with a small number supplied to various foreign air forces. Switzerland obtained 15 Nieuport 28's and Greece received a small number of aircraft.
- Argentina: 2 aircraft
- Guatemala: 1 aircraft
- Switzerland: 15 aircraft
- United States
Specifications (Nieuport 28) 
- Crew: one, pilot
- Length: 6.50 m (21 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 8.16 m (26 ft 9 in)
- Height: 2.5 m (8 ft 0 in)
- Wing area: 15.8 m² (169 ft²)
- Empty weight: 475 kg (1,227 lb)
- Loaded weight: 560 kg (1,635 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Gnome 9-N rotary, 102 kW (160 hp)
- Maximum speed: 184 km/h (122 mph)
- Range: 349 km (180 miles)
- Service ceiling: 5300 m (17,390 ft)
- Rate of climb: 11.5 min to 3,000 m (9,840 ft)
- Wing loading: 37.9 kg/m² (7.77 lb/ft²)
- Power/mass: 0.15 kW/kg (0.09 hp/lb)
- Shupek, John. The Skytamer Photo Archive, photos by John Shupek, copyright © 1993, 1994 John Shupek
- Hough, Jim. The Skytamer Photo Archive, photos by Jim Hough, copyright © 2004 Jim Hough
- Wikipedia. Nieuport 28
Copyright © 1998-2019 (Our 21 st Year) Skytamer Images, Whittier, California
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Nieuport 28 - History
( Click on the images to enlarge.)
The late Frank Tallman, arguably one of the most diversified pilots ever to climb into a cockpit, once wrote of the Nieuport 28 C-1, "I share the feelings of others lucky enough to fly the '28' -- that it certainly is the epitome of World War One flying and possesses the loveliest lines of all World War One aircraft."
For all its striking good looks, the Nieuport 28 C-1 will be best remembered as the machine which equipped the first American fighter squadrons. 297 were purchased by the American Expeditionary Force, with the first being delivered in March, 1918.
American history was made when Lieutenants Douglas Campbell and A. Winslow each shot down a German fighter, eventually making them two of the first American aces. Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, greatest of the American aces, scored several of his twenty-six victories in a Nieuport 28.
Lou Proctor was so taken with the Nieuport 28's historical significance and graceful lines that, in 1979, he set out to duplicate the famous French fighter in one-quarter scale. When world-class modelers like FAI team member Bob Hanft called it the finest kit he ever built, we felt that the years of work had been worth the effort.
Four sheets of detailed plans and an illustrated 42-page construction manual introduce you to the kit. All woods and veneers have been carefully selected. Spruce wing spars have been routed to I-beams, cut to length, beveled and drilled for the strut-mounting brackets. Longerons and wing tip bows are pre-formed. All hardware is included and features operable turnbuckles, machined fittings, multi-strand rigging and control cables and scale hinge assemblies. The scale landing gear is pre-formed aluminum, jig drilled and ready for assembly as are the aluminum center-section struts. A 10-inch spun aluminum cowl can accommodate a wide variety of engines including multi-cylinder radials.
Should you decide to compete with Nieuport 28 C-1, rest assured that it is a seasoned veteran in nearly every major competition worldwide. We realize, however, that nearly half of all Nieuport 28 C-1s will never see the heat of battle, but will instead be displayed uncovered in their proud owners homes or offices. Either way, Proctor's Nieuport 28 C-1 is a winner!
Exterior Finish and Decals
Nothing beats the French four and five-color camouflages schemes for variety, attractiveness and, well, color! I have always found the French five-color scheme difficult to pull off, because I have found it hard to find paints that match close to the colors outlined by various sources. Add to this the fact that the discussion of French colors is contentious at best, and that shades differed whether painted on fabric or metal surfaces. It is like the PC10 debate, multiplied five-fold (six, if you include clear doped linen!). Therefore a discussion about the accuracy of French colors is beyond the scope of this article.
