Historical linguistics -traditionally known as philology-is the branch of linguistics concerned with the development of a language or of languages over time. The primary tool of historical linguistics is the comparative method , a way of identifying relations among languages in the absence of written records.
Mutual Intelligibility is a situation in which two or more speakers of a language (or of closely related languages) can understand each other. Mutual intelligibility is a continuum (that is, a gradient concept), marked by degrees of intelligibility, not by sharp divisions. Example and Observations Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication : "[W]hat allows us to refer to something called English as if it were a single, monolithic language?
A significant piece of kinship studies in anthropology and archaeology both is post-marital residence patterns, the rules within a society that determine where a child of a group resides after they get married. In pre-industrial communities, people generally live(d) in family compounds. Residence rules are essential organizing principles for a group, allowing families to build a labor force, share resources, and plan out rules for exogamy (who can marry who) and inheritance (how the shared resources are split among the survivors).
Kim Il-Sung (April 15, 1912-July 8, 1994) of North Korea established one of the world's most powerful cults of personality, known as the Kim Dynasty or Mount Paektu Bloodline. Although succession in communist regimes usually passes between members of the top political echelons, North Korea has become a hereditary dictatorship, with Kim's son and grandson taking power in turn.
In formal English, quotation is a noun (as in "a quotation from Shakespeare") and quote is a verb ("She likes to quote Shakespeare"). However, in everyday speech and informal English, quote is often treated as a shortened form of quotation . Definitions The noun quotation refers to a group of words taken from a text or speech and repeated by someone other than the original author or speaker.
Cleopatra (69 BCE-August 30, 30 BCE) was the ruler of Egypt as Cleopatra VII Philopater, She was the last of the Ptolemy dynasty of Egyptian rulers, and the very last Pharaoh of Egypt, ending a dynastic rule of some 5,000 years. Fast Facts: Cleopatra Known For : The last dynastic pharaoh of Egypt Also Known As : Cleopatra Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Philopater; Cleopatra Philadelphus Philopator Philopatris Thea Neotera Born : Early 69 BCE Parents : Ptolemy XII Auletes (d.
Silicones are a type of synthetic polymer, a material made of smaller, repeating chemical units called monomers that are bonded together in long chains. Silicone consists of a silicon-oxygen backbone, with “sidechains” consisting of hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon atoms. Because its backbone does not contain carbon, silicone is considered an inorganic polymer , which differs from the many organic polymers whose backbones are made of carbon.
The common Spanish surname, Colon, most commonly derives from the Spanish given name Colón, meaning "dove," from the Latin c olombus, colomba . As a personal name, it was favored by early Christians because the dove was considered to be the symbol of the Holy Spirit. The Colon last name is comparable to the Italian and Portuguese surname Colombo.
Bivalves are a group of mollusks that includes clams, scallops, oysters, mussels, razor shells, cockles, venus shells, borers, trough shells and many others (some of which live in the deep sea and have yet to be identified). Bivalves are the second most diverse group of mollusks, ranking only behind gastropods in number of species.
In sociolinguistics, conversation analysis-also called talk-in-interaction and ethnomethodology-is the study of talk produced in the course of ordinary human interactions. Sociologist Harvey Sacks (1935-1975) is generally credited with founding the discipline. Adjacency Pairs One of the most common structures to be defined through conversation analysis is the adjacency pair, which is a call and response type of sequential utterances spoken by two different people.
Young Goodman Brown is a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne (author of The Scarlet Letter ) that centers around a young Puritan in New England and his deal with the Devil. Young Goodman Brown is famous for being a representation of American Romantic literature and is often studied in American literature classrooms as an important short work involving the Puritans and other essential themes.
The semicolon, or el punto y coma in Spanish , is used and misused in Spanish much as it is in English. However, the rules for its application in Spanish can be more subjective than for the other punctuation symbols ( signos de puntuación ) and lead to a larger range of common mistakes. Still, there are two main utilities of the semicolon when writing in Spanish: joining independent clauses or detailing a list of items with multiple names in each section of the list - in both of these cases, the semicolon acts much as it does in standard English, separating thoughts into a neat, organized form.
The French preposition par means "through," "by," or "per" in English. It is used to indicate the manner in which something is done, the reason behind an event, the direction something moves, or the amount of something per some unit of measurement. In everyday conversation, you might use par when giving directions to someone or to describe how an event occurred.
Writing an essay is like making a hamburger. Think of the introduction and conclusion as the bun, with the "meat" of your argument in between. The introduction is where you'll state your thesis, while the conclusion sums up your case. Both should be no more than a few sentences. The body of your essay, where you'll present facts to support your position, must be much more substantial, usually three paragraphs.
The French preposition en is nearly always used directly in front of a noun with no article, or after certain verbs. Uses of en Before a Noun En can mean any of the following: Location il est en prison - he is in jail j'habite en banlieue - I live in the suburbs Time (en vs dans) en août - in August en trois jours - in three days en semaine - during the week To do something like or as Je te parle en ami - I'm speaking to you as a friend Il agit en enfant - He's acting like a kid Means voyager en train - to travel by train rentrer en taxi - to return by taxi Condition or appearance être en bonne santé - to be in good health être en guerre - to be at war être en pyjama - to be in pajamas Transformation traduire en français - to translate into French se déguiser en…- to disguise oneself as…transformer une salle en bureau - to change a room into an office Material un pull en laine - wool sweater une maison en brique - brick house Verbs with en The French preposition en is required after certain verbs when they are followed by a noun.
As the New Horizons mission flew by the small planet Pluto on July 14, 2015, collecting images and data of the planet and its moons, an amazing chapter in planetary exploration began to unfold. The actual flyby occurred early in the morning on July 14, and the signal from New Horizons telling its team that all went well arrived at Earth at 8:53 p.
Ostriches ( Struthio camelus ) are the largest bird alive today, with adults weighing between 200-300 pounds (90-135 kilograms). Adult males attain a height of up to 7.8 feet (2.4 meters) tall; females are slightly smaller. Their immense body size and small wings make them incapable of flying. Ostriches have a remarkable tolerance to heat, withstanding temperatures up to 56 degrees C (132 degrees F) without much stress.
The space between two words can make a big difference: "Everyday" doesn't mean the same thing as "every day." Like "anyone" and "any one" or "anytime" and "any time," these two terms sound exactly the same and are often confused, though one is strictly an adjective and the other is an adverbial phrase.
Compound-assignment operators provide a shorter syntax for assigning the result of an arithmetic or bitwise operator. They perform the operation on the two operands before assigning the result to the first operand. Compound-Assignment Operators in Java Java supports 11 compound-assignment operators: += assigns the result of the addition.
It would be natural to assume that if you want to talk in Spanish about something that will happen in the future, that you would use the future tense of the verb. However, as in English, there are other ways of telling about future events. The difference is that in Spanish, those other ways of expressing the future are so common that the future tense frequently is used for purposes other than discussing the future.
The periodic table of the elements is one of the most important tools used by chemists and other scientists because it summarizes useful information about the chemical elements in a format that shows relationships between the elements. Get Your Own Periodic Table You can find the periodic table in any chemistry textbook, plus there are apps for referring to the table from your phone.