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Monument of Sacred War

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Iao Valley

Iao Valley (Hawaiian: ʻĪ-ao: "cloud supreme", pronounced similar to "EE-ow") is a lush, stream-cut valley in West Maui, Hawaii, located 3.1 miles (5 km) west of Wailuku. Because of its natural environment and history, it has become a tourist location. It was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1972. [1]


Sacred Harp Singing: History & Tradition

Revised June 2, 2021


At Sacred Harp singings and conventions, participants sing the powerful and harmonious American music from The Sacred Harp, the most enduring of the shape-note tunebooks popular in 19th-century rural America. This tunebook, in its several editions, has given its name to a tradition of unaccompanied community singing and fellowship surviving to the present day. While "harp" is an old word for a sacred tunebook containing music, in a broader sense, the "sacred harp" is the human voice or ensemble of voices.


History of Shape-Note and Sacred Harp Singing

The original core of music in The Sacred Harp, first published in 1844, consists of (1) hymn tunes, psalm tunes, anthems, and contrapuntal fuging (or fuguing) tunes by late 18th- and early 19th-century New England composers such as William Billings, Daniel Read, Timothy Swan, and Jeremiah Ingalls, who were influenced by 18th-century English rural church music, and (2) early 19th-century Southern folk hymn tunes and spirituals often derived from secular British or Irish folk melodies and harmonized by tunebook compilers. This 3- or 4-part music did not imitate European musical tastes of the time but instead exhibited a stark, rugged, and often lively style representing a fusion of elements of Anglo-Celtic folk music with those of medieval to baroque European church music. These musical gems were set to powerful Judeo-Christian texts popular at the time, many written by the English clergymen Isaac Watts, Charles Wesley, and John Newton. A few texts are patriotic rather than religious. The music is characterized by melody lines in the tenor part, strong rhythms, and open harmonies (particularly fifth intervals without the third note). Many songs are in minor or modal scales ( e.g. , the hymntune "Wondrous Love" sung in the Dorian mode) and gapped scales ( e.g. , the pentatonic "Amazing Grace"). Each part (treble, alto, tenor or lead, and bass) retains a degree of melodic independence ("dispersed harmony") which, while creating some dissonance, produces a beautiful perception of multiple simultaneous melodies. Early revisions of The Sacred Harp supplemented the original core of music with songs in similar styles written by mid-19th century Southern composers such as the Reese brothers. In the early/mid-20th century, two divergent revisions of The Sacred Harp incorporated additional songs, folk hymntunes, and intricate fuging tunes by Southern shape-note composers. The most recent revisions (the 1991 Edition and the Revised Cooper Edition of 2012) incorporate several dozen new songs by living composers from various regions of the United States, along with additional old songs. Other shape-note tunebooks are also in use, albeit less widely.

In contrast to most church hymnals, songs in The Sacred Harp and similar tunebooks are titled according to the name of the tune ( e.g. , "Restoration") rather than the beginning of the text ( e.g. , "Come thou fount of every blessing"). This format emphasizes the music over the text (the hymn or psalm) and reflects the origin of these tunebooks in the singing school tradition rather than in church worship. This custom facilitates the interchange of texts and tunes in the same meter. In fact, many texts are used for multiple musical settings in these tunebooks.

Sacred Harp music is written in "shape notes," which resemble standard round notes in every respect except that the head of each note has one of four shapes to indicate its interval from the key (tonic) pitch. This system was based on the practice originating in Elizabethan England of singing the seven notes of an octave with four-syllable solmization. The major scale is sung as fa, sol, la, fa, sol, la, mi, fa, while the minor scale (3 half-steps down from the major scale) is sung as la, mi, fa, sol, la, fa, sol, la. The logic of this system is probably based on the fact that each half-step always leads up to fa. The four-shape system ( fa = triangle, sol = oval, la = square, and me = diamond) was invented around 1800 in the Northeastern U.S., and it enabled many untrained singers of the day to sight-read music without having to understand key signatures. Shape-note music immediately became popular, and it strongly stimulated the expansion of the singing-school movement, which had arisen in New England around 1720, enabling many Americans to learn to sing written music.

Singing schools and shape-note singing flourished in the early 19th century as a popular form of recreation in the Southern and Western frontiers and led to the publication of numerous oblong tunebooks including Kentucky Harmony (1816), Missouri Harmony (1820, used by Abraham Lincoln), Southern Harmony (1835), and The Sacred Harp (1844). However this type of music and singing came to be discredited, first in New England around 1810 and later elsewhere, as reformers, influenced by European musical norms, introduced church music composed in the staid and/or sweet styles sung in most churches today. After the Civil War, gospel hymnody (often written in 7-shape notes) rose in popularity. Nevertheless, singing from The Sacred Harp continued to be popular in the rural South, where there evolved a tradition of all-day singings and 2- or 3-day conventions of "Fasola" music in simple one-room churches, with dinner on the grounds, the honoring of deceased relatives and friends in Memorial Lessons, and traditional Southern hospitality and fellowship. These singings became social rituals in which the pristine elements of music, spirituality, fellowship, and food were distilled away from trappings and distractions.

Throughout much of the 20th century, Sacred Harp singing traditions were maintained inconspicuously in the South mostly by certain singing families, but since the 1980s the joy of singing shape-note music has been discovered by lovers of folk and choral music outside the South, where monthly singings and annual conventions have attracted large numbers of singers. The increased national and international visibility and appreciation of Sacred Harp singing have stimulated renewed interest in its heartland in the South. In all regions, those who participate in singings find themselves welcomed into a network of friendly and accepting people of varied religious, educational, professional, and musical backgrounds who are united by a common love for this musical genre. Traditional rural singers and urban-based revivalists from around the U.S., Canada, and Europe now not only sing together but communicate, announce singings, and share knowledge through Facebook pages and websites of singing groups, Fasola e-mail lists, and other web resources. Furthermore, many audio recordings and videos of traditional singings, as well as recordings by performing groups are available, often on the internet. In addition, there has been a burst of creativity in the composition of new shape-note music rooted in the old style but often having modern touches. Until recently the spiritual aspect of singings outside the South was more submerged than in traditional Southern singings, as revivalists of diverse spiritual inclinations gather to create a joyful yet serious celebration of life and its temporality. However, in recent years there has been a trend toward increased spirituality in singings outside the South as revivalists interact more with traditional Southern singers and deal with mortality within their own singing circles. Sacred Harp singing has been featured in national television broadcasts, including Bill Moyers' PBS special "Amazing Grace" (1990) and ABC's "World News Sunday" (July 21, 1991), and in several features on National Public Radio (most recently December 6, 2003). The soundtrack of the 2003 Miramax movie "Cold Mountain," set during the Civil War, featured two Sacred Harp songs sung by traditional Southern singers.


Practice of Traditional Sacred Harp Singing

Traditional Sacred Harp singings and conventions follow time-honored practices. Singers (referred to as "the class") sit in a hollow square facing each other (one part on each side). The "arranging committee" announces in turn names of singers who wish to lead songs ("lessons") of their choice in the center of the square. Each leader chooses a song that has not already been sung ("used") that day and chooses the verses and repeats to be sung. The leader faces the tenor ("lead," melody, air) part altos are to the rear, the basses to the right, and the trebles to the left. Pitching is done without any instrument by either the leader or an experienced singer with a good sense of relative pitch. The chosen pitch is frequently 1 to 2 whole steps lower than the written pitch to enable more comfortable singing. The leader sings the tenor (lead) part if possible and determines the tempo by beating of the hand (up and down with 2 or 3 beats per measure, or with slow 4/4 songs occasionally in a criss-cross pattern with 4 beats per measure). Many singers also beat time with the leader. In fact, some seats in the front rows should be reserved for the most experienced singers, who with their time-beating support the leader and help keep the class together.

The singers sing without instrumental accompaniment for their own enjoyment and inspiration rather than for a listening audience. They sing with remarkable volume, intensity, and enthusiasm. The treble and tenor parts are usually sung by both men and women, generally singing an octave apart thus, the 4-part harmony actually has 6 parts. Dynamic nuances tend to be de-emphasized in favor of a uniformly strong sound with pulsing rhythm and drive. The atmosphere of a Sacred Harp singing is basically one of community singing rather than choral singing, so there is usually little concern about the blending of voices or the perfection of the execution of the music. Although Sacred Harp and related-shape note music can be rendered beautifully within the alternative context of disciplined and expressive choral performance, this is never the context found at traditional singings.

Each tune (except for long anthems) is sung first by singing the syllables of the four shape notes ( fa, sol, la, mi ), followed by singing of the words. This practice conforms to and honors the singing school tradition and assists in learning the tune. The initial solmization is very helpful to those who do not sight-read standard music and is also helpful to those who do. It is always done at traditional singings, where both types of singers are present. While "singing the notes" becomes intuitive with experience, it is of secondary importance at singings. Greater importance and personal satisfaction lie with singing the spiritually meaningful words, creating powerful music together in a friendly and accepting atmosphere, building friendships among other singers, and remembering deceased and sick-and-shut-in singers. These form the essence of the Sacred Harp tradition.



This article is also available as a downloadable two-page PDF file suitable for printing and distribution at Sacred Harp singings. Adobe Acrobat Reader software is required to open the document. Click here to download the article.