For this build I decided to try the line of acrylic paints by Misterkit of Italy, obtained from Aeroclub in the UK. Among the many WWI colors produced by this company are about a dozen or so French WWI colors, among which are those for the five-color camouflage. In every case the paint has a somewhat creamy consistency, and brushes well out of the bottle to a smooth, opaque finish. The paint airbrushes well also, which I will get back to later. I cannot comment on the accuracy of the colors, but together they look convincing enough.
Here a few words on spraying acrylics with an airbrush are in order. In the past with other brands of acrylic paint, I found that there was an overall tendency for the paint to lack adhesion to plastics and to wear off easily during handling. Masking was a tenuous affair, often resulting in the underlying colors peeling off in great shards with the tape. Acrylics often do not spray well, clogging the tip causing stoppages, or worse, shooting out gobs of coagulated paint. At some point I stumbled across the idea of mixing in a certain amount of clear varnish to fortify the paint and improve the flow. Whether I read this or heard about it from someone, I cannot remember. I began adding Future (Also marketed as Kleer, Klir, among others) clear acrylic floor wax into the paint mixture for spraying. The results were immediate and dramatic. The addition of Future improves flow, prevents clogging, and enhances adhesion and strength. As the paint dries, it shrinks, thereby conforming closely to surrounding detail. When mixed with matte colors, the paint tends to dry gloss or semigloss, making decal application easier. The addition of the clear medium also makes the paint somewhat transparent, allowing for special effects such as post- and pre-shading. The amount added depends on the effect you want. For painting colors such as camouflage I add about 10%-20% Future to the paint. Needless to say, all the Misterkit colors and others sprayed on this model were "fortified" with Future in this way. An Aztec 470 airbrush was used throughout, air pressure 20-30 p.s.i.
Back to the model, all assembled components were gathered and remaining parts prepared for painting by removing them from the sprues and cleaning up seam lines and so forth. Parts were mounted on toothpicks or held with suitable holders for painting. The colors were sprayed initially in the order Beige, Light Green, Dark Green, Chocolate Brown, Black (Gunze) and French Clear Doped Linen, with at least two hours drying time allowed between colors. Masking was accomplished for the most part with Tamiya tape and KleenEdge brand low tack painter's tape, produced by DCP-Lohja Inc., the patterns cut out with a swivel knife. The patterns on the Roden instruction sheet and on Bob Pearson's excellent CD were used as a guide. Finally the fin and rudder were sprayed Gunze Flat White and the cowling was sprayed with Citadel Mithril Silver, a very fine-grained acrylic metallic resembling aluminum.
The wing interplane struts were painted Gunze H85 Sail Color, and then given a wood grain treatment with a streaky application of Testors Modelmaster Burnt Sienna enamel. I thought the tapes on the struts were too heavy in relief, so these were sanded down and replaced with thin strips of decal film painted Sail Color. The strut end fittings were painted black. The cabane struts are the same color as the camouflage, as these are actually metal fairings on the real aircraft. The tail skid was painted in the same manner as the interplane struts. The tires were painted PollyScale Ocean Grey. The propeller was sprayed with Testors Acryl Raw Umber, with the thrust plate painted Citadel Boltgun Metal. The machine guns have excellent detail, and were painted with Boltgun Metal and a wash of flat black enamel.
The kit decals were used, and this is where the kit suffers. Many are out of register, especially the black trim on the white numbers. Some of the colors have a visible overlap, such as where the blue and red meet on the roundels and the fin flash. The "Hat in the Ring" insignia is too big by far. The ring needs to be reduced in height. I managed to accomplish this by cutting the decal on each side into three parts, consisting of the hat and lower part of the ring, and the top of the ring cut in two. About 2mm were trimmed off of the ring where it meets up with the hat and all was realigned. This turned out well, fortunately, because I had no aftermarket replacements. The white of the numbers was somewhat transparent, so I doubled up the large number "8" on the top wing, as I had another set of decals from a spare kit. The fin flash was troublesome, the decal crumbling around the edge of the rudder. This was touched up with some Gunze Flat Red and Testors Acryl French Blue, which matched up fairly closely. Future was used again, this time as a setting solution, and very little silvering resulted. Any such areas were soaked with a generous helping of Walther's Solvaset. The homemade lightning bolt decals were applied with little trouble and touched up where necessary with Gunze red paint.