TEMPLE OF APOLLO

The central and most important part of Delphi was the temple of Apollo, where the Pythia delivered her prophetic words in the adyton, a separate, restricted room at the rear. The temple of Apollo sat atop a large terrace supported by a polygonal wall.

The Sacred Way also led to the theatre of Delphi above the temple and the stadium (for athletic contests) further up.

Delphi also contained settlements and cemeteries, which were built outside and around the two sanctuaries.


Sculpting the Presidents at Mount Rushmore

During a second visit to the Black Hills in August 1925, Borglum identified Mount Rushmore as the desired site of the sculpture. Local Native Americans and environmentalists voiced their opposition to the project, deeming it a desecration of Sioux heritage as well as the natural landscape. But Robinson worked tirelessly to raise funding for the sculpture, aided by Rapid City Mayor John Boland and Senator Peter Norbeck, among others. After President Calvin Coolidge traveled to the Black Hills for his summer vacation, the sculptor convinced the president to deliver an official dedication speech at Mount Rushmore on August 10, 1927 carving began that October.

In 1929, during the last days of his presidency, Coolidge signed legislation appropriating $250,000 in federal funds for the Rushmore project and creating the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission to oversee its completion. Boland was made the president of the commission’s executive committee, though Robinson (to his immense disappointment) was excluded. 

To carve the four presidential heads into the face of Mount Rushmore, Borglum utilized new methods involving dynamite and pneumatic hammers to blast through a large amount of rock quickly, in addition to the more traditional tools of drills and chisels. Some 400 workers removed around 450,000 tons of rock from Mount Rushmore, which still remains in a heap near the base of the mountain. Though it was arduous and dangerous work, no lives were lost during the completion of the carved heads.


The origin story of Monument Avenue, America’s most controversial street

The boulevard that long defined Richmond, Virginia, capital of the Confederacy, began as a ploy by a savvy real estate developer.

Empty plinths colorfully spray-painted with social justice slogans now punctuate the South’s grandest boulevard. In the aftermath of the May 25 killing of George Floyd at the hands of Minneapolis police, protestors and city contractors brought down the immense memorials to Confederate leaders along Richmond’s tree-lined Monument Avenue.

“Times have changed, and removing these statues will allow the healing process to begin,” said Levar Stoney, the city’s 39-year-old African-American mayor. “Richmond is no longer the capital of the Confederacy. It is filled with diversity and love for all.”

Yet the 12-ton equestrian figure of General Robert E. Lee continues to tower over one of the Virginia capital’s most elegant neighborhoods, its fate tied up in litigation. The statue celebrates the leader of Confederate forces, but its origin reveals a bitter struggle between his nephew and a biracial coalition to define the New South in the aftermath of the Civil War.

As Union troops approached the beleaguered city in April 1865, Confederate soldiers set fire to its warehouses, and the conflagration eventually destroyed a quarter of Richmond. The city was slow to recover, but by the early 1880s its factories boomed, drawing Black, white, and immigrant workers. An impressed New York Times lauded Richmond’s “snap and go” that heralded “a new epoch” of commercial ambition.

That new epoch brought political change as well. An alliance of white, working-class Democrats and Black Republicans formed a powerful movement called the Readjusters, a term referring to those who wanted to renegotiate Virginia’s pre-war debt in order to invest in the future. Its leader was William Mahone, an industrialist who had served with General Lee.

The Readjusters quickly won control of the state’s general assembly, the governorship, and municipalities like Richmond, and launched an ambitious effort to boost funding for schools for both Blacks and whites and abolish laws designed to discourage Black voting.

Conservative Democrats resolved to break this formidable alliance by reviving the fading passions for the Lost Cause. Fitzhugh Lee, who had fought under his uncle in the Civil War, led the charge. By 1885, Lee was in the governor’s mansion, and the Democratic Party regained the legislative majority, though a few cities, like Richmond, remained Readjuster strongholds.

Governor Lee made erecting a monument to his uncle a priority, in order to keep the fires of Confederate memory kindled. In 1886 the general assembly put him in charge of a memorial association, and his agents fanned out across the South to solicit donations. The ideal emissary, one of the governor’s secretaries confided, was a handsome but “crippled, maimed Confederate” who could “interest the women.” Contributions poured in. (Here's why the Confederate battle flag made a 20th century comeback.)

The city’s leading white women advocated a prominent downtown hill as the best site for the equestrian statue, which was cast in Paris at a cost of $77,500. The governor had other ideas. One of his close friends, a real-estate developer named Otway Allen, proposed donating a lot in a field a quarter mile west of the city limits. Allen envisioned the statue as the magnet to create a fashionable—and lucrative—subdivision.

The proposal drew outrage across the state for seeming to trade on the dead general’s prestige for financial gain. A Lynchburg newspaper accused the association “of betraying its high public mission in favor of crass private interests” by relegating the statue to “a remote and inaccessible suburb.”

Whether Lee’s nephew stood to benefit directly from the deal is not clear, said University of Pittsburgh historian Kirk Savage. But the governor brushed aside the clamor, arguing that the plan would increase tax revenues for the fast-expanding city. Yet when he sought $15,000 from the Richmond city council in the fall of 1887 to cover the cost of a celebration at the laying of the cornerstone, he met spirited resistance.

One city council member dismissed the project as “merely an effort to boom an old field,” while two African-American council members openly ridiculed the request. “If I had a different complexion, I would vote for the appropriation,” joked Anderson Hayes, drawing laughs from the audience. “General Lee was a good man, and I hope he is at rest,” added Edinboro Archer. “He had his opinions and I have mine.” In the end, the request was soundly rejected 17 to 8.


Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Confederate Soldier Memorial Huntsville,
Madison County Courthouse
Oscar Hummel, sculptor
Georgia Marble Works, fabricator
granite unveiled November 21, 1905 [1] "In memory of the heroes who fell in defense of the principles which gave birth to the Confederate cause erected by the Daughters of the Confederacy. Our Confederate dead. In memory of General John Hunt Morgan, "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy, born in Huntsville June 1, 1825, died defending the noble cause Sept. 1864" [2]
Confederate Monument
Montgomery,
Alabama State Capitol
Alexander Doyle, sculptor
Gorda C. Doud, designer
Russellville limestone,
granite,
bronze
dedicated December 7, 1898 Inscriptions: 1861-1865 / CONSECRATED TO THE MEMORY OF THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SEAMEN
FAME'S TEMPLE BOASTS NO HIGHER NAME, / NO KING IS GRANDER ON HIS THRONE / NO GLORY SHINES WITH BRIGHTER GLEAM, / THE NAME OF 'PATRIOT' STANDS ALONE.
WHEN THIS HISTORIC SHAFT SHALL CRUMBLING LIE / IN AGES HENCE, IN WOMAN'S HEART WILL BE, / A FOLDED FLAG, A THRILLING PAGE UNROLLED, / A DEATHLESS SONG OF SOUTHERN CHIVALRY.
THESE SEAMEN OF CONFEDERATE FAME / STARTED THE WONDERING WORLD / FOR BRAVER FIGHT WAS NEVER FOUGHT, / AND FAIRER FLAG WAS NEVER FURLED.
THE KNIGHTLIEST OF THE KNIGHTLY RACE / WHO SINCE THE DAYS OF OLD, / HAVE KEPT THE LAMP OF CHIVALRY / ALIGHT IN HEARTS OF GOLD.
THIS CORNER STONE WAS LAID BY / JEFFERSON DAVIS. / PRESIDENT OF C.S.A. / APRIL 29, 1886. [3]
Jefferson Davis Monument Montgomery,
Alabama State Capitol
Frederick Hibbard, sculptor
Roman Bronze Works, founder
bronze, granite base unveiled November 19, 1940 [4] in part: JEFFERSON DAVIS, JUNE 3, 1808-DECEMBER 6, 1889, SOLDIER SCHOLAR STATESMAN, A GRADUATE OF WEST POINT MILITARY ACADEMY. HE SERVED THE UNITED STATES AS COLONEL OF MISSISSIPPI VOLUNTEERS. MEXICAN WAR: MEMBER OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, SENATOR, AND AS SECRETARY OF WAR. INAUGURATED PRESIDENT OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, FEBRUARY 18, 1861. PRESENTED TO THE STATE OF ALABAMA BY THE/UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY NOVEMBER 19, 1940 [5]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Confederate Memorial Fort Smith,
Sebastian County Courthouse
Monumental Cut Stone Company, fabricator granite dedicated September 10, 1903 "LEST WE FORGET / 1861-1865 / OUR CONFEDERATE DEAD / ERECTED / BY THE / VARINA JEFFERSON DAVIS / CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS / OF CONFEDERACY / FORT SMITH, ARK. / 1903." [6]
Pine Bluff Confederate Monument
aka David Owen Dodd Statue
Pine Bluff,
Jefferson County Courthouse
McNeel Marble Works, fabricator Georgia marble November 10, 1910 [7] in part: TO THE MEMORY OF / OUR CONFEDERATE / SOLDIERS. / WE CARE NOT WHENCE THEY CAME, / DEAR IN THEIR LIFELESS CLAY. /WHETHER KNOWN OR UNKNOWN / TO FAME / THEIR CAUSE AND COUNTRY / STILL THE SAME. / THEY DIED AND WORE THE GREY. / THIS TABLET IS INSCRIBED TO/ J. ED MURRAY COLONEL / OF THE 5TH ARKANSAS REGIMENT. / KILLED AT THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA. / JULY 22, 1864 / AGE 21 YEARS. 1861 - 1865 / CONFEDERATE. ERECTED BY THE DAVID OWEN DODD CHAPTER. / UNITED DAUGHTERS / OF THE CONFEDERACY. / NOV 10, 1910 / IN LEGEND AND LAY / OUR HEROS (sic) IN GRAY / SHALL FOREVER LIVE OVER / AGAIN FOR US. A TRIBUTE TO DAVID OWEN DODD / OUR MARTYR HERO / HANGED AT LITTLE ROCK / AS A SPY JAN. 8, 1864 / AGED 17 YEARS / HE WAS OFFERED LIFE AND / LIBERTY BUT PREFERRED TO / DIE RATHER THAN PROVE / FALSE TO HIS TRUST: [8]
Bentonville Confederate Monument Bentonville, Public Square Park Unknown, from Barre, Vermont [9] Granite August 8, 1908 [10] North face inscription: "THEIR NAMES ARE BORNE ON HONOR'S SHIELD / THEIR RECORD IS WITH GOD / CONFEDERATE."