A light wash of Raw Umber enamel was applied to the panel lines and recessed areas. All the sub assemblies were then sprayed with Testors Acryl SemiGloss.
First: Black female billionaire (2003)
20. Wangari Maathai
First: African woman to win Nobel Prize (2004)
“Human rights are not things you put on the table for people to enjoy. These are things for you fight for and then you protect”
Nieuport 28 - History
The Nieuport 28 was a drastic turn in development for the Nieuport Company. They abandoned their typical 'V' strut and sesquiplane arrangement, opting for a 'true' biplane instead. Unfortunately the Nieuport (Nie) 28 was not viewed favorably by the French, but it helped launch a fledgling air force just entering into WW1 - the United States Air Service (USAS). It was with the Nie.28 that the first aces of the USAS were born.
The Revell Nieuport 28 has been around a long time. Even with its age it is a very accurate aircraft. There are 28 injected molded parts and a decal sheet providing two schemes: Lt. Campbell's from the 94th Aero and an unknown example from the 27th Aero.
I started construction by correcting the wing. Although the wing is about .5mm short in span and chord, this discrepancy was deemed too minor to worry about. However, the cutout that would sit above the fuselage is too deep, so I added .010 plastic sheet until I filled this area out more, and sanded it smooth. The fabric weave evident on all parts is bogus, and needs to be either filled or sanded away (I opted for sanding the fabric weave away).
The lower wing suffers the same shortness problem as the upper wing, but like the upper wing it was deemed too minor to deal with. I did cut out the ailerons, and added 'hinges' in the wing (and cut corresponding slots in the aileron) out of pieces of brass sheet from the frame of a photoetch set.
I had the Airwaves photoetch set so I decided to use it to dress up the cockpit. Unfortunately the Airwaves set doesn't fit. I had to cut the 'floor' brass away, and built the 'floor' back up with plastic rod (the floor itself was the bottom of the fuselage and there were just 'rods' at the bottom of the cockpit going from each sides' vertical members). In addition, the seat was too large - if it was built as the Airwaves instructions shown it would have stuck out of the fuselage. I cut away portions of the back of the seat and added CA to the top to represent the curved piece. In actuality, even the Airwaves seat isn't very accurate, since the Nie.28 seat is built up in multiple 'layers'. It's difficult to explain and pictures are needed to show exactly what I mean. I did add the Airwaves rudder pedals and 'kick plate', as well as the seat belts to the modified seat. The fuselage sides forward of the seat, 'floor' and control column were painted medium gray, while the Airwaves, cockpit sides, rudder pedal and 'kick plate' were painted a wood brown.
Once the cockpit was in and the fuselage sides glued together, I then sanded away the fabric weave and the molded on venturi tube. This was later replaced by a scratchbuilt example. The forward, underside of the fuselage needs to be modified. The way Revell represents it in the kit is not 100% accurate. Another area difficult to explain exactly what needs to be done, but studying photos in the Datafile should help. Basically part of this area needs a concave shape sanded into it.
After the horizontal tail surfaces were sanded to remove the fabric weave, the control surfaces were cut out and repositioned. There is a bar attaching both stabilizers to each other that is missing and this is easily added with plastic rod. Also, there's a part missing. The fuselage in essence blends into the horizontal tail. The basic shape was cut out of plastic sheet and after gluing it onto the horizontal tail it was blended into the fuselage and the horizontal tail.
The vertical tail surfaces needs modification. Not to the shape, as the shape is basically correct, but to a few things Revell left off. First of all, the 'fin' part of the tail is supposed to extend down to the fuselage, at the aft end of the horizontal surface (past the stabilizer connecting bar). Also, the fin is supposed to extend down to the horizontal just in front of this point. Basically, Revell's 'cut out' in the vertical surface is too much. I just ended up adding sheet styrene to the kit part until it looked correct. I also separated the rudder - not only because I wanted to reposition it, but it also helped with the 'fin"' reshape. You will also need to add control horns to both sides of the rudder.
Final Assembly and Painting
With the lower wing and vertical tail glued on and any gaps taken care of, painting can now commence. The French five-color is painted using Polly Scale colors. After the paint dried for all colors, I added the decals - which were all from various Microscale/Superscale sheets and finished it as Zenos Miller's machine from the 27th Aero.
The cowl was replaced with an out of production Roseparts resin replacement and the engine is the one from the kit. However, the propeller is wrong out of the box, and it was substituted with one from the spares box and the Vickers guns are Roseparts replacements.
The struts are scratched out of Contrail injected strut stock. The only thing that needs to be modified on the landing gear struts is the removal of the mounting pins from the forward part of the struts. Replacement wheels should be found since the kit supplied ones are too small - Rosemont makes the best replacement wheels. The axle/cross bars will need to be replaced, as Revell provides a snap in affair that is supposed to turn. These were made by making a brass rod axle and trapping this in two pieces of plastic to create the airfoil shape of the cover.
Although an older kit, its the only 1/72nd kit of the Nieuport 28 still on the market. With some modifications it can be made into an accurate example of this machine that brought the USAS into the fray.
History [ edit | edit source ]
It was planned that the American and French fighter squadrons should use the Nieuport 28 in large numbers. Certainly, the French Air Force reversed the order and gave preference to the SPAD S.XIII. However the Nieuport 28 was delivered to the American Expeditionary Air Force (AEF). The AEF received 287 aircraft. It was the first aircraft that was used by the AEF in Aerial combat, during World War I. During the second mission on 14th April 1918, the AEF downed two enemy aircraft. The pilots were Alan Winslow and Douglas Campbell from the 94th Aero Squadron. Even if the Nieuport 28 became an aged plane and should be replaced by the SPAD S.XIII, the American pilots achieved much more kills than own losses. The aircraft was more manoeuvrable than the SPAD however it had trouble with its engines. But actually it was used by many American pilots, like Quentin Roosevelt, the son of the president of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and the ace pilot Eddie Rickenbacker.
At the end of the War 600 modified N.28A.1 were ordered by the USAS. The upgraded derivative showed some changes and were equipped with a Marlin-machine gun. The aircraft were mainly used as trainer aircraft. Twelve aircraft were delivered to the US Navy, to take-off from warships. The last Nieuport 28 was retired from service in the 1930s by the Air Force of Switzerland.
Watch a young Chuck Yeager test fly a stolen MiG-15
Posted On September 12, 2019 02:52:11
Brigadier General Chuck Yeager is best-known for being the first man to break the sound barrier. He was also a World War II ace and saw action in Vietnam as commanding officer of the 405th Tactical Fighter Wing, flying B-57s. But did you know that this aerial all-star also logged time in the MiG-15?
The MiG-15 in question was flown from North Korea to Seoul by No Kum-sok, a defector who, upon landing, learned that he was fulfilling a $100,000 bounty by delivering the plane into allied hands. The MiG-15 was quickly taken back to the United States and put through its paces.
The last moments of a MiG-15 — many of these planes met their end in MiG Alley.
Test pilots are known for getting in the cockpit of new, unproven vehicles and using their skills and adaptability to safely maneuver vessels through early flights. They’ve flown the X-15 into space and are responsible for putting the newest fighters, like the F-35, through their paces. But what’s just as important (and half as reported) is role they play in exploring the capabilities of foreign aircraft, like a MiG, Sukhoi, or some other international plane.
This is why the “Akutan Zero,” a Japanese plane that crashed on June 4, 1942 over Alaskan soil, was so important. It gave the US invaluable insight into the strengths and weaknesses of an enemy’s asset, informing the design of the F6F Hellcat.
This is the MiG-15 that was flown to South Korea by a North Korean defector.