East face inscription: " THEY FOUGHT FOR HOME AND FATHERLAND / CONFEDERATE."

South face inscription: "1861-65 / CONFEDERATE."

West face inscription: "TO THE SOUTHERN SOLDIERS / ERECTED BY A.J. BATES AND / THE JAMES H. BERRY CHAPTER / UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY / AUG. 8, 1908. / CONFEDERATE."

Metal plate added to west face on January 30, 1914: "JAMES H. BERRY / 1841-1913 / SOLDIER AND STATESMAN / BELOVED OF ARKANSAS / 2ND LIEUTENANT / CO. E 16TH ARK. INFANTRY, C.S.A / LEGISLATOR - JURIST / GOVERNOR OF ARKANSAS / UNITED STATES SENATOR / HE PERFORMED EVERY DUTY / WITH AN EYE / SINGLE TO THE PUBLIC WELFARE / AND HIS OWN UNBLEMISHED HONOR / THIS TABLE IS PLACED HERE / BY THE JAMES H. BERRY CHAPTER / UNITED DAUGHTERS OF / THE CONFEDERACY / THE PAT CLEBURNE CAMP / SONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS / AND OTHER FRIENDS / IN LOVING REMEMBRANCE / AND APPRECIATION / OF HIS NOBLE LIFE AND CHARACTER." [10]

Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Wilcox County Confederate Monument Abbeville,
Wilcox County Library
McNeel Marble Works, fabricator Georgia marble April 26, 1909 [16] in part: "CONFEDERATE / DEAD / CONFEDERATE" "THIS CARVEN STONE IS / HERE TO TELL / TO ALL THE WORLD THE / LOVE WE BEAR / TO THOSE WHO FOUGHT AND / BLED AND FELL, / WHOSE BATTLE CRY WAS / DO AND DARE. / WHO FEARED NO FOE, BUT/FACED THE FRAY— /OUR GALLANT MEN WHO WORE THE GRAY." "ERECTED BY THE / ABBEVILLE CHAPTER, / UNITED DAUGHTERS OF / THE CONFEDERACY, /APRIL 26, 1909. / IN MEMORY OF OUR / HEROES IN GRAY." "IT IS A DUTY WE OWE / TO POSTERITY TO SEE / THAT OUR CHILDREN SHALL / KNOW THE VIRTUES AND / BECOME WORTHY OF THEIR / SIRES." [17]
DeKalb County Confederate Monument Decatur, Old Courthouse (removed in 2020) 1908 (South Face): Erected by the men and women and children of Dekalb County, to the memory of the soldiers and sailors of the Confederacy, of whose virtues in peace and in war we are witnesses, to the end that justice may be done and that the truth perish not.

(West Face): After forty two years another generation bears witness to the future that these men were of a covenant keeping race who held fast to the faith as it was given by the fathers of the Republic. Modest in prosperity, gentile in peace, brave in battle, and undespairing in defeat, they knew no law of life but loyalty and truth and civic faith, and to these virtues they consecrated their strength.

(North Face): These men held that the states made the union, that the Constitution is the evidence of the covenant, that the people of the State are subject to no power except as they have agreed, that free convention binds the parties to it, that there is sanctity in oaths and obligations in contracts, and in defense of these principles they mutually pledged their live, their fortunes, and their sacred honor. (East Face) How well they kept the faith is faintly written in the records of the armies and the history of the times. We who knew them testify that as their courage was without a precedent their fortitude has been without a parallel. May their prosperity be worthy.

ON SUNDAY. MAY 3RD, 1863, GEN. NATHAN BEDFORD FORREST, BY HIS INDOMITABLE WILL, AFTER A RUNNING FIGHT OF THREE DAYS AND NIGHTS, WITH 410 MEN, CAPTURED COL. A.D. STREIGHT’S RAIDERS, NUMBERING 1600, THEREBY SAVING ROME FROM DESTRUCTION.

“FORREST’S CAPACITY FOR WAR SEEMED ONLY TO BE LIMITED BY THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR IT’S DISPLAY.” GEN. BEAUREGARD.

“HIS CAVALRY WILL TRAVEL A HUNDRED MILES IN LESS TIME THAN OURS WILL TEN” GEN. W.T. SHERMAN."

The statue represents Confederate officer, Captain Robert D. Logan
(Front of base:) CSA/UDC (as a monogram)/1861-1865/ERECTED BY THE U. D. C./AND THE VETERANS/OF THE C. S. A. OF BOYLE CO./TO THE CONFEDERATE DEAD (Back of base:) WHAT THEY WERE THE WHOLE WORLD KNOWS [58]

Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Confederate Monument Baton Rouge,
3rd Street & North Boulevard
Benjamin Joseph Goodman, sculptor marble base dedicated February 22, 1886
sculpture dedicated 1890
ERECTED BY THE MEN AND WOMEN OF EAST AND WEST BATON ROUGE TO PERPETUATE THE HEROISM AND PATRIOTIC DEVOTION OF THE NOBLE SOLDIERS FROM THE TWO PARISHES WHO WORE THE GRAY AND CROSSED THE RIVER WITH THEIR IMMORTAL LEADERS TO REST UNDER THE SHADE OF THE TREES. ORIGINAL MONUMENT ERECTED 1886 A.D. [60]
The South's Defenders Lake Charles,
Ryan Street & Kirby Street
marble base dedicated June 3, 1915
June 3, 1915
OUR HEROES [61]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/Inscriptions
Confederate Monument
or War Memorial Monument
Belzoni,
Humphreys County Courthouse
Columbus Marble Works, fabricator marble Spring 1923 Monument includes three figures, a woman, a CSA soldier and a WWI doughboy
"The figure of the World War I soldier is the second made for the memorial. The first, modelled after a young ROTC student, included the ROTC insignia on the uniform pocket. The inclusion of the insignia was offensive to the Daughters of the Confederacy, and the statue was sold to State College and replaced with the current one in time for the Dedication Day." [62]
Washington County Confederate Memorial Greenville,
Washington County Courthouse
Columbus Marble Works, fabricator marble dedicated June 3, 1909 [63] in part, "Erected by Private Taylor Rucks Chaper United Daughters of the Confederacy to commemorate the valor and patriotism of the Confederate soldiers of Washington County. it is sure the truth of history that the fundamental principles for which our fathers contended should often be reiterated that the purpose which inspired them may be correctly estimated and the putiry of their motives be abundantly vindicated. Charles B. Galloway", "The sublimest word in the English language is duty. Robert E. Lee," "No braver battle for truth was ever fought in vain, Randolph H. McKim", "For those who encountered the perils of war in defense of states rights and constitutional government. Jefferson Davis." [64]
Confederate Monument Hattiesburg,
Forrest County Courthouse
Frank H Hartman, contractor marble unveiled April 26, 1910 [65] in part: WHEN THEIR COUNTRY CALLED THEY HELD BACK NOTHING THEY CHEERFULLY GAVE THEIR PROPERTY AND THEIR LIVES THRU THE DEVOTION AND UNTIRING EFFORTS OF THE HATTIESBURG CHAPTER NO. 422 OF THE UNITED DAUGHTERS/OF THE CONFEDERACY, THIS MONUMENT IS ERECTED TO THE HONOR AND MEMORY OF THOSE WHO WORE THE GRAY [66]
Hinds County Confederate Monument Raymond,
Hinds County Courthouse
Frederick Hibbard, sculptor
American Bronze Company, founder
April 29, 1908 [67] in part: "WE OF THE SOUTH REMEMBER, WE OF THE SOUTH REVERE. ERECTED BY THE PEOPLE OF HINDS COUNTY, IN GRATEFUL MEMORY OF THEIR MEN WHO IN/1861-65 GAVE, OR OFFERED TO GIVE, THEIR LIVES IN DEFENSE OF CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT, AND TO THE HEROIC WOMEN WHOSE DEVOTION TO OUR CAUSE IN ITS DARKEST HOUR SUSTAINED THE STRONG AND STRENGTHENED THE WEAK." [68]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/Inscriptions
General Sterling Price Keytesville,
Price Memorial Park
Allen George Newman, sculptor,
McNeel Marble Works, fabricator
bronze, concrete base dedicated June 17, 1915 "GENERAL STERLING PRICE / BORN IN PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY, VIRGINIA / SEPTEMBER 11, 1809 / RESIDED IN CHARITON COUNTY, MISSOURI / 1831-1865 / SPEAKER / OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES / OF MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY / 1840-1844 / ELECTED TO CONGRESS 1844 / PARTICIPATED IN WAR WITH MEXICO / 1846-1848/RISING FROM RANK OF COLONEL / TO THAT OF BRIGADIER GENERAL / CHAIRMAN OF CONVENTION OF 1861 / MAJOR GENERAL IN COMMAND/OF MISSOURI STATE TROOPS 1861-1862 / DIED IN ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI / SEPTEMBER 29, 1867." [69]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments
Confederate Memorial Fountain Helena,
North Park
George H. Carsley, architect granite, copper, bronze, concrete dedicated September 5, 1916 [70]
Removed August 18, 2017
"By the Daughters of the Confederacy in Montana 1916" [71]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
60th North Carolina Infantry Monument Asheville,
Buncombe County Court House
Cherokee Marbleworks, fabricator marble, granite base dedicated November 8, 1905 [72] in part, "By the Asheville Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy and Friends, This monument is erected commemorating the heroic part taken by the 60th Regt. N.C. volunteers in the great battle of Chickamauaga, Sept. 20, 1863 where it was given post of honor by "State Commission" appointed in 1893 to locate the position of each N.C. regt. in that battle and a marker placed on east margin of Lafayette Pike in Kelly's Field " [73]
Silent Sam Chapel Hill Canadian sculptor John Wilson bronze 1913 Toppled by protesters, August 20, 2018
Confederate Heroes Monument Fayetteville,
St. James Square
I.W. Durham, sculptor bronze, granite base dedicated May 30, 1902 [74] "The women of Cumberland to their Confederate dead, May 20, 1861 - May 10, 1902. The died in defense of their rights. For them should fall the teardrop of a nation's grief. Lord God of Host be with us yet lest we forget, lest we forget"
Confederate Memorial Monument Graham, Alamance County Courthouse Square McNeel Marble Works, fabricator Italian marble, granite base May 6, 1904 [52] "TO COMMEMORATE / WITH GRATEFUL LOVE, / THE PATRIOTISM, VALOR / AND DEVOTION TO DUTY / OF THE BRAVE SOLDIERS / OF ALAMANCE COUNTY, / THIS MONUMENT IS / ERECTED THROUGH / THE EFFORTS OF THE / GRAHAM CHAPTER, / UNITED DAUGHTERS/OF THE CONFEDERACY. / OUR CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS. "Dedicated May 16, 1914" "ON FAME'S ETERNAL / CAMPING GROUND, / THEIR SILENT TENTS / ARE SPREAD, / AND GLORY GUARDS, / WITH SOLEMN ROUND, / THE BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD." / 1861 / CAS (sic) / 1865 "Faithful unto death / they are crowned / with immortal glory." "Conquered they / can never be / whose souls and / spirits are free." [75]
Memory of N. C. Troops at the Battle of Averasboro - 1865 Harnett County,
site of the Battle of Averasboro
Eggerton Monument Company granite 1968 In part: "Chicoara Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy Averasboro/Battleground Centennial Commission 1968, First at Bethel, farthest to the front ay Gettysburg and Chickamauga, last at Appomattox" [76]
Confederate Monument Monroe,
Old Union County Courthouse
Jacob Efird, sculptor granite dedicated July 4, 1910 [77] In part: "Union County's Volunteers, Erected by the Monroe Chapter of the UDC July 4, 1910 Dedicated to the Memory of the Boys in Gray from Union County Who Gave Their All to the Protection of Home 1861-1865" [78]
Henry Lawson Wyatt Raleigh,
North Carolina State Capitol
Gutzon Borglum, sculptor
Gorham Manufacturing Company, founder
bronze, granite base dedicated June 10, 1912 [79] First Confederate soldier to die in battle.
Confederate Monument Shelby,
Court Square, Old Cleveland County Courthouse
C.M. Walsh Marble Co,. fabricator,
American Bronze Company, founder
bronze, granite installed November 21, 1906
dedicated spring 1907
[80]
Confederate Soldier Winston-Salem,
Forsyth County Courthouse,
Courthouse Square,
James Alfred Blum, designer granite dedicated October 3, 1905 [81] "Our confederate dead..in camp on fames eternal camping grounds, as southern soldiers of the war of 1861-65, they share fame that mankind awards to the heroes who served in that great conflict. As southern soldiers of the war of 1861-65, they share the fame that mankind awards to the heroes who served in that great conflict. Sleeping but glorious dead in fames portal dead but victorious but immortal they give us great glory what more could they give? They give us a story a story to live." [82]
Confederate Monument Yanceyville,
Caswell County Courthouse,
Public Square
J.F. Manning Company, fabricator
American Bronze Company, founder
bronze, granite dedicated September 10, 1921 [83] "To The Sons of Caswell County who served in the war of 1861-65 In answer to the call of their country In whatever event that may face our national existence may God give us the will to do what is right, that, like our forefathers, we may impress our times with the sincerity and steadfastness of our lives. Erected by the Caswell County Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy" [84]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
The Lookout Sandusky,
Johnson's Island
Moses Ezekiel, sculptor bronze, granite base dedicated June 7, 1910 [85] In part: Erected by the Robert Patton Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy of Cincinnati, Ohio in memory of the Southern prison on this island during the War Between the States. Dead, but sceptered sovereigns who rule us from the dust. This stone upon which this is inscribed was placed by the Grand Lodge of Mississippi in Remembrance of the Masons who sleep here.