The MiG-15 of the Korean War wasn’t quite as fearsome as the Zero was in World War II. In fact, the F-86 dominated it over “MiG Alley.” But finding out just how good – or bad – the MiG-15 really was still mattered. After all, American allies, like Taiwan, ended up facing the MiG-15 later in the 1950s (the Taiwanese planes ended up using the AIM-9 Sidewinder to deadly effect).
The MiG-15 still is in service with the North Korean Air Force, meaning Yeager’s half-a-century-old flight still informs us today.
Learn more about Yeager’s time flying the MiG-15 in the video below.
More links we like
28 Years of EA History
28 years ago today, On May 20, 1983, EA shipped its very first games. The entire company – at that point just a few dozen people – gathered in a warehouse in South San Francisco and everyone pitched in to pack up the boxes and load the UPS trucks.
28 years ago today, On May 20, 1983, EA shipped its very first games. The entire company &ndash at that point just a few dozen people &ndash gathered in a warehouse in South San Francisco and everyone pitched in to pack up the boxes and load the UPS trucks.
Nancy Fong, EA&rsquos 20 th employee and currently the Senior Director for Business Affairs at EA, remembers the day clearly. &ldquoI remember clearly there were a handful of warehouse workers who were pretty frustrated with us. Watching a bunch of marketers and developers load up boxes while trying to have a good time.&rdquo
&ldquoWe all worked all day long,&rdquo Fong recalls, &ldquoand at the end of the day we each got t-shirts that said &lsquoI survived&rsquo and then we had a huge BBQ dinner at the warehouse.&rdquo
Bing Gordon, another one of the employees from EA&rsquos early days, also remembers the day. His primary recollection: &ldquoWe were terrible warehouse workers!&rdquo
EA has released some pretty amazing games over the past 28 years, but we think that first batch of titles still stands out. Each title was packaged with the game creator&rsquos names on the front and a powerful visual design that gave them appearance of rock albums.
Included in that first shipment were the following classic titles:
Archon: The Light and Dark, a chess-like combat game originally developed for the Atari 8-bit computer, and later ported to Apple II, Commodore 64 and other popular platforms of the day.
Hard Hat Mack, a single player puzzle game developed for Apple II that required the player to guide a construction worker through a series of traps and pitfalls. Relive your favorite Hard Hat Mack memories with this fantastic YouTube video.
M.U.L.E., one of the first hugely popular multiplayer video games, M.U.L.E. set the stage for a generation of games to come. Developed for the Atari 400 and later ported to the Commodore 64 and Nintendo Entertainment System, the game allowed players to build a colony and compete to see who could amass the most wealth, while constantly balancing supply and demand.
Worms, originally released for the Atari 800 and later for the Commodore 64, Worms? allowed users to train their creatures to grow and survive as long as possible.
Axis Assassin, an early 3D shooting game, challenged players to battle giant arachnids and clear away their cobwebs.
On This Day in History, 28 июнь
The Stonewall Riots in New York City marked the beginning of the gay rights movement in the United States. The Christopher Street Day, a yearly observance for Gay Pride in some European countries, is named after the bar's location.
1967 Israel annexes East Jerusalem
From Israel's point of view, the annexation effected the reunification of its capital city. However, the international community declared it illegal and views East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel.
1939 The world's first scheduled transatlantic flight takes off
The Boeing 314 Clipper flying boat was operated by Pan Am. It took about 24 hours to reach Marseille, France. The scheduled service was soon discontinued again because of the outbreak of World War II.
1914 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie are assassinated
Gavrilo Princip's attack effected a crisis among Europe's major powers (July Crisis). This ultimately triggered the First World War, which with over 37 million deaths was one of the bloodiest war of all time. Five years later to the day, the Treaty of Versailles formally ended the war.
1846 The saxophone is patented
Belgian musician Adolphe Sax developed the woodwind instrument typically made of brass, which in recent decades has heavily influenced the sound of the jazz, military band, rock, and pop musical genres.