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Chester Confederate Monument Chester,
Main & Gadsden Streets
McNeel Marble Works Georgia granite and marble June 27, 1905 [86] "THIS MONUMENT GUARDS THE MEMORY OF THE MEN OF CHESTER DISTRICT WHO OBEYING THE CALL OF THEIR STATE DIED FOR THE CONFEDERATE CAUSE 1861-1865 TIME MAY CRUMBLE THIS MARBLE INTO DUST BUT TIME CAN NOT DIM THEIR GLORY. THEIR PATRIOTISM, THEIR VALOR, THEIR FAITHFULNESS AND THEIR FAME REMAIN FOREVER THE HERITAGE OF THEIR/COUNTRYMEN. NON SIBI SED PATRIAE. (translates as "not for self, but country") Their fame increases like the Branches of a tree through the Hidden Courses of Time ERECTED BY DAUGHTERS/OF THE CONFEDERACY. 1905." [87]
Confederate Defenders of Charleston White Point Garden, Charleston, South Carolina Hermon Atkins MacNeil Bronze and granite October 20, 1932 "TO THE CONFEDERATE DEFENDERS OF CHARLESTON FORT SUMTER 1861–1865" and "COUNT THEM HAPPY WHO FOR THEIR FAITH AND THEIR COURAGE ENDURED A GREAT FIGHT."
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments
United Daughters of the Confederacy Monument 800 N. Ocoee Street
Cleveland, Tennessee
McNeel Marble Works Granite base, marble sculpture Dedicated June 3, 1911 (Center base, north side:) To our known and unknown Confederate dead (Center base, east side:) Man was not born to himself alone, but to his country 1861-1865 (Center base, west side:) Erected by the Jefferson Davis Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy 1910 [88]
United Daughters of the Confederacy Monument [89] Fayetteville,
Courthouse Square, Lincoln County Courthouse
J. L. Mott Iron Works, founder painted metal 1904 The statue's pedestal features a drinking fountain on either side.
Our Confederate Soldiers Franklin,
Williamson County Courthouse
Italinan marble, granite base November 30, 1899 [90] 'in part: "ERECTED TO / CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS / BY FRANKLIN CHAPTER / NO. 14 / DAUGHTERS OF / THE CONFEDERACY / NOV. 30, A.D. 1899" " IN HONOR AND MEMORY / OF OUR HEROES / BOTH PRIVATE AND CHIEF / OF THE / SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY. / NO COUNTRY EVER HAD / TRUER SONS, / NO CAUSE / NOBLER CHAMPIONS, / NO PEOPLE / BOLDER DEFENDERS / THAN THE BRAVE SOLDIERS / TO WHOSE MEMORY / THIS STONE IS ERECTED." "WOULD IT BE / A BLAME FOR US / IF THEIR MEMORY PART / FROM OUR LAND AND HEARTS / AND A WRONG TO THEM / AND A SHAME TO US. / THE GLORIES THEY WON / SHALL NOT WANE FROM US. / IN LEGEND AND LAY, OUR HEROES IN GRAY / SHALL EVER LIVE / OVER AGAIN FOR US." "WE WHO SAW AND KNEW THEM WELL / ARE WITNESSES / TO COMING AGES / OF THEIR VALOR / AND FIDELITY. / TRIED AND TRUE. GLORY DROWNED / 1861-1865 [91]
General Morgan Monument Greenville,
Greene County Courthouse
Sam Highbarger, sculptor Tennessee marble Dedicated May 10, 1931 "GENERAL JOHN H. MORGAN 1825-1864 THE THUNDERBOLT OF THE CONFEDERACY FIRST LIEUTENANT, MARSHAL'S REGIMENT OF CAVALRY IN THE MEXICAN WAR CAPTAIN THE "LEXINGTON RIFLES" 1857 CAPTAIN COMPANY A OF THE KENTUCKY CAVALRY 1861 COLONELL 2ND KENTUCKY CAVALRY 1862 BRIGADIER GENERAL APPOINTED FROM TENNESSEE DECEMBER 11 1862. HIS COMMAND, NEVER EXCEEDING 4000/MEN, WAS COMPOSED LARGELY OF KEN TUCKIANS AND TENNESSEANS. IT WAS RENOWNED FOR BOLDNESS AND CELERITY ON RAID CARRYING TERROR INTO THE RE GION NORTH OF THE OHIO. THE "GREAT RAIDER" WAS SURPRISED AT NIGHT AND KILLED BY A DETACHMENT OF THE COMMAND OF GEN. A. C. GILLEM ON THE PREMISES OF THE WILLIAMS HOME/NEAR THIS SPOT SEPTEMBER 4 1864 HIS HEROISM IS THE HERITAGE OF THE SOUTH"
Confederate Memorial Hall
(women's college dormitory)
Nashville,
Peabody College campus of Vanderbilt University
Henry C. Hibbs, architect building 1935 The word "Confederate" was removed from its name in 2016. [92]
United Daughters of the Confederacy Memorial Shiloh,
Shiloh National Military Park [93]
Frederick Hibbard May 17, 1917 [94]
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Confederate Monument Bonham,
Fannin County Courthouse, NW corner of Courthouse Square
Bonham Marble Works, fabricator. stone with granite base dedicated April 26, 1905 [95] "To the Confederate Soldiers who sacrificed their lives for a just cause this monument is loving (sic) dedicated by the Daughters of the Confederacy aided by there (sic) Confederate Veterans Association of Fannin County. From 1861 to 1865 they fought for principal (sic), their homes and those they loved on fames eternal camping ground their silent tents are spread and glory guards with solemn round the bivouac of the dead. Battles fought 2242, total enlistment Confederate army 600,000, total enlistment U.S. Army 2,776,304, federal prisoners captured by confederates 270,000, confederate prisoners captured by federalist (sic) 220,000. CO. E. 11th Tex. Cav./Cof, 11th Tex. Cav. (On north side of base:) The great war unrivaled in history for bravery, gallantry, daring and dash." [96]
Queen of the Sea [97] Corpus Christi,
Broadway Bluff, Peoples Street & Broadway
Pompeo Coppini, sculptor cast concrete bas relief dedicated April 26, 1911 [27] A fountain flanked by stairs, with an arched bas-relief tableau of Neptune and Mother Earth crowning an allegorical figure of Corpus Christi.
In part: "In memory of the soldiers of the Confederacy erected by the Corpus Christi Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy." [98]
Call To Arms Corsicana,
Navarro County Courthouse
Louis Amateis, sculptor
Bureau Brothers, founder
bronze January 1909 [99]
Confederate Monument [100] Dallas,
Pioneer Park Cemetery
(formerly located in Old City Park, 1897-1961)
Frank Teich, sculptor
Teich Monument Works, fabricator
obelisk & bases: Texas granite
statues: Carrara marble
cornerstone laid June 25, 1896
dedicated April 29, 1897
A 51.5 ft (15.7 m) granite obelisk crowned by a Confederate soldier statue, surrounded by 9 ft (2.7 m) marble statues of Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Albert Sidney Johnston and Stonewall Jackson
Inscriptions: "THE BRAZEN LIPS OF SOUTHERN / CANNON THUNDERED AN UNANSWERED / ANTHEM TO THE GOD OF BATTLE."
"THE CONFEDERATE SABREUR KIS / SED HIS BLADE HOMEWARD RIDING / STRAIGHT INTO THE MOUTH OF / HELL."
"IT WAS GIVEN THE GENIUS AND VALOR / OF CONFEDERATE SEAMEN TO REVOLU / TIONIZE NAVAL WARFARE OVER THE / EARTH."
"CONFEDERATE INFANTRY DROVE / BAYONETS THROUGH COLUMNS / THAT NEVER BEFORE REELED TO / THE SHOCK OF BATTLE."
"THIS STONE SHALL CRUMBLE INTO DUST ERE / THE DEATHLESS DEVOTION OF SOUTHERN WOMEN / BE FORGOTTEN."
"ERECTED BY / THE DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY / DALLAS CHAPTER NO. 6. / JUNE 25TH 1896."
Dignified Resignation Galveston,
Galveston County Courthouse
Louis Amateis, sculptor bronze dedicated June 3, 1912 [101]
Spirit of the Confederacy Houston,
Sam Houston Park
Louis Amateis, sculptor
Roman Bronze Works, Bureau Brothers, founder
bronze dedicated January 19, 1908 [102] in part: "The Spirit of the Confederacy erected by the Robert E. Lee Chapter N. 186 U.D.C. January 1908 To all heroes of the South who fought for the principles of states rights" [103]
Confederate Soldier Monument Llano,
Llano County Courthouse
James Finlay, and sons Jack and Jim Finlay granite dedicated February 22, 1916 [104] "To our Confederate dead 1861-1865. Erected by Llano Co. Chapter U.D.C. 1915"
World War I and Confederate Soldier Monument Memphis,
Hall County Courthouse,
G.W. Backus, designer marble dedicated March 18, 1924 [67] The monument includes two full sized figures, a CSA soldier and a World War I doughboy. [105]
John H. Reagan Monument Palestine,
John H. Reagan Park
Pompeo Coppini, sculptor bronze, concrete base dedicated July 16, 1911 [106] in part: "The old Roman's highest ambition was to do his full duty: consciousness of having done it was his ample reward. A good name is to be chosen that great riches and looking (sic) favor rather than silver or gold. ……Author memoirs of secession and the Civil War." [107]
Confederate Mothers Monument Texarkana,
United Daughters of the Confederacy Park
"ordered from Italy"
Henry Allen, designer
Allen Monuments, fabricator
marble dedicated April 21, 1918 [108]
The Last Stand Victoria,
DeLeon Plaza
Pompeo Coppini, sculptor
Roman Bronze Works, founder
bronze, granite base dedicated July 10, 1912 [109] in part: "To the soldiers of the Confederate States of America. This monument is dedicated by the William P. Rogers Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, Victoria, Texas. June the Third A.D. Nineteen Hundred and Twelve. On civilizations (sic) height, immutable they stand" [110]
Confederate Monument at Marshall, Texas Marshall, Texas - Harrison County Courthouse Frank Teich, Sculptor at the request of the United Daughters of the Confederacy marble sculpture, granite base dedicated on Robert E. Lee's birthday, January 16, 1906 (On front of base, raised letters:) CONFEDERATE (On back of base, raised letters:) ERECTED IN MEMORY OF OUR/CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS/BY THE/UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY/MARSHALL CHAPTER NO. 412/1905/THE LOVE, GRATITUDE, AND MEMORY/OF THE PEOPLE OF THE SOUTH,/SHALL GILD THEIR FAME IN ONE/ETERNAL SUNSHINE.

(On one side of base:) SOLDIERS, YOU IN THE WRECK OF GRAY/WITH THE BRAZEN BELT OF C.S.A./TAKE OUR LOVE AND TEARS TO-DAY./TAKE, THEN, ALL THAT WE HAVE TO GIVE,/AND BY GOD'S HELP WHILE OUR HEART SHALL LIVE/IT SHALL KEEP IN ITS FAITHFUL WAY/THE CAMPFIRE LIT FOR THE MEN IN GRAY-/AYE, TILL TRUMPET SOUND FAR AWAY/AND THE SILVER BUGLE OF HEAVEN PLAY/AND THE ROLL IS CALLED AT JUDGEMENT DAY."

(On other side of base:) NO MORE HEAR THE REBEL YELL,/WHERE BATTLE THUNDERS ROSE AND FELL/TIS NOW A WELCOME AND A CHEER/TO FRIENDS, TO FOEMEN, FAR AND NEAR,/AND PEACE, SWEET PEACE, BORN OF DISPAIR (sic)/WALKS FORTH AND SHEDS HER RADIENCE (sic) FAIR/UPON LOST FIELDS OF HONOR." unsigned

Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Appomattox Alexandria,
Washington & Prince Streets
bronze with granite base Caspar Buberl, sculptor, from a painting by John Adams Elder [111] dedicated May 24, 1889 [112] Statue removed June 2020 by the UDC [113]
Confederate Monument Arlington, Arlington National Cemetery Moses Ezekiel, sculptor
H. Gladenbeck & Sohn, founder
bronze on granite base unveiled June 4, 1914 [114] in part: "And they shall beat their swords into plough-shares and their spears into pruning hooks. Not for fame or reward not for place or for rank- not lured by ambition-or goaded by necessity- but in simple obedience to duty-as they understood it-these men suffered all-sacrificed all-dared all-and died" Randolph Harrison McKim. To our dead heroes by the United Daughters of the Confederacy-Victrix-causa-diis-placuit-sed-victa-catoni" (translated "the victorious cause pleased the gods, but the conquered cause pleased Cato)
The Confederate Soldiers' Monument Danville, Green Hill Cemetery M Hayes, Samuel Walters, sculptors copper reliefs
with granite base
unveiled September 3, 1878 in part: GEN. ROBERT E. LEE. CONFEDERATE DEAD. MEMORIAL TRIBUTE/OF VIRGINIA'S DAUGHTERS TO THE FALLEN BRAVE. DANVILLE, VIRGINIA. GEN. THOMAS J. JACKSON THEY DIED AS MEN WHO NOBLY CONTEND FOR THE CAUSE OF TRUTH AND RIGHT." THEY SOFTLY LIE AND SWEETLY SLEEP." PATRIOTS! KNOW THAT THESE FELL IN THE EFFORT TO ESTABLISH JUST GOVERNMENT AND PERPETUATE CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTY. WHO THUS DIE WILL LIVE IN LOFTY EXAMPLE. QUIDQUID EX HIS AMAVIMUS,/QUIDQUID MIRATI SUMUS,/MANET MANSURUMQUE EST IN/ANIMIS HOMINUM, IN/AETERNITATE TEMPORUM, FAMA RERUM. [115] Latin translates as :"[Anything out of those we have loved, whatever we admired, would continue to remain in the hearts of men, in the eternity of time, the reputation of things.]" [116] erected by the Ladies' Memorial Association of Danville, administered by United Daughters of the Confederacy.
Confederate Monument at Dinwiddie Courthouse Dinwiddie,
Courthouse Square
granite Ben Campbell, Burns and Campbell, fabricator November 27, 1909 [117] "In memory of Dindiddie's Confederate soldiers, that their heroic deeds. sublime self-sacrifice and undying devotion to duty and country may never be forgotten" [118]
Soldiers Circle Front Royal,
Prospect Hill Cemetery
John B Graver, sculptor
McNeel Marble Works, fabricator
Italian marble August 24, 1882 [119] IN MEMORY OF THE ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY SIX HONORED MEN WHO LIE BURIED HERE, FROM THIS AND OTHER SOUTHERN STATES THEY GAVE THEIR LIVES IN DEFENSE OF TRUTH AND RIGHT. THEY DIED IN THE CAUSE/OF HONOR AND JUSTICE. VIRGINIA HONORS THE/BRAVE ERECTED AUG. 24, 1882, BY THE LADIES' WARREN MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION [120]
Robert E. Lee Memorial Roanoke,
Lee Plaza
JH Marsteller Monument Company stone 1960 In June 2020, the Roanoke City Council voted to start the legal process to remove the monument and rename Lee Plaza after the July 1, 2020 date when a new state law removes the prohibition against removing monuments to the Confederate States of America. [121]
Confederate Monument Salem,
Old Roanoke County Courthouse
JH Marsteller Monument Company granite June 3, 1910 [122] 'In memory of the Confederate soldiers of Roanoke County, 1861-1865. Love makes memory eternal. Erected by the Southern Cross Chapter U.D.C. Salem Va. Also the Va. Div. Badge of the U.D.C.
Monument to the Confederate Soldiers [123] Sussex,
Sussex County Courthouse Green
McNeel Marble Works, fabricator stone November 1912 [124] in part: "THE PRINCIPLES FOR / WHICH THEY FOUGHT / LIVE ETERNALLY" / OUR / CONFEDERATE / SOLDIERS / LIST OF COMPANIES ORGANIZED IN / AND SENT OUT FROM SUSSEX COUNTY / FOR ROLL OF MEMBERS SEE RECORDS / IN THE COUNTY CLERK'S OFFICE / ERECTED BY / SUSSEX CHAPTER U.D.C. / NOV. - 1912 / CHAPTER ORGANIZED / SEPT. 29, 1909. [125]
Confederate Monument Warm Springs,
Bath County Courthouse
McNeel Marble Works, fabricator stone unveiled September 20, 1922 "CONFEDERATE / SOLDIERS / 1861-1865 / 'LEST WE FORGET' ERECTED BY / BATH CO. CHAPTER / U.D.C . / 1922"
Name Image Location Designer/sculptor Medium Date Comments/inscriptions
Confederate monument Seattle,
Lake View Cemetery
stone 1926 "In memory of the / United Confederate Veterans / Erected by Robert E. Lee / Chapter Number 885 / United Daughters / of the Confederacy / 1926″ [126]

This monument was toppled on the July 4, 2020 weekend, by persons unknown (as of July 6, 2020). [127]


The untold history of Mount Rushmore: a KKK sympathizer built monument on sacred Lakota Land

As tribal governments call on President Trump to cancel his Mount Rushmore Independence Day celebration, we look at why Native Americans have long pushed for the removal of the monument carved into the sacred Black Hills and designed by a sculptor with ties to the Ku Klux Klan. “This place is very, very sacred to our people,” says Nick Tilsen, president and CEO of the NDN Collective. “Stealing our land and then carving the faces of four white men who were colonizers, who committed genocide against Indigenous people, is an egregious act of violence.”

Transcript

AMY GOODMAN: As the coronavirus pandemic intensifies in the United States, with a record 52,000 new cases in just 24 hours, President Trump plans to hold an Independence Day celebration Friday at Mount Rushmore in South Dakota, with a fighter jet flyover and fireworks, which are banned in the area due to extreme forest fire potential. Some 7,500 people are expected. And South Dakota Governor Kristi Noem, a staunch Trump ally, says people will not be required to wear a mask or to remain six feet apart.

GOV. KRISTI NOEM: We’ll be giving out free face masks, if they choose to wear one, but we won’t be social distancing.

AMY GOODMAN: Trump’s rally comes amidst a national debate on how to deal with statues and symbols that enshrine systemic racism. Mount Rushmore itself is named after a gold rush lawyer and speculator. The monument features the sculpted heads of four U.S. presidents — Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt — blasted out of the ancient granite between 1927 and 1941 by 400 workers, directed by sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Earlier, he was recruited by the Daughters of the Confederacy to carve the huge Stone Mountain memorial to Confederate leaders in Georgia. Borglum was close to the Ku Klux Klan and was likely a member.

Mount Rushmore, in the region now known as the Black Hills, which is the sacred center of the Lakota people’s universe, and the president of the Oglala Sioux Tribe has ordered Trump to cancel Friday’s event. Julian Bear Runner told The Guardian, quote, “The lands on which that mountain is carved and the lands he’s about to visit belong to the Great Sioux Nation under a treaty signed in 1851 and the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 and I have to tell him he doesn’t have permission from its original sovereign owners to enter the territory at this time,” he said.

The government acknowledged tribal sovereignty over the Black Hills in two separate treaties and committed the land, quote, “for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupancy of the Sioux.” But gold was discovered there in the 1870s, and the Army drove the Indigenous people out. Decades of armed Indigenous resistance to the waves of settler-colonists that followed ended with the Army’s brutal massacre of Lakota women, children, and the elderly at Wounded Knee on December 29th, 1890.

All of this comes as Indian Country has been particularly hard hit by the coronavirus pandemic.

Well, for more, we’re going to Rapid City, South Dakota, not far from the Black Hills, where we’re joined by Nick Tilsen, president and CEO of the NDN Collective, a national organization dedicated to building Indigenous power. He’s a citizen of the Oglala Lakota Nation on Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.

Nick, it’s great to have you back with us. Can you describe the organizing that’s going on around President Trump’s Friday, July 3rd, visit, and Independence Day celebration at Mount Rushmore and why you’re protesting?

NICK TILSEN: Absolutely. Great to be back on here, Amy. The organizing that’s going on is about building, you know, a collective resistance, because there’s this narrative being pushed by the president and by the governor to celebrate this falsehood of democracy that has not ever worked for us as Indigenous people, and it’s also ignoring this deep, deep history of white supremacy and oppression towards Indigenous people. So we’re actively organizing young and old Indigenous people, and our allies, and bringing people together around building power and organizing in the community to counter that narrative and to counter the narrative that this is the shrine of democracy, when we really feel like it’s a shrine of hypocrisy.

AMY GOODMAN: You said to The New York Times, “Wherever you go to connect to God, that’s what the Black Hills are to the Lakota.” Talk about the significance of Mount Rushmore, designed by a sculptor with links to, and maybe was a member of, the KKK. Talk about what these four carvings of the heads of four presidents mean.

NICK TILSEN: Yeah. I mean, the Black Hills, or the He Sápa, in our language, is the place that we connect to the creator. It’s the place we go pick our medicines. Our people have been traveling there for thousands of years in following the actual star constellations to go to our sacred sites at different times, and so this place is very, very sacred to our people.

And so, the act of, one, stealing our land, and then carving the faces of four white men, who were colonizers, who committed genocide against Indigenous people, is an egregious act of violence. And then, furthermore, for it to be celebrated as the shrine of democracy, you know, some people don’t know — I mean, people talk about Abraham Lincoln as being one of the better presidents in the history of the country. Well, you know, people don’t realize that, on one hand, he signed the Emancipation Proclamation, and then he also ordered the largest mass hanging in the history of the United States, when he ordered the hanging of 38 Dakota people after the uprising in Dakota territory in southern Minnesota.

And so, these parts of this history are the truth and reality. And so, this is an act of violence and aggression against us, and it’s also pushing this falsehood narrative about American democracy, when we actually really should be uplifting the truths of what happened throughout history and how those truths are directly connected to the disparities that exist today in society amongst Indigenous people.

AMY GOODMAN: Kristi Noem, the governor of South Dakota, said masks will not be required, though they’ll be given out, and there will be no social distancing. Thousands and thousands of people are expected to crowd in. This, of course, follows the Tulsa event, this catastrophe for President Trump, where he said something like a million people might be turning out, and something like 6,000 did inside. And now we have the images of his campaign staff removing social distancing stickers inside the arena. And now we know that most of the campaign staff had to self-quarantine afterward. So, moving from Tulsa, where he had to move his event from Juneteenth to the 20th because of outcry, on the 99th anniversary month of one of the worst massacres of African Americans in U.S. history, to Mount Rushmore, and President Trump, just this week, calling for the protection of Confederate soldiers, and the images of Black Lives Matter symbols being “symbol[s] of hate. Your thoughts of what he is trying to convey, and especially now with this fireworks display, when fireworks are banned in the region because of forest fire potential?

NICK TILSEN: Yeah. I mean, it’s astonishing to me, but I guess, in some ways, it’s not [inaudible] seen, you know. Pushing this falsehood narrative and trying to wrestle up his base and pretending that rural America — right? — backs Trump, when rural America doesn’t back Trump, and so I think — and I think that this makes it actually like a very dangerous situation, when he’s pushing these narratives of white supremacy, and he’s digging in deeper and deeper, and he’s using these symbols, these symbols of grave injustice, and couching them as part of the great American story and using it as an opportunity to try to catalyze his campaign forward, when, in reality —

AMY GOODMAN: And your thoughts, Nick, on Trump tweeting, “I will Veto the Defense Authorization Bill if the Elizabeth ‘Pocahontas’ Warren (of all people!) Amendment, which will lead to the renaming (plus other bad things!) of Fort Bragg, Fort Robert E. Lee, and many other Military Bases from which we won Two World Wars, is in the Bill!” him referring to her again as “Pocahontas” and then talking about preserving the names of these bases named after Confederate leaders?

NICK TILSEN: I mean, it’s the reality that we have a white supremacist and a racist who’s the president of the United States currently. And that’s why, when we mobilize and organize against these narratives, we have to realize that we’re mobilizing and organizing for the betterment of our nation, not just resisting a racist president, but that we actually are pivoting to actually building power, because we have to build a country that we all collectively believe in and are fighting for. And so, it’s so important for us to come out not just in resistance of the president, but actually in the protection for the future that we’re all trying to build together in this nation.

AMY GOODMAN: When you talk about protection, in early May, leaders of the Oglala and Cheyenne River Sioux refused a request from South Dakota’s Republican Governor Noem, a close ally of Trump, to remove checkpoints leading to their reservation, that they say helped to protect the tribe from the coronavirus — of course, especially in Navajo Nation in New Mexico, a hot spot for coronavirus. This showdown that has happened around coronavirus, and now President Trump and his ally, Governor Noem, saying there will be no social distancing?

NICK TILSEN: Yeah. I mean, the tribes have been doing a great job in this region for protecting our borders, and using tribal sovereignty to protect our community and our people. And we have seen, you know, the act of aggression by Governor Kristi Noem to try to limit tribal sovereignty and try to prohibit tribes’ ability to protect their own community, when there’s already legal precedent in place that tribes already have tribal sovereignty to control who comes and leaves in their reservation, and we already have tribal sovereignty for the purpose of protecting our communities and our people.

And so, it’s egregious that there are these aggressive attempts and attacks on tribal sovereignty for the sole purpose of pushing a false narrative that a global pandemic is not happening. And so, we continue to dig in here, and our tribal leaders of Oglala Sioux Tribe and Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe continue to step up in great leadership to continue to protect our communities and our people against these false narratives and against the global pandemic.

AMY GOODMAN: Nick Tilsen, we’ve heard about white supremacist militias in the Black Hills, a couple of dozen of these militias. We’ve heard about the massive Klan march in the 1920s in this area of South Dakota, one of the largest chapters of the Klan existed. If you can talk about that background and how you’re organizing for tomorrow?

NICK TILSEN: Yeah. So, I mean, the history of white supremacist groups in this region is well known, and so has this been a hotbed for Indigenous resistance. And so there’s been, you know, extremes here. And so, we will continue to organize and march. We will do so without any fear, but with caution.

And so, you know, nowadays everybody tries to make threats to try to prevent people from organizing and protesting, but in our particular situation, we have been fighting for our land for thousands of years, and we intend to continue to fight for our land, without any — regardless of threats and regardless of white supremacist groups that are in the region, because we believe in the power of the creator and the power that exists amongst the elders and the young people to help to protect our communities. And so —

AMY GOODMAN: What do you want to see happen with Mount Rushmore, Nick?

NICK TILSEN: Long term, we want to see Mount Rushmore closed as a national monument. And the decision-making power on what to do with it needs to be transferred back to the Oglala — to the Lakota people of the region.

AMY GOODMAN: And finally, your own family’s remarkable history, going back to your great-grandmother, Meridel Le Sueur, the great writer?

NICK TILSEN: Yeah. You know, our family has been organizing for generations on both sides of my family, and really even here in the Black Hills. In 1980, my father and mother and many other leaders came together to organize the Black Hills Survival Gathering in this region, which was the convergence of a movement, of the environmental movement and of the anti-nuclear movement. And there’s still the roots of that organizing that continues to happen here. So, yeah, I’m definitely honored to be a part of a family that has had generational organizing taking place.

AMY GOODMAN: Nick Tilsen, thanks so much for being with us, president and CEO of the NDN Collective, dedicated to building Indigenous power, citizen of the Oglala Lakota Nation on Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, one of the organizers of the protest at President Trump’s Independence Day celebration at Mount Rushmore on July 3rd.

Before we go to break — coming up, we’re going to be talking about vice president — former vice president, presidential candidate Joe Biden. And then we’ll talk about what happened to Vanessa Guillén. Stay with us.

AMY GOODMAN: Jamaican guitarist Lynford “Hux” Brown, age 75, died on June 18th.


Honoring the sacred dead this Memorial Day

Radical indoctrination enraged many activists to tear down statues and other monuments to American icons during the past year. In addition to defacing or taking down tributes to George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, radicals even tried to take down tributes to Abraham Lincoln and Teddy Roosevelt.

In contrast, I am at Mount Rushmore this week. The faces chiseled into the side of the mountains in South Dakota show how much these legends were revered and how important their tenure was in the history of our beloved country.

During our return visit to this amazing national memorial, I was reminded by the National Park Service why Gutzon Borglum picked these four American presidents. As the general who won the Revolutionary War and the first President, George Washington was an obvious pick. He represents the birth of the United States and is given the most prominent spot on the mountain.

Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence. As president, he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, doubling the size of our country. Borglum chose Jefferson to represent the growth of the United States.

Teddy Roosevelt was key to the construction of the Panama Canal. He worked to end large corporate monopolies. And he pushed for many reforms in workplace protections that exist today. Borglum chose Roosevelt to represent the development of the United States.

Abraham Lincoln was resolved to abolish slavery and then held the country together through the Civil War. Borglum chose Lincoln to represent the preservation of the United States.

Memorials, like the American flag and even religious symbols like the Cross, should be treated with great reverence for what they represent. It is precisely why taking a knee during the National Anthem is offensive to so many veterans. For them, as well as many of the rest of us, the flag represents the very freedoms they fought — and some died — for on the battlefield.

It is my firm belief that ignorance brought about much of the destruction during the past year. Many were ignorant of the stories behind the statues and memorials found across America. Others were willfully ignorant. One is bad, the other is worse.

A glaring example of this ignorance was seen last year when rioters attacked the monument honoring the members of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. Ironically, they were the second black regiment in the Civil War. Their commanding officer, Col. Robert Gould Shaw, was the son of prominent abolitionists in Boston.

The governor of Massachusetts, John A. Andrew, said about the unit, “I know not where, in all of human history, to any given thousand men in arms there has been committed a work at once so proud, so precious, so full of hope and glory.” Interestingly, the story of this unit was depicted in the 1989 film “Glory.” Sadly, there was no glory in the damage done to this monument, created for those who paid the ultimate sacrifice for freedom.

On Monday, we will commemorate Memorial Day. Many of us will visit graves and lay wreaths, plant flags, and say prayers. Going forward, one of the best ways to honor the sacred dead is to ensure that we teach our children about true American history. And that we teach them about freedom.

This is why I am at Mount Rushmore. We are here with supporters of our work at Young America’s Foundation to educate the next generation on the importance of freedom.

Our 40th president could have easily been picked as a face on the mountain for his work to defend freedom and end the Cold War. Ronald Reagan warned us of what we face today during his farewell address in 1989. Near the end of his comments he said:

“We’ve got to do a better job of getting across that America is freedom — freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of enterprise. And freedom is special and rare. It’s fragile it needs protection.”

He went on to say, “So, we’ve got to teach history based not on what’s in fashion but what’s important — why the Pilgrims came here, who Jimmy Doolittle was, and what those 30 seconds over Tokyo meant. You know, 4 years ago on the 40th anniversary of D-Day, I read a letter from a young woman writing to her late father, who’d fought on Omaha Beach. Her name was Lisa Zanatta Henn, and she said, ‘we will always remember, we will never forget what the boys of Normandy did.’

“Well, let’s help her keep her word. If we forget what we did, we won’t know who we are. I’m warning of an eradication of the American memory that could result, ultimately, in an erosion of the American spirit. Let’s start with some basics: more attention to American history and a greater emphasis on civic ritual.”

Let us not forget this Memorial Day that we are blessed to live in the land of the free because of the brave. May their sacrifice not be in vain. God bless them all and God bless America.


In the Shadow of Stone Mountain

Stone Mountain looms over the surrounding landscape like the back of a great gray beast, a speed bump on an otherwise smooth ride above the flat treetops of Georgia. The mountain stands out as something that doesn’t belong, and for that reason, it draws your attention. It’s also received the notice of the national press for years, whenever a conversation regarding Confederate culture and heritage—most recently centered around Civil War monuments—has arisen. This isn’t surprising: the massive rock carving on the north face of the mountain depicting Confederate generals Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson is the largest bas-relief in the world. A laser show on the carving is featured every Saturday night in the summer and fall, one in which the three horsemen seemingly gallop out of the rock. Later in the laser show, Martin Luther King’s visage is projected onto the monument, a recording of words from his “I Have A Dream” speech washing over the lawn where spectators watch. But when the show is over and King is gone, the generals remain.

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The monument is generally the sole thing people think about when they hear Stone Mountain, and recently Georgia gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams called for it to be taken down. Because it is, and has historically been, a testament to white supremacy. But at the base of the mountain sits Stone Mountain Village, and within it the African-American neighborhood of Shermantown, which managed to survive and persevere under this legacy.

This small community is slowly fading into history, but deserves to be remembered in order to ensure that the debates around Stone Mountain don’t erase those who live in its shadow. The stories of the Confederacy and its generals shouldn’t have an unchallenged monopoly on the discussion. The achievements of the residents of Shermantown might not seem extraordinary, but they reflect the realities and context of the setting within which they were accomplished. Without recognizing the lives of Shermantown, any narrative about Stone Mountain is incomplete.

Stone Mountain has long been an attraction for people, dating back thousands of years. Native American nations such as the Cherokee, Creek and Muscogee settled in the area up to 8,000 years ago, long before white settlers moved in in the early 19th century. Quarries were dug initially in the 1830s, pulling granite and other stone from the mountain, but the industry boomed after the completion of a railroad to the village and quarry site over the following decade, which allowed for the stone to be more easily transported. The name of the village was changed to Stone Mountain around that time.

This senior living community, photographed three years ago before completion, is on the grounds of a former elementary school in Shermantown. (Shannon Byrne/IAMTHEMOUNTAIN.org ) A burial ground in Shermantown with Stone Mountain in the background. (Shannon Byrne/IAMTHEMOUNTAIN.org ) Venable Street in Shermantown is named after a one-time leader of the local Ku Klux Klan (Shannon Byrne/IAMTHEMOUNTAIN.org )

Shermantown, derogatorily named after the Union General William Sherman—whose “March to the Sea” cut a swath of destruction from Atlanta to Savannah—came to fruition after the Civil War. Its founding followed a pattern of development seen across the South, in which newly freed African-Americans moved in search of work but were denied places to live in existing communities due to segregation. Stone Mountain Village was no different, and thus became the upstart neighborhood of Shermantown.

Stone Mountain was sold to Stone Mountain Granite Corporation for $45,400 in 1867, and nine years later sold again for $70,000 to the Southern Granite Company, owned by brothers Samuel and William Venable. In 1915, Stone Mountain served as a launching pad for the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan, of which Samuel Venable was an active member. He allowed a cross to be burned on the grounds in 1915, granted the Klan an easement (the right to use and enter onto the legal property of another) to the mountain in 1923, and leased the initial land for the Confederate monument that stands today. Their nephew James Venable, a one-time mayor of Stone Mountain Village in the late 󈧬s, would go on to continue this legacy as a Klan leader from the early 󈨀s to the late 󈨔, hosting rallies on the Stone Mountain grounds.

Gloria Brown, 77, was born in Shermantown and continues to live there today. She looks back on her childhood there with fond memories and is frustrated that the debate over Stone Mountain ignores her community. “We had black people that worked ‘round there, they had a granite company around there, and a lot of black people worked at that granite company. They drove trucks, they mined the granite, they were masons. When I was younger and all, we had people that lost their lives working on that granite. But nobody ever mentions that.”

She characterizes Shermantown as a striving community for the simple reason that there were so many African-American people that lived there or worked on the mountain, long before the Confederate carving was completed in 1970.

Stone Mountain granite, quarried by the African-American laborers from Shermantown, not only built churches in the area, but also the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the east steps of the U.S. Capitol, the dome of the Federal Gold Depository at Fort Knox, and the locks of the Panama Canal, just to name a few.

Beyond those workers, neighborhood native children include one of the top players on the Negro League Kansas City Monarchs and catcher for the legendary Satchel Paige, Joe Greene, and Victoria Simmons (one of the first woman to graduate from Spelman College). Stone Mountain Village was also the birthplace of modern-day entertainment visionary Donald Glover.

Joe Greene

Rusty Hamby, a history teacher who has been teaching in South Dekalb County for 33 years, and whose family has lived in Stone Mountain Village for generations, believes that by centering the national conversation around Stone Mountain on the monument, other important stories get crowded out.

“If the history of Stone Mountain is a 23-chapter book, we’re continuously reading one chapter,” he says. “Stories like those of Joe Greene and Victoria Simmons are important ones that you never hear about,” he says.

James “Joe” Greene, born in Shermantown, began playing professional baseball in 1932, and went on to catch for the Kansas City Monarchs pitching staff in the 1940s, which featured the famous Satchel Paige. According to the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum, Greene was credited with 33 and 38 home runs in 1940 and 1942, leading the league in those years. “He was one of the unsung stars of the ‘blackball’ decades,” reads Voices from the Great Black Baseball Leagues by historian John Holway.

Following a Negro World Series win, Greene, like many others, joined the armed forces to fight in World War II, where he served with the 92nd Division in Algiers and Italy and spent eight months fighting on the front lines. Greene returned to baseball after the war, but never regained the form he had prior. He ended up back in Stone Mountain Village and worked for Sears.

“Things have changed a lot,” Greene told Holway. “It takes time. I’ve always lived in the South. I was raised around this little old village here, Stone Mountain. It seems that now, people would be intelligent enough to get away from some of these [racist] philosophies. Because they hurt, they hurt, they really hurt.”

The baseball field that Joe practiced on, and that the Stone Mountain pro team used to play on, is now gone. It was replaced by a local elementary school named after Victoria Simmons. Born in 1866, Simmons attended Spelman Seminary (now Spelman College), just seven months after it was founded, and would go on to graduate with certifications that allowed her to conduct missionary work, teach, and work as a nurse. The daughter of enslaved workers, Simmons recounted that her father, when he gained freedom, “was at once accepted as leader of his people. He went on to found the first school for Negroes in DeKalb County.”

Today, Stone Mountain Village faces disproportionate traffic jams for its size, as 4 million visitors a year pass through it en route to Stone Mountain Park. The village, particularly the main street next to the old train station, offers a quaint mix of stores and restaurants, while some side streets feature recently remodeled houses. There are only a couple of signs that still bear the name Shermantown in the village. One is an official historical sign whose arrow points down a road behind the village municipal offices, declaring "Historic Sherman Town", an invocation of something from the past, but no further details as to what it might be. The other is the name of a playground on a road that dead-ends into an area that used to house the Stone Mountain prison. The Victoria Simmons school is also gone, replaced by The View, a senior living community off of Venable Street, named after the Klan family. Outside of these two signs, there is little that identifies Shermantown as a neighborhood that ever existed.

The people I spoke to painted a picture of Stone Mountain Village of one where the community overcame the racism of the Klan, where small town living trumped prejudices. But in a recent Esquire profile of comedian and entertainment impresario Donald Glover, who was born in 1983 in Stone Mountain Village, a darker picture of the community is offered.

“If people saw how I grew up, they would be triggered,” said Glover. “Confederate flags everywhere. I had friends who were white, whose parents were very sweet to me but were also like, ‘Don’t ever date him.’ I saw that what was being offered on ‘Sesame Street’ didn’t exist.”

As Shermantown starts to fade, so too do the stories of the people that lived there, surviving and at times, thriving in the shadow of a mountain that has come to stand for one thing only- its Confederate monument. Ignoring wrinkles in that story, such as that of Shermantown, lets a monolithic tale be written by the Venables of the world, while Shermantown is consigned to memory, eventually to be forgotten entirely.


Watch the video: The Sacred War Victory Day Parade on Moscows Red Square 2015 (November 2022).

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